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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
The Diversity of BoLA-DRB3 Gene in Iranian Native Cattle
Nassiry, M.R. ; Eftekhari Shahroudi, F. ; Tahmoorespur, M. ; Javadmanesh, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 465~470
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70054
This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian native cattle (Bos Indicus and Taurus) and relationships between these breeds. This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 gene from 203 individuals in four populations of Iranian native cattle (52 Sarabi, 52 Najdi, 49 Sistani, 50 Golpayegani cattle) using the hemi-nested PCR-RFLP method. We identified the 36 previously reported alleles and one novel pattern (*eac). Analysis of the frequencies of the various BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles in each breed indicated that DRB3.2*52 in Sarabi cattle (23%), DRB3.2 *14 and *24 alleles in Najdi cattle (13%), DRB3.2 *8 allele in Sistani cattle (22%) and DRB3.2*16 allele in Golpayegani cattle (14%), were the most frequent alleles. Allelic frequencies ranged from 1 to 23% among the 36 alleles and there were some alleles that were found only in Iranian cattle. Effective number of alleles in the four breeds was estimated to be 7.86, 11.68, 7.08 and 3.37 in Sarabi, Najdi, Sistani and Golpayegani, respectively. Observed heterozygosities were the highest in Sarabi (94%) and Najdi (94%). A population tree based on the frequency of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles in each breed suggested that Najdi, Sarabi and Golpayegani cattle clustered together and Najdi and Sarabi were the closest breeds. Sistani cattle differed more from these three breeds. These new data suggest that allele frequencies differ between Iranian cattle breeds.
New Evidence of Alleles (V199I and G52S) at the PRKAG3 (RN) Locus Affecting Pork Meat Quality
Chen, J.F. ; Dai, L.H. ; Peng, J. ; Li, J.L. ; Zheng, R. ; Zuo, B. ; Li, F.E. ; Liu, M. ; Yue, K. ; Lei, M.G. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Jiang, S.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 471~477
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70373
The porcine PRKAG3 (RN) gene encodes the regulatory gamma subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a good candidate gene affecting meat quality. In this study, the effects of two missense mutations A595G (Ile199Val) and G154A (Gly52Ser) in porcine PRKAG3 gene on meat quality traits were studied in M. Longissimus dorsi (LD), M. Semispinalis capitis (SC) and M. Biceps femoris (BF) from different populations of 326 pigs. The PRKAG3 alleles 199I, 199IV, 52S and 52G were identified with PCR-RFLPs and all genotypes - 199I/199I, 199I/199V, 199V/199V, 52S/52S, 52S/52G and 52G/52G - were found. The frequency of V allele was larger than that of I allele in all populations. I allele frequency was zero in Chinese Meishan pigs (population D) especially. G allele frequency was larger than that of S allele in all populations except Large White (population A). Both variations at the PRKAG3 locus significantly affected these meat quality traits. The pork meat quality has not previously been established in Meishan or crosses thereof. The results suggested that generally pH of LD, SC and BF was higher in Meishan pigs than that in other populations. Moreover, Meishan pigs showed higher water-holding capacity and intramuscular fat (IMF), lower water content and water loss percentage compared to other populations in terms of the two variations. The results present here supply new evidence that alleles V199I and G52S at the PRKAG3 locus affect pork meat quality and provide useful information on pork production.
Genetic Parameters and Annual Trends for Birth and Weaning Weights of a Northeastern Thai Indigenous Cattle Line
Intaratham, W. ; Koonawootrittriron, S. ; Sopannarath, P. ; Graser, H.-U. ; Tumwasorn, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 478~483
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70149
Records of a Northeastern Thai indigenous cattle line population were used to estimate genetic parameters and annual trends for calf weights. The data set comprised records of 1,922 and 1,489 animals for birth and weaning weight, respectively born from 1993 to 2004. A bivariate analysis was carried out for variance and covariance components estimations using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. Average estimated breeding value and maternal breeding value of the animals born in 1993 were set to zero as a base group. Genetic trends of each trait were calculated by regressing average estimated breeding values and maternal breeding values on birth year of calves. Phenotypic trends for each trait were calculated by regressing the yearly adjusted weight on birth year of calves. The results revealed that the estimate of direct heritability, maternal heritability and maternal permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance for birth and weaning weight was 0.40, 0.14 and 0.04; 0.27, 0.05 and 0.23, respectively. Direct heritability was moderately heritable and genetic improvement through selection can be achieved. The estimate of phenotypic, direct genetic, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental correlation between birth and weaning weight was 0.48, 0.65, 0.98 and 0.73, respectively. The phenotypic trend, genetic trends of estimated breeding value and maternal breeding value for birth weight was 0.18, 0.04 and 0.01 kg/year, respectively. The phenotypic trend, genetic trends of estimated breeding value and maternal breeding value for weaning weight was -1.36, 0.32 and 0.03 kg/year, respectively. As maternal genetic effect was considerably less important than direct genetic effect, selection for improved weaning weight of this Northeastern Thai indigenous cattle line can place more emphasis on the direct genetic effect.
