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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Optimum Model for Analyzing Lifetime Profitability of Holstein Cows
Shadparvar, A.A. ; Nikbin, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 769~775
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70547
This study was on the relative net income (RNI) for 18,286 Iranian Holstein cows from 799 herds, with first freshening between 1991 and 2000. Two kinds of production system, which differed mainly in milk pricing system and feed cost, were considered. Four different models adopted from the literature were examined to find the optimum model. They differed by the cost of rearing and growth after first calving and they needed different amounts of economic data at the farm level. Results showed that four measures of RNI were highly correlated (>0.96) and could be used equally to measure lifetime profitability of cows. Therefore, in herds without a regular system for recording economic and management data, use of the simplest model is recommended. Multiple regression analysis revealed that RNI was affected by age at first freshening, milk yield and days of productive life (DPL), regardless of production system, and a similar breeding goal could be defined for the two systems. Multiple regression analysis of RNI showed that in order to obtain an unbiased estimate of economic value for DPL, the per day milk yield, not total lifetime milk yield, should be included in the regression model along with DPL. Regression analysis suggested that it is possible to predict RNI using information on age at first freshening along with the length of first lactation and per day milk yield with a coefficient of determination ranging from 0.44 to 0.47.
Study on Genetic Diversity of Six Duck Populations with Microsatellite DNA
Wu, Yan ; Liu, Xiao-Lin ; Hou, Shui-Sheng ; Huang, Wei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 776~783
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70367
In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of six duck populations by employing the genetic polymorphisms of 20 microsatellites. The parameters used in this study included number of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and average rates of heterozygosity of each population. The results showed that all the microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic except that the locus AJ515896 in Muscovy duck was 0. The average PIC (0.762), average h (0.7843) and average E (5.261) of the six duck populations were all high, indicating that the gene polymorphisms and genetic diversity were high. The test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that the six populations in this study were all in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. The F-statistic analysis results showed the range of FST was from 0.0205 (AJ515895) to 0.2558 (AJ515896). The mean FST was 0.0936. Phylogenetic study revealed that Peking duck (Z1 and Z4), Shaoxing duck, Cherry Valley duck and Aobaixing duck were clustered in one group, while the Muscovy duck was clustered in one group alone. The phylogenetic relationships among different populations were in accordance with their breeding history and distribution. Our data suggested that the 20 microsatellite loci were effective markers for analysis of genetic relationships among duck populations.
Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) Analysis to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with a Carcass Trait in a Hanwoo Population
Lee, Jea-Young ; Kwon, Jae-Chul ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 784~788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70645
Studies to detect genes responsible for economic traits in farm animals have been performed using parametric linear models. A non-parametric, model-free approach using the 'expanded multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method' considering high dimensionalities of interaction effects between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was applied to identify interaction effects of SNPs responsible for carcass traits in a Hanwoo beef cattle population. Data were obtained from the Hanwoo Improvement Center, National Agricultural Cooperation Federation, Korea, and comprised 299 steers from 16 paternal half-sib proven sires that were delivered in Namwon or Daegwanryong livestock testing stations between spring of 2002 and fall of 2003. For each steer at approximately 722 days of age, the Longssimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) was measured after slaughter. Three functional SNPs (19_1, 18_4, 28_2) near the microsatellite marker ILSTS035 on BTA6, around which the QTL for meat quality were previously detected, were assessed. Application of the expanded MDR method revealed the best model with an interaction effect between the SNPs 19_1 and 28_2, while only one main effect of SNP19_1 was statistically significant for LMA (p<0.01) under a general linear mixed model. Our results suggest that the expanded MDR method better identifies interaction effects between multiple genes that are related to polygenic traits, and that the method is an alternative to the current model choices to find associations of multiple functional SNPs and/or their interaction effects with economic traits in livestock populations.
Molecular Phylogeny of the Gayal in Yunnan China Inferred from the Analysis of Cytochrome b Gene Entire Sequences
Li, S.P. ; Chang, H. ; Ma, G.L. ; Cheng, H.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 789~793
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70637
The gayal (Bos frontalis) in China is a very rare semi-wild and semi-domestic bovine species. There still exist remarkable divergences on the gayal's origin and taxonomic status. In the present study, the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene entire sequences (1,140 bp) of 11 gayals in Yunnan China were analyzed. Combined with other bovine Cyt b sequences cited in GenBank, the phylogenetic trees of genus Bos were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods with Bubalus bubalis as outgroup. Sequence analysis showed that, among 1,140 sites compared for 11 gayals, 95 variable sites (8.33% of all sites) and 6 different haplotypes were observed, showing abundant mitochondrial genetic diversity in gayals. Both NJ and MP trees demonstrated that gayals in this study were markedly divided into three embranchments: one embranchment clustering with Bos gaurus, another clustering with Bos taurus, and the third clustering with Bos indicus. The result of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the gayal might be the domesticated form of the gaur, and a great proportion of the gayal bloodline in China was invaded by other bovine species.
