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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Detection of QTL on Bovine X Chromosome by Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium
Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 617~623
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70474
A fine-mapping method exploiting linkage disequilibrium was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the X chromosome affecting milk production, body conformation and productivity traits. The pedigree comprised 22 paternal half-sib families of Black-and-White Holstein bulls in the Netherlands in a grand-daughter design for a total of 955 sons. Twenty-five microsatellite markers were genotyped to construct a linkage map on the chromosome X spanning 170 Haldane cM with an average inter-marker distance of 7.1 cM. A covariance matrix including elements about identical-by-descent probabilities between haplotypes regarding QTL allele effects was incorporated into the animal model, and a restricted maximum-likelihood method was applied for the presence of QTL using the LDVCM program. Significance thresholds were obtained by permuting haplotypes to phenotypes and by using a false discovery rate procedure. Seven QTL responsible for conformation types (teat length, rump width, rear leg set, angularity and fore udder attachment), behavior (temperament) and a mixture of production and health (durable prestation) were detected at the suggestive level. Some QTL affecting teat length, rump width, durable prestation and rear leg set had small numbers of haplotype clusters, which may indicate good classification of alleles for causal genes or markers that are tightly associated with the causal mutation. However, higher maker density is required to better refine the QTL position and to better characterize functionally distinct haplotypes which will provide information to find causal genes for the traits.
Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Tsaiya Duck
Hsiao, M.C. ; Liu, H.C. ; Hsu, Y.C. ; Hu, Y.H. ; Li, S.H. ; Lee, S.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 624~627
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70366
An enrichment library of GATA-repeats from genomic DNA was constructed in this study to isolate and characterize microsatellite loci in Tsaiya duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Thirty-three microsatellite markers were developed and used to detect polymorphisms in 30 Tsaiya ducks. A total of 177 alleles were observed and all loci except APT022 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 9 with an average of 5.5 per microsatellite locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity of these polymorphic markers ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 with an average number of 0.60 and 0.10 to 0.86 with an average number of 0.61, respectively. Among the polymorphic markers, the observed heterozygosities of 23 loci were higher than 0.50 (69.70%). The polymorphism information content (PIC) in the 32 loci ranged from 0.09 to 0.83 with an average of 0.57. Seven of the 33 duck microsatellite loci had orthologs in the chicken genome, but only APT004 had a similar core repeat to chickens. These microsatellite markers will be useful in constructing a genetic linkage map for the duck and a comparative mapping with the chicken can also provide a valuable tool for studies related to biodiversity and population genetics in this duck species.
Associations of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in BMPR-IB Gene with Egg Production in a Synthetic Broiler Line
Zhang, N.B. ; Tang, H. ; Kang, L. ; Ma, Y.H. ; Cao, D.G. ; Lu, Y. ; Hou, M. ; Jiang, Y.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 628~632
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70201
Egg production traits are economically important both for egg-laying and broiler lines of chicken. In sheep, the Q249R mutation in BMPR-IB is associated with ovulation rate. The present study cloned a partial chicken BMPR-IB fragment which contained the corresponding ovine Q249R mutation, including partial exon 6 and exon 7 and full-length intron 6. Five nucleotide changes were identified by alignment of the fragment amplified from Jining Bairi and Zang chickens. Among these nucleotide substitutions, the C/T transition at the base position of 35 and the A/G transition at the base position of 287 were found to be highly polymorphic, and named as SNPs C35T and A287G, respectively. For the SNP C35T, 331 hens of a synthetic broiler line were genotyped by a PCR-SSCP approach and allele C was found to be dominant. For the SNP A287G, 604 birds from the synthetic broiler line, a commercial egg-laying line, as well as three Chinese indigenous chicken breeds were genotyped by a PCR-RFLP technique. The associations of these two SNPs with egg production traits in the broiler line were analyzed. The results indicated that both the C35T and the A287G SNPs were not associated with egg production at 33wks and from 33wks to 42 wks (p>0.1), whereas the SNP A287G was associated with egg production from 47 to 56 wks (p<0.05). The dominance genetic effects on this latter trait and on egg production from 33 to 42 wks were significant (p<0.05).