Associations between Alu I Polymorphism in the Prolactin Receptor Gene and Reproductive Traits of Slovak Large White, White Meaty and Landrace Pigs
Omelka, R. ; Martiniakova, M. ; Peskovicova, D. ; Bauerova, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 484~488
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70314
We investigated the effect of the prolactin receptor gene (PRLR) on total number of born (TNB), number of born alive (NBA) and number of weaned (NW) piglets in Large White (LW), White Meaty (WM) and Landrace (L) sows from six Slovak breeding farms. The frequency of A allele was 0.48, 0.49 and 0.47 in LW, WM and L, respectively. We found numerous highly significant effects of PRLR locus on TNB (
) in all tested breeds. The most marked difference of +
was found between AA and BB genotypes in WM. Within the other breeds the difference between the homozygous genotypes reached up to +
pigs per litter in LW and L, respectively. We also identified significant differences between AA and AB genotypes related to TNB in L. Similarly NBA, as well as NW traits were significantly affected (
) by the genotype just in LW and L. The homozygous genotype AA was favourable in all breeds and traits. Our results showed the possibility of PRLR utilization in marker-assisted selection within breeding programs to increase reproductive traits of pigs in Slovakia.
Identification and Screening of Gene(s) Related to Susceptibility to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac in Piglets
Li, Hejun ; Li, Yuhua ; Qiu, Xiaotian ; Niu, Xiaoyan ; Liu, Yang ; Zhang, Qin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 489~493
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70464
In 2004, Jorgensen and coworkers proposed the MUC4 gene as a candidate gene of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4ab/ac receptor in piglets and a mutation of
in intron 7 of MUC4 was identified to be associated with the ETEC F4ab/ac adhesion phenotypes. In this study, we used 310 piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Chinese Songliao Black) to analyze the relationship between this mutation and the F4ab/ac adhesion phenotype. The results show that the genotypes at this site and the ETEC F4ab/ac adhesion phenotypes were not completely consistent, although they are very strongly associated. Among the individuals with genotype CC, which was identified as a resistant genotype to F4ab/ac adhesion, only 72.1% (124/172) were non-adhesive to ETEC F4ab and 77.9% (134/172) were non-adhesive to ETEC F4ac infections. This suggests that this mutation may not be the causative mutation for ETEC F4ab/ac adhesion, rather, the actual causative mutation may be in another gene closely linked to MUC4, or at aother site within the MUC4 gene. Our results also suggest that the receptors of F4ab and F4ac may be determined by two different but closely linked loci. In order to screen other genes related to F4ab/ac adhesion in piglets, the mRNA profiles from six full sib piglets, of which three were adhesive to ETEC F4ab/ac and three non-adhesive, were analyzed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). One up-regulated gene, Ep-CAM, was selected for further analysis based on its role in the intestinal epithelial cells adhesion. Using real-time RT-PCR, we found that the Ep-CAM gene was significantly up-regulated in the piglets adhesive to F4ab/ac. It was mapped to SSC3q11-q14 by radiation hybrid mapping.