Effect of Thyroid Hormones on the Redox Balance of Broiler Chickens
Lin, H. ; Decuypere, E. ; Buyse, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 794~800
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70305
In the present study, two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of hyper- and hypothyroid status on the redox balance of broiler chickens. In Trial 1, 3 groups of broiler chickens were randomly subjected to one of the three treatments: subcutaneous administration of triiodothyronine (T3,
BW), methimazole (MMI, 150 mg/kg BW), or saline. The blood, liver and heart were sampled at 3 h after injection. In Trial 2, three groups of 20 broiler chickens were randomly fed with one of the three diets: control, dietary supplementation of T3 (1.5 mg/kg diet) or MMI (1 g/kg diet) for 7 days. In trial 1, the plasma concentrations of T3 and T3 to thyronine ratio (T3/T4) were significantly increased by T3 injection. Plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) tended to be increased (p = 0.067) by both T3 and MMI treatments while the ferric reduced/antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was increased only by MMI treatment. Acute T3 treatment had no significant effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the concentrations of FRAP and TBARS in either liver or heart tissue. In contrast, the hepatic activities of SOD were decreased (p<0.05) while the cardiac levels of FRAP were significantly increased (p<0.0001) by MMI treatment. In chronic treatments, the rectal temperature of chickens was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MMI treatment. The circulating T3 levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) by long-term T3 treatment, and showed a trend to decrease in MMI treatment. The plasma concentrations of TBARS were significantly (p<0.05) increased by MMI treatment. All the redox parameters measured in either liver or heart were not significantly altered by either long-term T3 or MMI treatment except that the hepatic SOD activities were significantly augmented by T3 treatment. The result showed that neither acute nor long-term elevation of circulating T3 levels induced lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens. The enhanced enzymatic antioxidant system (SOD in cardiac tissue) may be involved in the protection of the bird to increased oxidative challenge. The responses of redox balance to changed thyroid state seem to be tissue specific.
Avian Somitic Cell Chimeras Using Surrogate Eggshell Technology
Mozdziak, Paul E. ; Hodgson, Dee ; Petitte, James N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 801~806
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70545
A classical technique to study somitic cell fate is to employ the cross-transplantation of quail somites into a chick host. The densely stained nucleoli of the quail cells makes it possible to assess the fate of the donor quail cells in the chick host. Classical somite transplantation techniques have been hampered by the necessity of a small opening in the chick eggshell, difficulty in hatching the offspring and interspecies post-hatch graft rejection. With the advent of transgenic chicken technology, it is now possible to use embryos from transgenic chickens expressing reporter genes in somite cross-transplantation techniques to remove any possibility of interspecies graft rejection. This report describes using a surrogate eggshell system in conjunction with transgenic chick:chick somitic cell cross-transplantation to generate viable chimeric embryos and offspring. Greater than 40% of manipulated embryos survive past 10 days of incubation, and ~80% of embryos successfully cultured past 10 days of incubation hatched to produce viable offspring.
Supplementing Maize or Soybean Hulls to Cattle Fed Rice Straw:Intake, Apparent Digestion, In situ Disappearance and Ruminal Dynamics
Von, Nguyen Tien ; St. Louis, David G. ; Orr, Adam I. ; Rude, Brian J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 807~817
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70518
Steers with ad libitum access to rice straw were assigned to four diets to evaluate the effects of maize or soybean hull supplementation on intake, in vivo digestibility, ruminal pH, VFA, ammonia-nitrogen (
) and in situ ruminal disappearance of feed nutrients by cattle consuming rice straw. Supplement treatments were: no supplement (RS); soybean meal at 0.127% BW (SBM); cracked maize at 0.415% BW plus 0.044% BW soybean meal (MAIZE); or soybean hulls at 0.415% BW plus 0.044% BW soybean meal (HULLS). The MAIZE and HULLS diets were formulated to provide approximately 4 MJ of
per kg of diet. Rice straw DMI was not affected (p = 0.34) by supplement. Apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was greater (p<0.001) for MAIZE and HULLS (56.6 and 60.0%, respectively) than for steers consuming SBM or RS (51.8 and 44.4%, respectively). Apparent NDF digestibility was greater (p<0.0004) for HULLS than MAIZE (61.7 vs. 58.0%, respectively) and apparent ADF digestibility was greater (p<0.0008) for HULLS than MAIZE (61.1 vs. 49.2%, respectively). There was no difference in apparent hemicellulose digestibility (p = 0.43). Analysis of ruminal fluid collected 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-feeding revealed ammonia-nitrogen was greatest (p<0.05) for steers on SBM and HULLS diets at 2 h (24.08 and 22.57 mg/dl, respectively) and total volatile fatty acids was greatest (p<0.05) for HULLS at 4 h (230 mM/L). In situ disappearance, measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 h, indicated that SBM, MAIZE and HULLS tended to enhance the digestibility of DM and fiber components of rice straw. In situ disappearance of rice straw DM was greatest for SBM and/or HULLS from 4 to 24 h (p = 0.03). Rice straw NDF and ADF disappearance was enhanced by supplementation from 16 to 24 h (p<0.02). Rice straw DM, NDF and ADF disappearances at 24 h were similar for MAIZE and HULLS treatments. When feeding cattle rice straw diets, energy and protein-based supplements are essential. This study showed that fiber-based supplements are just as, if not more, effective as starch-based supplements in rice straw utilization. This study shows that soybean hulls, in spite of their high fiber content, are as efficient as maize for supplementing rice straw primarily because fiber in soybean hulls is highly digestible as shown by in vivo digestibility and in situ disappearance.