Genetic Relationship of Gestation Length with Birth and Weaning Weight in Hanwoo (Bos Taurus Coreanae)
Hwang, J.M. ; Choi, J.G. ; Kim, H.C. ; Choy, Y.H. ; Kim, S. ; Lee, C. ; Kim, J.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 633~639
The genetic relationship of gestation length (GL) with birth and weaning weight (BW, WW) was investigated using data collected from the Hanwoo Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Republic of Korea. Analytical mixed models including birth year‐season, sex of calf, linear and quadratic covariates of age of dam (days) and linear covariate of age at weaning (days) as fixed effects were used. Corresponding restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Bayesian estimates of variance components and heritability were obtained with two models; Model 1 included only direct genetic effect and Model 2 included direct genetic, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effect. All the genetic parameter estimates from REML were corresponding to the Bayesian estimates. Direct heritability estimates for GL, BW, and WW were 0.48, 0.33 and 0.25 by Model 1. From Model 2, direct and maternal heritability estimates were 0.38 and 0.03 for GL, 0.14 and 0.05 for BW, and 0.08 and 0.05 for WW. Genetic correlation estimates between direct and maternal effects were 0.05 for GL, 0.59 for BW, and 0.52 for WW. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between GL and BW (WW) were 0.44 (0.21). Positive genetic correlation of GL with BW and WW imply that selection for greater BW or WW would lead to prolonged gestation length.
Growth- and Breed-related Changes of Fetal Development in Cattle
Mao, W.H. ; Albrecht, E. ; Teuscher, F. ; Yang, Q. ; Zhao, R.Q. ; Wegner, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 640~647
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70293
Breed differences in adult animals are determined during fetal development. If interventions are to be developed that influence growth of muscle and fat, it is important to know at which time during gestation breed differences appear and are fixed. The objective of this study was to characterize fetal development in cattle of different breeds. Pregnant cows of 4 cattle breeds with different growth impetus and muscularity were slaughtered under normal processing conditions and the fetuses were removed. German Angus, a typical beef cattle; Galloway, a smaller, environmentally resistant beef type; Holstein Friesian, a dairy type; and Belgian Blue, an extreme type for muscle growth were used. Fetuses of each breed were investigated at 3, 6, and 9 mo of gestation. Fetuses were weighed and dissected into carcass, organs, and muscles. Body fat weight was obtained using the Soxhlet extraction method. Fetal weight increased most rapidly in the third trimester of gestation mainly due to the accelerated muscle and fat deposition. The organ weight to body weight (BW) ratios decreased and the muscle and fat weight to BW ratios increased. At 3 mo of gestation, Galloway fetuses had the significantly smallest BW, half-carcass weight, leg weight, organ weight, muscle weight and shortest leg length. In contrast, Holstein fetuses had the significantly greatest BW, liver, kidney, and lung weights and significantly longest leg length among the 4 breeds, but no differences between Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue were detected in half-carcass and leg weight. Indeed, Belgian Blue fetuses had the significantly greatest half-carcass weight, leg weight, and muscle weight at 9 mo of gestation, and Galloway had a significantly greater body fat to BW ratio than Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue. These differences were not evident at 3 and 6 mo of gestation. These data show that the profound increase of tissue and organ weights occurred in later gestation in cattle fetuses even though breed differences were evident as early as 3 mo of gestation. Depending on the tissue of interest, impacting fetal growth likely needs to occur early in gestation before the appearance of breed-specific differences.
Optimization of Procedure for Efficient Gene Transfer into Porcine Somatic Cells with Lipofection
Kim, D.Y. ; McElroy, S.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 648~656
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70400
The objective of this study was to establish conditions for transfection of a foreign gene into somatic cells using cationic lipid reagents and to evaluate the effects of transfection on in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was used as a foreign gene and a non-transfected somatic cell was utilized as a control karyoplast. Monolayers of porcine cells were established and subsequently transfected with a GFP-expressing gene (pEGFP-N1) using three types of transfection reagents (LipofectAMINE PLUS, FuGENE 6 or ExGen500). Donor cells used for SCNT included transfected fetal or adult fibroblasts and oviduct epithelial cells, either serum-fed or serum-starved. Oocytes matured in vitro for 42 h were reconstructed with either transfected or non-transfected porcine somatic cells by electric fusion and activation using a single DC pulse of 1.8 kV/cm for
0.26 M mannitol solution. Reconstructed oocytes were subsequently cultured in NCSU-23 medium for 168 h and the developmental competence and cell number in blastocyst were compared. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in fusion, cleavage rates or development to the blastocyst stage between non-transfected, transfected, serum-fed and serum-starved cells. However, the rates of GFP-expressing blastocysts were higher in the FuGENE 6 group (71.4%) among transfection reagents and in the fetal fibroblasts group (70.4%) for donor cells. These results indicate that fetal fibroblasts transfected with FuGENE 6 can be used as donor cells for porcine SCNT and that GFP gene can be safely used as a marker of foreign genes in porcine transgenesis.