Evaluation of Boar Sperm Viability by MTT Reduction Assay in Beltsville Thawing Solution Extender
Byuna, J.W. ; Choo, S.H. ; Kim, H.H. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Hwang, Y.J. ; Kim, D.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 494~498
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70480
MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay is a method that validates the viability of an active cell. Dehydrogenase in mitochondria converts yellow colored insoluble tetrazolium salt to purple colored water-soluble formazan. Sperm also have mitochondria in the midpiece, therefore sperm viability could be evaluated by MTT reduction assay. Several studies have already demonstrated the capability of application of the MTT reduction assay to sperm of several species in Hepes-BSA buffer. Because most liquid semen was diluted in extender like BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution), Modena or Androhep when it is used or transferred, semen needed another dilution in Hepes-BSA buffer to assess sperm viability. In this study, we evaluated boar sperm viability especially in BTS extended semen and compared the efficiency of this test with eosin-nigrosin staining. We used the fresh BTS extended semen from a local A.I center. Semen sample was diluted to
sperms/ml in BTS. The rates of formazan production were measured in 96-well microtiter plates immediately and 1h after incubation at
using a spectrophotometer at wave length 560 nm. Simultaneously, split samples of the same semen were tested, using eosin-nigrosin staining to compare the efficiency of the MTT assay of sperm viability in BTS. The correlation between the results of these tests was calculated using Student-t test and ANOVA. The results revealed a strong correlation between the results of MTT reduction rate and the results that were simultaneously determined by eosin-nigrosin staining at 1 h. In conclusion, the MTT reduction test was an effective and simple method to validate sperm viability and it could be used as a simple tool to evaluate sperm viability in the local A.I center and laboratory.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of Forkhead Transcription Factor O1 Gene from Pig Sus scrofa
Pang, Weijun ; Sun, Shiduo ; Bai, Liang ; Yang, Gongshe ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 499~509
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70433
Foxo1 plays an important role in the integration of hormone-activated signaling pathways with the complex transcriptional cascade that promotes preadipocyte differentiation of clonal cell lines from rodents. We isolated the full-length cDNA of porcine FoxO1 gene using RACE, confirmed by visual Northern blotting. The deduced amino acids indicated 94% and 90% identities with the corresponding human and mice aa. Analysis of the aa sequence, showed that it included a Forkhead domain (aa 167-247), a transmembrane structure domain (aa 90-113), a LXXLL motif (aa 469-473), and 51 Ser, 8 Thr, and 4 Tyr phosphorylation sites, indicating a potential important role for FoxO1 transcriptional activity in vivo. Using the IMpRH panel, we mapped FoxO1 gene to chromosome 11p13. Our data provide basic molecular information useful for the further investigation on the function of FoxO1 gene. Time-course analysis of FoxO1 expressions indicated that levels of mRNA and protein gradually increased from day 0 to 3, and it reached almost maximal level at day 3, then decreased from day 5 to 7 in porcine primary preadipocyte differentiation. After induction by IGF-1, GPDH activity and accumulation of lipid increased, however, expressions of FoxO1 mRNA and protein were inhibited in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that FoxO1 takes part in porcine preadipocyte differentiation and expressions of FoxO1 were regulated by IGF-1.
Differential Expression of Genes Important to Efferent Ductules Ion Homeostasis across Postnatal Development in Estrogen Receptor-α Knockout and Wildtype Mice
Lee, Ki-Ho ; Bunick, David ; Lamprecht, Georg ; Choi, Inho ; Bahr, Janice M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 510~522
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70462
Our earlier studies showed that estrogen was involved in the regulation of fluid reabsorption in adult mouse efferent ductules (ED), through estrogen receptor (ER)
by modulating gene expression of epithelial genes involved in ion homeostasis. However, little is known about the importance of
in the ED during postnatal development. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that there should be a difference in the expression of epithelial ion transporters and anion producers in the ED of postnatal wild type (WT) and estrogen receptor
) mice. Using absolute, comparative and semi-quantitative RT-PCR along with immunohistochemistry, we looked at expression levels of several genes in the ED across postnatal development. The presence of estrogen in the testicular fluid was indirectly ascertained by immunohistochemical detection of the P450 aromatase in the testis. There was no immunohistochemically detectable difference in the expression of P450 aromatase in the testes and ER
in the ED of WT and
ERKO mice. ER
was only detected in the ED of WT mice. The absence of ER
in the ED of postnatally developing mice resulted in differential expression of mRNAs and/or proteins for carbonic anhydrase II,
exchanger 3, down-regulated in adenoma, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, and
. Our data indicate that the absence of ER
resulted in altered expression of an epithelial ion producer and transporters during postnatal development of mice. We conclude that the presence of ER
is important for regulation of the ED function during the prepubertal developmental and postpubertal period.
Effect of Pregnancy on Lactation Milk Value in Dairy Buffaloes
Khan, Sarzamin ; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan ; Ahmad, Nazir ; Amjed, Muhammad ; Durrani, Fazali Raziq ; Younas, Muhammad ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 523~531
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70349
Buffalo are a major source of milk production, contributing 12.1% in the World and 38.0% in Asia. The buffaloes are kept under peri-urban farming systems to produce milk for urban populations. Breeding is delayed in these herds to get more economic benefit because farmers believe that the pregnancy decreases milk production. The lactation milk value has been studied in this paper as an economic indicator. Complete milk yield records of 3,304 buffaloes was collected from a group of state farms. Economic traits including lactation yield, lactation length, calving interval (CI), dry period and milk yield per day of calving interval (MYPDCI) were derived from the data. The animals were grouped according to parity number (1-3), service period (G1 to G4, conceiving during <150, 150-200, 200-300 and >300 days post calving) and yield levels (HMY>2,500; MMY 2,001-2,500; and LMY 1,500-2,000 liters/ lactation). To study the effect of pregnancy on milk composition a research trial was conducted at a medium size private dairy farm, using forty lactating buffaloes of three yield levels and four service period groups, as described already. Milk was sampled on alternate weeks and analyzed for fat and protein contents (%). For quantifying the value of milk produced during a lactation period, the value corrected milk (VCM) was determined and converted to lactation milk value (LMV). Group means were compared for varicous parameters. Highest milk yield (
liters/lactation) was recorded in the HMY animals of G4 group while lowest milk yield of
liters/lactation was found in LMY of G1. Lactation was significantly increased with the extending of service period. The shortest dry period was recorded in HMY, parity 1, G1 animals and the longest in parity 2, MMY, G4.The CI was shortest in HMY, parity 1, and G1 animals and longest in LMY, parity 3, G4 buffaloes. The HMY, parity 2, G1 buffaloes showed the highest MYPDCI and the lowest value was recorded (
liter/day) for LMY, parity 1, G4 buffaloes. The VCM decreased with the delayed conception. This decreasing trend was higher in respect of the total yield but decrease in the VCM was smaller due to the increasing levels of fat and protein in the milk. The gap between the various production classes was reduced based on the VCM as compared with the yield per day of CI. LMV showed a consistent decline with extending service period in all three production groups. The study suggests that CI increased with delayed conception, showing a consistent trend in the low, moderate and high yielding buffaloes. There was a coherent declining pattern of milk yield with delaying conception, associated with prolonged CI. An animal conceiving at a later stage of lactation showed a decline in financial returns of 24 to 27% compared with those conceiving earlier.
In vitro Culture Conditions for the Mouse Preantral Follicles Isolated by Enzyme Treatment
Kim, Dong-Hoon ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Lee, Ho-Joon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 532~537
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70503
In order to investigate the factors affecting the culture of mouse preantral follicles in vitro, we examined the effect of culture media, protein supplements, and culture period on their growth. The oocyte diameter (initial size:
) was progressively increased during culture, and the maximum size (
) was reached on day 10 of the in vitro culture. The chromatin configuration in the germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte progressively shifted from a non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) to a surrounded nucleolus (SN). On day 10 of the culture, most of the oocytes progressed to the SN pattern. The survival and metaphase II rates of the oocytes in alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in Waymouth and tissue culture medium (TCM)-199. As a protein source, fetal bovine serum (FBS) was more suitable for the culture of mouse preantral follicles as compared to human follicular fluid (hFF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA); the optimal concentration of FBS was 5%. These results suggest that in a culture of mouse preantral follicles, alpha-MEM and 5% FBS are an optimal medium and a protein source, respectively; further, the 10 days of culture is required for the complete growth of oocytes in this culture system.