Acquisition of Thermotolerance in Transgenic Orchardgrass Plants with DgHSP17.2 Gene
Kim, Ki-Yong ; Jang, Yo-Soon ; Cha, Joon-Yung ; Son, Daeyoung ; Choi, Gi Jun ; Seo, Sung ; Lee, Sang Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 657~662
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60725
To develop transgenic orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) resistant to high temperature, the recombinant DgHSP17.2 gene was introduced into orchardgrass plants using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method and expressed constitutively under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The results of genomic DNA PCR and Southern analysis showed a DNA band and hybridization signal on agarose gel and X-ray film in transgenic orchardgrass plants harboring the recombinant DgHSP17.2 gene, but a DNA band and hybridization signal were not observed in the wild type and empty vector control plants. The same result was also obtained in RT-PCR and Southern blot analysis, and these transgenic orchardgrass plants did not show any morphological aberration both in the culture bottle and soil mixture. When leaf discs cut from transgenic orchardgrass plants with recombinant DgHsp17.2 gene were exposed to lethal temperature (heat treatment at
for 50 min), 60-80% of the leaf discs showed only damage symptoms, but non-transgenic leaf discs showed a lethal condition. These results indicate that the DgHsp17.2 gene may act as a protector from heat stress in plants.
Milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid Response to Fish Oil and Linseed Oil Supplementation of Grazing Dairy Cows
Brown, W. ; AbuGhazaleh, A.A. ; Ibrahim, S.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 663~670
The effect of supplementing the diet of grazing dairy cows with fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LSO) on milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated. Sixteen Holstein cows (17019 DIM) were assigned into two groups and fed a grain supplement (8.0 kg/d; DM basis) containing 800 g of saturated animal fat (CONT) or 200 g FO and 600 g LSO (FOLSO). All cows grazed together on Sudan grass pasture ad libitum and were fed the treatment diets for 3 wks. Cows were milked twice a day and milk samples were collected during the last three days of the trial. Milk production (24.89 and 22.45 kg/d), milk protein percentage (2.76 and 2.82) and milk protein yield (0.68 and 0.64 kg/d) for the CONT and FOLSO diets, respectively, were not affected (p>0.05) by treatment diets. Milk fat percentage (3.90 and 2.86) and milk fat yield (0.97 and 0.64 kg/d) were lower (p<0.05) with the FOLSO diet compared with the CONT diet. The concentration and yield of milk cis-9 trans-11 CLA were higher (p<0.05) with the FOLSO diet (2.56% of total FA and 16.44 g/d, respectively) than the CONT diet (0.66% of total FA and 6.44 g/d, respectively). The concentrations of milk trans C18:1 and vaccenic acid (VA) were higher (p<0.05) with the FOLSO diet (13.53 and 7.48% of total FA, respectively) than the CONT diet (3.69 and 2.27% of total FA, respectively). In conclusion, supplementing the diet of grazing cows with FO and LSO increased milk cis-9 trans-11 CLA content but reduced milk fat content and yield.