An Intravenous Replenishment of Salivary Components and Dry Forage Intake in Freely Drinking Large-type Goats
Sunagawa, K. ; Hashimoto, T. ; Izuno, M. ; Hashizume, N. ; Okano, M. ; Nagamine, I. ; Hirata, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 538~546
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70292
Large-type goats eating dry forage secreted large volumes of saliva which resulted in the loss of
from the blood and decreased plasma volume (hypovolemia). This research investigated whether or not the loss of
from the blood and hypovolemia brought about by dry forage feeding actually depresses feed intake in large-type goats under free drinking conditions. The present experiment consisted of three treatments (NI, ASI, MI). All treatments in this experiment were carried out under free drinking conditions. In the NI control (NI), a solution was not infused. In the ASI treatment, i.v. infusion of artificial saliva was initiated 2 h before feeding and was continued for a total of 3 h concluding 1 h after the commencement of the feeding perod. In the MI treatment, mannitol solution was infused to replenish only water lost from the blood in the form of saliva. The hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations during feeding in the NI control were observed to be higher than pre-feeding levels. This indicated that dry forage feeding-induced hypovolemia was caused by the accelerated secretion of saliva during the initial stages of feeding in freely drinking large-type goats. Increases in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations due to dry forage feeding were significantly suppressed by the ASI treatment. While hematocrit during feeding in the MI treatment was significantly lower than the NI control, plasma total protein concentrations were not different. From these results, it is clear that the MI treatment was less effective than the ASI treatment in mitigating the decreases in plasma volume brought about by dry forage feeding. This indicates that plasma volume increased during dry forage feeding in the ASI treatment which inhibited production of angiotensin II in the blood. The ASI treatment lessened the levels of suppression on dry forage feeding, but the MI treatment had no effect on it under free drinking conditions. The results indicate that despite the free drinking conditions, increases in saliva secretion during the initial stages of dry forage feeding in large-type goats caused
to be lost from the blood into the rumen which in turn caused a decrease in circulating plasma volume and resulted in activation of the renin-angiotensin system and thus feeding was suppressed.
Effect of Monensin and Live Yeast Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Characteristics and Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in Lambs Fed Steam-flaked Corn-based Diets
Ding, J. ; Zhou, Z.M. ; Ren, L.P. ; Meng, Q.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 547~554
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70353
In performance, digestibility and slaughter trials, a total of forty five male weaned lambs were used to examine the effects of monensin and live yeast supplementations on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and ruminal fermentation parameters when the lambs were fed steam-flaked corn-based diets. Animals were allotted to one of three treatment diets in a completely randomized design. The three treatment diets were: (1) basal diet (CON) with steam-flaked corn as a sole grain source, (2) basal diet supplemented with monensin (MO), and (3) basal diet supplemented with live yeast (LY). Total average daily intake (ADI) was unaffected by MO and LY supplementations. LY supplementation increased (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) by 13.1% compared with the CON diet. Both MO and LY supplementations resulted in a significant improvement (p<0.05) of feed efficiency over the CON diet (4.47, 4.68 vs. 5.05). Hemicellulose digestibility was higher (p<0.05) for lambs in the LY supplementation group (62.4%) as compared with the CON group (55.7%), but no differences were observed in digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). All carcass traits were not influenced by dietary supplementations. Ruminal pH in lambs fed the LY supplemental diet was more stable than that with the CON diet (6.57 vs. 6.17). Neither MO nor LY supplementation influenced the concentration of ruminal ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acid (VFA), and molar percentages of individual VFA. Plasma urea-N concentration was decreased (p<0.05) by MO and LY supplementations, while plasma
-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and other blood parameters were unaffected. In conclusion, while both MO and LY supplementations had a positive impact on feed efficiency and LY supplementation stabilized ruminal pH and improved fiber utilization, none of the supplements had the capacity to significantly enhance the carcass characteristics.
Effect of Improved Cooling System on Reproduction and Lactation in Dairy Cows under Tropical Conditions
Suadsong, S. ; Suwimonteerabutr, J. ; Virakul, P. ; Chanpongsang, S. ; Kunavongkrit, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 555~560
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70446
The effects of utilizing evaporative cooling system equipped with tunnel ventilation on postpartum ovarian activities, energy balance and milk production of early lactating dairy cows under hot and humid climates were studied from parturition to 22 wk postpartum. Thirty-four crossbred Holstein-Friesian (93.75% HF
.25% Bos indicus) primiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Cooled cows (n = 17; treatment) were housed in the tunnel ventilated barn equipped with evaporative cooling system and uncooled (n = 17; control) were housed in the naturally ventilated barn without supplemental cooling system. Cooled cows had greater (p<0.05) dry matter intake and milk production than uncooled cows. Days to the energy balance (EB) nadir did not differ between groups. However, days to equilibrium EB for uncooled cows was longer (p<0.05) than for cooled cows. There was no significant difference in postpartum anovular condition between cooled and uncooled cows. The interval from parturition to first postpartum ovulation did not differ between groups (
day, respectively). These results suggest that the evaporative cooling and tunnel ventilation has the potential to decrease the severity of heat stress and improve both milk production and metabolic efficiency during early lactation without affecting reproductive function in dairy cows under hot and humid climates.
Nitrogen Utilization of Cell Mass from Lysine Production in Goats
Seo, S. ; Kim, H.J. ; Lee, S.Y. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 561~566
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70553
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of cell mass from lysine production (CMLP) as a protein supplement for ruminants. In each experiment, animals were fed a diet containing 40% of forages and 60% of concentrates, mainly composed of rice straw and ground corn, respectively, to meet the maintenance requirements, and the diets were formulated to supply equal amounts of energy and nitrogen among treatments. In order to investigate the effect of CMLP on ruminal fermentation (Experiment 1), three Korean native goats weighing
were allotted into individual cages with a
Latin square design. Each animal was fed one of three protein sources (CMLP, soybean meal (SBM), and urea). Rumen pH, bacterial and fungal counts, volatile fatty acid concentrations and acetate to propionate ratio were not significantly different among treatments. Concentration of propionate, however, was higher in SBM treatment (14.1 mM) than in CMLP (8.7 mM) or urea (9.3 mM) treatments. There was significantly more branch-chain volatile fatty acid production in CMLP (1.9 mM) and SBM (1.8 mM) treatments than in urea (1.3 mM) treatment. The number of protozoa was the highest in urea treatment, followed by CMLP and SBM treatment with significant differences. A metabolic trial (Experiment 2) was conducted to measure in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in Korean native goats fed CMLP and SBM. Two heavy (
) and two light (
) Korean native goats, caged individually, were used in this experiment. A heavy and a light animal were paired and supplemented with either CMLP or SBM. The animals fed CMLP showed a trend of lower total tract digestibility in all the nutrients measured; however, there was no statistical significance except for digestibility of ether extract. Nitrogen digestibility of CMLP was estimated to be about 7% units lower than that of SBM. There was a tendency for lower nitrogen retention in CMLP treatment (35.9%) compared to SBM treatment (42.3%). In summary, CMLP can be a good protein source for ruminant animals from nutritional and economic perspectives and may replace some, if not all, of SBM in a diet without losing nitrogen utilization efficiency. Further research is warranted for investigating the effect of CMLP fed with easily fermentable forage and the effective level of CMLP for replacing SBM.
Dietary Bovine Colostrum Increases Villus Height and Decreases Small Intestine Weight in Early-weaned Pigs
King, M.R. ; Morel, P.C.H. ; Revell, D.K. ; Pluske, J.R. ; Birtles, M.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 567~573
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70491
This experiment examined the effect of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum on intestinal histology and organ weights in early-weaned pigs. In a randomised complete block design, twelve 14-day-old weaner pigs were offered a diet containing either 5% spray-dried bovine colostrum or no colostrum (control). Diets were formulated to contain 14.8 MJ/kg DE, 1.26% available lysine and to meet or exceed requirements for other nutrients. Piglets were offered the diets for a period of 14 days. No effect of diet on growth rate or feed intake was observed (p>0.10). Small intestine weight was reduced by 12% in piglets consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p< 0.05). Villous height and crypt depth were increased and decreased, respectively, in the proximal jejunum, mid jejunum and distal ileum of pigs consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p<0.05). Mid-jejunal lamina propria
T lymphocyte density was increased by 28 and 37%, respectively, in piglets consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p<0.05). Diet did not affect thickness of tunica muscularis externa or tunica submucosa (p>0.10). Collectively, these results suggest a positive effect of dietary bovine colostrum on intestinal morphology and immune status in early-weaned pigs.