Effect of Chromium Dietary Supplementation on the Immune Response and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Transport-stressed Lambs
Al-Mufarrej, S.I. ; Al-Haidary, I.A. ; Al-Kraidees, M.S. ; Hussein, M.F. ; Metwally, H.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 671~676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70135
Forty-eight Naemi lambs (avg. BW 31.7 kg) were transported by truck for a distance of 1,450 km from Al-Jouf to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On arrival day, the lambs were randomly allocated to four groups receiving diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ppm organic chromium (Cr). Each group consisted of four separately housed replicates of three lambs each. The animals were fed ad libitum on a grower diet for 84 days. Blood samples were obtained shortly before transportation, upon arrival and at weekly intervals thereafter from all lambs for analysis of plasma and serum. Plasma glucose and serum cortisol, total protein, albumin, urea-N and total cholesterol concentrations were determined. A cursory clinical examination of the lambs, along with rectal temperature, was undertaken at different intervals during the experiment. The lambs were inoculated each with 2 ml i.v. chicken red blood cells (CRBC) on days 0, 21, and 42. Serum total, IgG and IgM antibody titers were determined at weekly intervals post-immunization. An in vivo intradermal hypersensitivity test was carried out on 6 lambs from each group on days 10 and 70. Transportation of the lambs resulted in a significant (p<0.001) elevation of serum cortisol, total protein and albumin levels, as well as increased plasma glucose concentration, with corresponding decrease in total cholesterol, while blood urea-N remained largely unchanged. These constituents returned to normal levels during subsequent weeks, with no significant differences in their concentrations being observed between the Cr-supplemented groups and controls. Rise in rectal temperature after transportation was reduced to a greater extent (p<0.05) in Cr-supplemented versus control lambs. Total, IgG and IgM antibody titers against CRBC rose significantly (p<0.05) during immunizations in all groups, with significantly and linearly higher (p<0.05) total and IgG titers in Cr-supplemented versus control lambs. By contrast, no significant effect due to Cr supplementation was recorded in IgG titers, which increased equally in Cr-fed and control groups. Skin thickness in response to intradermal inoculation of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was also significantly (p<0.01) increased as a result of Cr supplementation. These results indicate that dietary Cr supplementation might be useful during stress especially for enhancing immune responses in transport-stressed lambs.
Prediction of Dry Matter Intake in Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Offered High Levels of Concentrate
Rim, J.S. ; Lee, S.R. ; Cho, Y.S. ; Kim, E.J. ; Kim, J.S. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70398
Accurate estimation of dry matter intake (DMI) is a prerequisite to meet animal performance targets without penalizing animal health and the environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate some of the existing models in order to predict DMI when lactating dairy cows were offered a total mixed ration containing a high level of concentrates and locally produced agricultural by-products. Six popular models were chosen for DMI prediction (Brown et al., 1977; Rayburn and Fox, 1993; Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries Research Council Secretariat, 1999; National Research Council (NRC), 2001; Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS), Fox et al., 2003; Fuentes-Pila et al., 2003). Databases for DMI comparison were constructed from two different sources: i) 12 commercial farm investigations and ii) a controlled dairy cow experiment. The model evaluation was performed using two different methods: i) linear regression analysis and ii) mean square error prediction analysis. In the commercial farm investigation, DMI predicted by Fuentes-Pila et al. (2003) was the most accurate when compared with the actual mean DMI, whilst the CNCPS prediction showed larger mean bias (difference between mean predicted and mean observed values). Similar results were observed in the controlled dairy cow experiment where the mean bias by Fuentes-Pila et al. (2003) was the smallest of all six chosen models. The more accurate prediction by Fuentes-Pila et al. (2003) could be attributed to the inclusion of dietary factors, particularly fiber as these factors were not considered in some models (i.e. NRC, 2001; CNCPS (Fox et al., 2003)). Linear regression analysis had little meaningful biological significance when evaluating models for prediction of DMI in this study. Further research is required to improve the accuracy of the models, and may recommend more mechanistic approaches to investigate feedstuffs (common to the Asian region), animal genotype, environmental conditions and their interaction, as the majority of the models employed are based on empirical approaches.
Effects of Dietary Copper Source and Level on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Lipid Metabolism in Lambs
Cheng, Jianbo ; Fan, Caiyun ; Zhang, Wei ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Yan, Xiaogang ; Wang, Runlian ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 685~691
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70642
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary copper (Cu) on performance, carcass characteristics and lipid metabolism in lambs. Fifty DorperMongolia wether lambs (approximately 3 month of age; 23.80.6 kg of body weight) were housed in individual pens and were assigned randomly to one of five treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, 3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, 4) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride (Cu2(OH)3Cl; TBCC), 5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride. The Cu concentration was 6.74 mg/kg DM in the basal diet. Body weight was measured on two consecutive days at the start and the end of the 60-day experimental period. Blood samples were collected and then the lambs were slaughtered on d 60. Performance was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary Cu treatment. Cu-supplemented and control lambs had similar hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and longissimus muscle area, but Cu supplementation, regardless of source and level, reduced (p<0.01) 12th rib backfat and kidney fat in lambs. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) and serum triglyceride concentrations were increased (p<0.05), total cholesterol concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be increased (p<0.07) by Cu supplementation. However, Serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatment. Fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle was similar across treatments. These results indicate that Cu-lysine and TBCC are of similar availability in lambs. Cu supplementation given to DorperMongolia wether lambs altered lipid metabolism. The reduction in backfat depth may be due to copper altering TNF- metabolism in lambs. Supplementation of 10 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM showed similar effects on lipid metabolism in lambs.