The Effect of Roselle (Hibicus sabdariffa Linn.) Calyx as Antioxidant and Acidifier on Growth Performance in Postweaning Pigs
Aphirakchatsakun, Wantana ; Angkanaporn, Kris ; Kijparkorn, Suwanna ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 574~581
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70242
Two experiments, involving a total of 100 crossbred pigs (Hampshire
Duroc) aged 5 weeks, were used to evaluate the effect of Roselle (Hibicus sabdariffa Linn.) calyx as an antioxidant and acidifier on growth performance. Experiment 1: growth performance response of pigs fed basal corn-soy diet was compared with that of pigs consuming diets that contained 4, 8 and 12% Roselle in powder form, 4 g/kg acidifier (Fra
Acid Dry) or 100 mg/kg antibiotic (Aurofac
). All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Twenty-four castrated male and twelve female pigs were randomly allocated into 6 treatments which comprised 3 replicates (2 male and 1 female) of 2 pigs each. The results demonstrated no beneficial weight gain and feed intake response among treatments at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of age (p>0.05). However, feed-to-gain ratios (FCR) of Roselle-fed groups were significantly different from the basal-diet group at 7 weeks of age (p<0.05). Pigs fed with 8% Roselle had the lowest FCR. Therefore, 8% was set as an appropriate level of Roselle in feed. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine antioxidant and acidifier properties. Pigs were fed similar diets to Experiment 1 except that Roselle was fed to only one treatment at the level of 8%. Sixty-four piglets, 32 castrated male and female each were randomly allocated into 4 treatments which comprised 4 replicates (2 male and 2 female) of 4 pigs each. Body weight was measured. At 7 and 9 weeks of age, four pigs from each treatment were randomly selected. The pH in their gastrointestinal tract, pepsin activity in stomach mucosa, trypsin activity in the pancreas and protein and fat digestibility in the ileum were measured to investigate acidifier properties. For antioxidant properties, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione concentration in plasma and liver were used as parameters. The results showed no significant difference in weight gain, pH or pepsin activity among all treatments at both ages (p>0.05). Nevertheless, trypsin activity and fat digestibility of the Roselle-fed group were higher than the basal-diet group at 7 weeks of age (p<0.05). Glutathione in plasma was significantly different between antibiotic-fed and basal-diet groups (p<0.05). Significant differences were found only in some parameters and between the basal-diet group and the other groups. Therefore, it cannot be precisely concluded that Roselle in powder form has clear acidifier and antioxidant properties in postweaning pigs. Further studies should be undertaken to clearly confirm both properties.
Effects of Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Epidermal Growth Factor and Glutamine on Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Early-weaned Piglets
Lee, D.N. ; Chang, W.F. ; Yu, I.T. ; Chiou, Peter W.S. ; Weng, C.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 582~589
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70181
This study attempted to determine effects of recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor (pEGF) and glutamine (Gln) supplement on the growth performance and intestinal development of piglets weaned at 14 days of age. A total of ninety-six piglets were allotted to one of four dietary treatments which comprised inclusion of 1.0 mg pEGF supernatant/kg diet or 0.5% Gln both alone and in combination. Each treatment consisted of four replicates with six pigs per pen for a 28 days experimental period. Two pigs per replicate were sacrificed and gastrointestinal tract samples were collected on day 14. Data showed that dietary treatment failed to promote growth performance. On day 14, diets supplemented with pEGF elevated pancreatic chymotrypsin, jejunal alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, lactase and maltase activities (p<0.05), but failed to alter the small intestinal villus morphology, DNA, or protein content of gastrointestinal mucosa. Diets supplemented with Gln increased pancreatic chymotrypsin activity, tended to enhance the protein contents of gastric (p = 0.08) and jejunal mucosa (p = 0.09) but did not influence the serum IgA level or the enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract. On day 28, the diets supplemented with Gln increasedt (p<0.05) serum IgA and the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PHA stimulation. However, a combination of pEGF and Gln did not have a synergistic effect on these biomarkers in early-weaned piglets. The results demonstrate that diets supplemented with recombinant pEGF supernatant indeed improve intestinal digestive enzyme activity and diets supplemented with Gln increases the immune response in early-weaned piglets.