Effects of Supplementing Different Levels of a Commercial Enzyme Complex on Performance, Nutrient Availability, Enzyme Activity and Gut Morphology of Broilers
Yuan, Jiu ; Yao, Junhu ; Yang, Fengxia ; Yang, Xiaodan ; Wan, Xinjie ; Han, Jincheng ; Wang, Yaojie ; Chen, Xinke ; Liu, Yurui ; Zhou, Zhenfeng ; Zhou, Ningbo ; Feng, Xinyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 692~700
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70375
A trial was conducted to study the influence of different levels of a commercial enzyme complex on performance, nutrient availability, blood parameters, digestive tract measurements, amylase and trypsin activity of the digestive tract and gut morphology in broilers fed the typical diets in north China. There were four treatments: the control diet and the other three enzyme complex supplemented diets which were 180 mg/kg, 360 mg/kg and 720 mg/kg enzyme complex supplemented to the control diet, respectively. The birds fed the diets supplemented with 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg enzyme complex had better performance and nutrient availability, the activities of amylase and trypsin in the digestive tract in the two treatments were improved, the villus height and surface area of villus in the small intestine increased and the crypt depth and epithelial thickness of small intestine decreased. Relative weights of pancreas and relative weights and lengths of small intestine decreased. However, the addition of 720 mg/kg enzyme complex had no effects on these parameters and increased crypt depth and epithelial thickness of the small intestine. The data suggested that suitable supplementation of enzyme complex was beneficial for the birds, while excess enzyme complex inhibited secretion of endogenous enzyme and destroyed the structure of the small intestine.
Digestibility of Amino Acids of Maize, Low Tannin Sorghum, Pearl Millet and Finger Millet in Caecectomized Roosters
Vasan, P. ; Mandal, A.B. ; Dutta, Narayan ; Maiti, S.K. ; Sharma, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 701~706
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70296
The aim of the present study was to determine the apparent and true digestibilities of amino acids of maize, low tannin sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet in adult caecectomized cockerels. Adult cockerels (n = 60), 25-weeks old, were used in this study of which 30 birds were caecectomized as per a standard method. The apparent digestibilities of amino acids of sorghum were not affected by caecectomy, but were higher for maize, finger millet and pearl millet in caecectomized cockerels. Caecectomy had no influence on the true digestibilities of amino acids of maize, but higher digestibilities were observed for most of the amino acids of sorghum and finger millet in caecectomized cockerels. Caecectomy lowered the true digestibility of cystine, threonine and serine of pearl millet. The apparent digestibilities of amino acids of maize, finger millet and pearl millet were underestimated in intact cockerels. The true digestibilities of most of the amino acids of sorghum and finger millet were underestimated, while those of cystine, threonine and serine of pearl millet were overestimated in intact cockerels. The findings suggest that the amino acid digestibility values of cereal grains determined using caecectomized cockerels might be appropriate and reliable for poultry diet formulations. Moreover, the digestibilities of amino acids of finger millet were inferior to other cereal grains, while those of pearl millet were comparable to maize and sorghum.
Effect of Dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucan Supplementation on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Plasma Prostaglandin E
, Growth Hormone and Ghrelin in Weanling Piglets
Wang, Zhong ; Guo, Yuming ; Yuan, Jianmin ; Zhang, Bingkun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 707~714
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70559
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of
-1,3/1,6-glucan on growth performance, immunity and endocrine responses of weanling piglets. One hundred and eighty weanling piglets (Landrace
d of age) were randomly fed 1 of 5 treatment diets containing dietary
-1,3/1,6-glucan supplemented at 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 wks. Each treatment was replicated in 6 pens containing 6 pigs per pen. On d 14 and 28, body weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded as measures of growth performance. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured to study the effect of dietary
-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation on immune function. Plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), growth hormone (GH) and ghrelin were measured to investigate endocrine response to
-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation. Our results suggest that average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency had a quadratic increase trend with dietary
-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation from d 14 to 28, whereas it had no significant effect on average daily feed intake (ADFI). The treatment group fed with 50 mg/kg dietary
-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation showed a numerical increase in ghrelin, a similar change trend with ADG and no significant effect on GH. Lymphocyte proliferation indices, serum IgG and plasma PGE2 concentrations varied linearly with dietary supplementation levels of
-1,3/1,6-glucan on d 14. Higher levels of
-1,3/1,6-glucan may have a transient immuno-enhancing effect on the cellular and humoral immune function of weanling piglets via decreased PGE2. Taking into account both immune response and growth performance, the most suitable dietary supplementation level of
-1,3/1,6-glucan is 50 mg/kg for weanling piglets.
Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Fasting in Epididymal and Mesenteric Adipocytes of Rats
Lee, Jae Joon ; Chung, Chung Soo ; Lee, Myung Yul ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 715~722
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60603
There are marked variations in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) among adipose depots. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanisms of 24 h of fasting on LPL regulation between epididymal (EPI) adipocytes and mesenteric (MES) adipocytes in rats. 1-Day fasting consistently decreased activities of heparin-releasable LPL, total extractable LPL and cellular LPL markedly in both EPI and MES fat pads. LPL activity in MES fat pads was relatively lower than in the EPI fat pads. Consistent with data on LPL activity, the levels of expression of LPL mRNA in both nutritional states were lower in MES than EPI adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes. The decreased LPL activity after 1 day of fasting in MES adipocytes was explained mainly by a 50% decrease in the relative abundance of LPL mRNA level and a parallel 50% decrease in relative rate of LPL synthesis. In contrast, fasting of 1 day in EPI adipocytes decreased total LPL activity by 47% but did not affect LPL mRNA level or relative rate of LPL synthesis. A decrease in overall protein synthesis contributed to the decreased LPL activity after 1 day fasting both in EPI and MES adipocytes. In MES adipocytes the decrease in LPL activity, LPL mRNA and LPL synthesis were comparable, but in EPI adipocytes the changes in LPL activity were substantially larger than the changes in LPL mRNA level and LPL synthesis. Therefore, fasting decreased fat cell size, LPL activity, LPL mRNA level and relative rate of LPL synthesis in rats, and these effects were more marked in the MES adipocytes. These results clearly demonstrate the regional variations in the metabolic response of adipose tissue and LPL functions to fasting.
Effect of Galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides or Chitosan Supplementation on Cytoimmunity and Humoral Immunity in Early-weaned Piglets
Yin, Y.-L. ; Tang, Z.R. ; Sun, Z.H. ; Liu, Z.Q. ; Li, T.J. ; Huang, R.L. ; Ruan, Z. ; Deng, Z.Y. ; Gao, B. ; Chen, L.X. ; Wu, G.Y. ; Kim, S.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 723~731
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70408
Immunomodulatory feed additives might offer alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters in pig production. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of dietary galacto-mannan-oligosaccharide (GMOS) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation on the immune response in early-weaned piglets. Forty 15-day-old piglets (Duroc
Yorkshire) with an average live body weight of
were weaned and randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups that were fed maize-soybean meal diets containing either basal, 110 mg/kg of lincomycin, 250 mg/kg of COS or 0.2% GMOS, respectively, over a 2-week period. Another six piglets of the same age were sacrificed on the same day at the beginning of the study for sampling, in order to obtain baseline values. Interleukin (IL)-1
gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes, jejunal mucosa and lymph nodes, as well as serum levels of IL-1
IL-2 and IL-6, IgA, IgG, and IgM, were evaluated for 5 pigs from each group at 15 and 28 days of age. The results indicate that weaning stress resulted in decreases in serum antibody and cytokine levels. Dietary supplementation with GMOS or COS enhanced (p<0.05) IL-1
gene expression in jejunal mucosa and lymph nodes, as well as serum levels of IL-1
IL-2, IL-6, IgA, IgG and IgM compared to supplementation with lincomycin. These findings suggest that GMOS or COS may enhance the cell-mediated immune response in early-weaned piglets by modulating the production of cytokines and antibodies, which shows that GMOS or COS have different effects than the antibiotic on animal growth and health.
Attenuating Development of Cardiovascular Hypertrophy with Hydrolysate of Chicken Leg Bone Protein in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Cheng, Fu-Yuan ; Wan, Tien-Chun ; Liu, Yu-Tse ; Lai, Kung-Ming ; Lin, Liang-Chuan ; Sakata, Ryoichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 732~737
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70599
This study developed a natural ingredient as a functional food possessing properties of attenuation of hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. In a previous study hydrolysates obtained from chicken leg bone protein using Alcalase strongly inhibited angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro. In particular, hydrolysate (A4H) from four hours of incubation exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.545 mg/ml). A4H was selected as a potent ACE inhibitor and orally administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for eight weeks to investigate attenuating effects on age-related development of hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Results showed that treatment with A4H of SHRs attenuated the development of hypertension as effectively as the clinical antihypertensive drug captopril. Moreover, a significantly lower heart to body weight ratio and thinness of coronary arterial wall was observed in SHRs that had been treated with A4H or captopril. The results suggest that A4H can be utilized in developing an ACE inhibitor as a potential ingredient of functional foods to alleviate hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy.