Effect of Overfeeding on Plasma Parameters and mRNA Expression of Genes Associated with Hepatic Lipogenesis in Geese
Han, Chunchun ; Wang, Jiwen ; Xu, Hengyong ; Li, Liang ; Ye, Jianqiang ; Li, Jiang ; Zhuo, Weihua ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 590~595
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70472
The aim of our study was to research the effect of overfeeding on plasma parameters and mRNA expression of genes associated with hepatic lipogenesis in the Sichuan white goose and Landes goose. Fifty-four male Landes geese and 57 male Sichuan white geese were hatched on the same day under the same feeding conditions. After overfeeding for 14 days, (1) extrahepatic adipose tissues grew greatly in the Sichuan white geese, while more lipid accumulated in liver tissue in the Landes geese. (2) Sichuan white geese had a higher plasma concentration of triacylglycerols (TG), lipoproteins and insulin than the Landes geese. However, the Landes geese exhibited higher increase of plasma concentrations of TG, lipoproteins and insulin, with greater decrease of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) activity and DGAT2 mRNA level and a smller decrease of plasma glucose concentration. In addition, the mRNA level of MTP and LPL in liver was down- and up- regulated by overfeeding, respectively. (3) The correlations between the activity of LPL and the proportions of subcutaneous adipose tissue, abdominal adipose tissue, and liver weight, and the plasma concentration of VLDL were different in the two breeds. (4) The proportion of fatty liver weight was positively correlated to plasma concentrations of VLDL and TG in the overfed Sichuan white geese. Such a relationship did not exist in the Landes geese. (5) The activity of DGAT2 and its mRNA abundance in liver had significant negative correlations with the TG content in liver lipid and plasma insulin level in the Landes geese, while in the Sichuan white geese they had negative correlation (p>0.05) with TG concentration in liver lipid and had significant positive correlation with VLDL and TG concentrations in plasma.
Improvement of Functional Properties of Ovotransferrin by Phosphorylation through Dry-heating in the Presence of Pyrophosphate
Hayashi, Yoko ; Li, Can-Peng ; Enomoto, Hirofumi ; Ibrahim, Hisham R. ; Sugimoto, Yasushi ; Aoki, Takayoshi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 596~602
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70501
Ovotransferrin (OTf) was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate at pH 4.0 and
for 1 and 5 d, and the functional properties of phosphorylated OTf (PP-OTf) were investigated. The phosphorus content of OTf increased to 0.91% as a result of phosphorylation and the electrophoretic mobility of PP-OTf also increased. Although the solubility of dry-heated OTf slightly decreased, the decrease was reduced by phosphorylation. The stability against heat-induced insolubilization of OTf was somewhat improved by phosphorylation, but more than 70% of PP-OTf was insolubilized when it was heated at
for 10 min at pH 7.0. However, heat-induced insolubilization of PP-OTf was reduced when it was heated in the presence of phosphorylated ovalbumin. This may explain the excellent stability of phosphorylated egg white protein against heat-induced insolubilization which was reported previously. The emulsifying property of OTf was also somewhat improved by phosphorylation. The calcium phosphate-solubilizing ability of PP-OTf was enhanced. Although the degree of phosphorylation of OTf by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate was similar to that of ovalbumin, the improvement of properties of PP-OTf was considerably different from those of phosphorylated ovalbumin.
A Review of Interactions between Dietary Fiber and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Their Consequences on Intestinal Phosphorus Metabolism in Growing Pigs
Metzler, B.U. ; Mosenthin, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 4, 2008, Pages 603~615
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.03
Dietary fiber is an inevitable component in pig diets. In non-ruminants, it may influence many physiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) such as transit time as well as nutrient digestion and absorption. Moreover, dietary fiber is also the main substrate of intestinal bacteria. The bacterial community structure is largely susceptible to changes in the fiber content of a pig's diet. Indeed, bacterial composition in the lower GIT will adapt to the supply of high levels of dietary fiber by increased growth of bacteria with cellulolytic, pectinolytic and hemicellulolytic activities such as Ruminococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. Furthermore, there is growing evidence for growth promotion of beneficial bacteria, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, by certain types of dietary fiber in the small intestine of pigs. Studies in rats have shown that both phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) play an important role in the fermentative activity and growth of the intestinal microbiota. This can be attributed to the significance of P for the bacterial cell metabolism and to the buffering functions of Ca-phosphate in intestinal digesta. Moreover, under P deficient conditions, ruminal NDF degradation as well as VFA and bacterial ATP production are reduced. Similar studies in pigs are scarce but there is some evidence that dietary fiber may influence the ileal and fecal P digestibility as well as P disappearance in the large intestine, probably due to microbial P requirement for fermentation. On the other hand, fermentation of dietary fiber may improve the availability of minerals such as P and Ca which can be subsequently absorbed and/or utilized by the microbiota of the pig's large intestine.