Comparisons of Handling Practices of Culled Sheep Meat for Production of Mutton Curry
Mendiratta, S.K. ; Kondaiah, N. ; Anjaneyulu, A.S.R. ; Sharma, B.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 738~744
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70511
In most developing countries consumers purchase retail cuts from hot carcasses and prepare traditional meat products as per their convenience and requirements. In this study, effects of different post mortem handling practices on quality of meat curry from culled sheep meat have been studied. After slaughter, leg cuts were subjected to nine commonly prevalent handling conditions in India viz. deboning (boning out) and cooking within 2-3 h (1), deboning immediately and cooking after 5-6 h (2), deboning after 5-6 h and cooking (3), deboning immediately, storage at
for 24 h and cooking (4), chilling for 24 h at
, deboning and cooking (5), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 24 h at
, and cooking (6), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 48 h at 4??C and cooking (7), deboning after 5-6 h, freezing and cooking (8), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 24 h at
, freezing and cooking (9). Significant differences were observed in pH, water-holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force values. Sensory scores were significantly higher in conditions (1), (5) and (9), and significantly lower in conditions (4) and (6). From the results, it was concluded that, to have the best quality product, meat should be cooked either immediately after slaughter or should be deboned just before cooking. Storage of deboned meat at refrigerated temperature must be avoided.
Recent Progress in Biotechnology-based Gene Manipulating Systems to Produce Knock-In/Out Mouse Models
Lee, Woon Kyu ; Park, Joong Jean ; Cha, Seok Ho ; Yun, Cheol-Heui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 745~753
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.04
Gene-manipulated mice were discovered for the first time about a quarter century ago. Since then, numerous sophisticated technologies have been developed and applied to answer key questions about the fundamental roles of the genes of interest. Functional genomics can be characterized into gain-of-function and loss-of-function, which are called transgenic and knock-out studies, respectively. To make transgenic mice, the most widely used technique is the microinjection of transgene-containing vectors into the embryonic pronucleus. However, there are critical drawbacks: namely position effects, integration of unknown copies of a foreign gene, and instability of the foreign DNA within the host genome. To overcome these problems, the ROSA26 locus was used for the knock-in site of a transgene. Usage of this locus is discussed for the gain of function study as well as for several brilliant approaches such as conditional/inducible transgenic system, reproducible/inducible knockdown system, specific cell ablation by Cre-mediated expression of DTA, Cre-ERTM mice as a useful tool for temporal gene regulation, MORE mice as a germ line delete and site specific recombinase system. Techniques to make null mutant mice include complicated steps: vector design and construction, colony selection of embryonic stem (ES) cells, production of chimera mice, confirmation of germ line transmission, and so forth. It is tedious and labor intensive work and difficult to approach. Thus, it is not readily accessible by most researchers. In order to overcome such limitations, technical breakthroughs such as reporter knock-in and gene knock-out system, production of homozygous mutant ES cells from a single targeting vector, and production of mutant mice from tetraploid embryos are developed. With these upcoming progresses, it is important to consider how we could develop these systems further and expand to other animal models such as pigs and monkeys that have more physiological similarities to humans.
Growth Hormone Signaling in the Regulation of Acid Labile Subunit
Kim, Jin Wook ; Boisclair, Yves R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 5, 2008, Pages 754~768
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.05
The past decades have seen enormous advances in our understanding of how GH acts. GH is a pituitary-derived polypeptide hormone that has diverse physiological effects including the regulation of bone growth, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The effects of GH are mediated directly and indirectly through IGF-I. In addition, GH stimulates the hepatic production of ALS. In postnatal life, IGF-I and -II circulate as 150 kDa ternary complexes consisting of one molecule each of IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5, IGF-I or IGF-II and ALS. It is now known that ALS increases significantly the half-lives of the IGFs, IGFBP-3 and -5, and therefore is responsible for maintaining a circulating reservoir for each of these proteins.