In vitro Methanogenesis, Microbial Profile and Fermentation of Green Forages with Buffalo Rumen Liquor as Influenced by 2-Bromoethanesulphonic Acid
Agarwal, Neeta ; Kamra, D.N. ; Chatterjee, P.N. ; Kumar, Ravindra ; Chaudhary, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 818~823
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70336
The interaction of fibre degrading microbes and methanogens was studied using two forages, lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay and maize (Zea mays) hay, as substrate and 2-bromoethanesulphonic acid (BES) as an additive in an in vitro gas production test. Gas and methane production (ml/g dry matter) were significantly higher (p<0.05) on lucerne as compared to maize hay. Inclusion of BES in the incubation medium significantly suppressed methane emission irrespective of substrate. The population density of total bacteria, fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was higher, whereas that of methanogens was lower with maize hay as compared to lucerne as substrate. BES suppressed methanogen population by 7 fold on lucerene and by 8.5 fold on maize at 24 h incubation as estimated by real time-PCR. This suppression was accompanied by almost complete (>98% of control) inhibition of methanogenesis. The proportion of acetate decreased, whereas that of propionate increased significantly by inclusion of BES, resulting in narrowing of acetate to propionate ratio. In vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of lucerne was significantly higher as compared to maize but BES inclusion did not affect IVTD.
Histological Changes of Tissues and Cell Wall of Rice Straw Influenced by Chemical Pretreatments
Wang, Jia-Kun ; Chen, Xiao-Lian ; Liu, Jian-Xin ; Wu, Yue-Ming ; Ye, Jun-An ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 824~830
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70487
Sodium hydroxide (SH) or ammonium bicarbonate (AB) were applied to rice straw to investigate the effects on histological change of stem tissue or cell wall before and after in sacco degradation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM revealed that, the parenchyma and vascular bundles were distorted by treatment with SH at 30 or 45 g/kg straw dry matter. Faultage between phloem of large vascular bundles and parenchyma occurred with further increasing SH to 60 or 75 g/kg. The cell wall in these stem tissues was crimped when observed by TEM. However, only parenchyma and large vascular tissues were slightly distorted in AB-treated stem. For untreated and AB-treated stems, the initiation of observable ruminal degradation of cell wall was prolonged from 12 h for inner parenchyma to 24 h for sclerenchyma and to 48 h for phloem of small vascular bundles, while the outer epidermis was intact even at 72 h. For SH-treated stem, however, the cell wall from all of the investigated tissues, epidermis, small vascular bundles, sclerenchyma, and parenchyma started to be degraded at 12 h incubation. These results indicate that SH treatment contracts rice straw stem leading to an improvement in rumen degradation, and that the degradation of SH-treated stem is bilateral from inner and outer surface simultaneously.
Effect of Methionine Supplementation on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Awassi Ram Lambs Fed Finishing Diets
Obeidat, Belal S. ; Abdullah, Abdullah Y. ; Awawdeh, Mofleh S. ; Kridli, Rami T. ; Titi, Hosam H. ; Qudsieh, Rasha I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 831~837
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70536
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ruminally-protected methionine supplementation (0, 7, or 14 g/head/d) on nutrient intake, digestibility, growth performance, carcass, and meat characteristics of Awassi ram lambs fed finishing diets. Twenty four Awassi ram lambs (
body weight) were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (8 lambs/treatment) and housed in individual pens. Lambs were given an adaptation period of 7 days before the intensive feeding period that lasted for 86 days. On day 74 of the trial, a digestibility experiment was performed. At the end of the trial (d 86), all lambs were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality. Increasing the level of methionine supplementation did not improve (p>0.05) performance nor feed conversion ratio. Nutrient intake and digestibilities were not influenced (p>0.05) by methionine supplementation. There were no differences in final weight, hot and cold carcass weights, dressing percentages or any of the measured non-carcass components. Tissues and fat depth measurements together with all meat quality attributes measured on longissimus muscle of the loin cut were not affected by methionine supplementation. The only meat quality parameters affected were redness (a*) and the hue angle being higher for the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that methionine supplementation is not likely to produce any production benefits in nutrient digestibilities, performance or carcass characteristics of ram lambs fed a high performance diet.
Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E Improves Milk Fat Depression and Fatty Acid Composition in Dairy Cows Fed Fat Diet
Liu, Zhao L. ; Yang, De P. ; Chen, Pu ; Dong, Wei X. ; Wang, Dong M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 838~844
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70618
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing a fat diet with selenium (Se) and vitamin E on performance of cows, blood antioxidant status and milk fatty acid composition. Sixty-three lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into seven groups of nine cows each and each group was fed one of the following diets: i) a basal diet (control); ii) a basal diet with 0.15 mg Se/kg DM (LSe); iii) a basal diet with 0.3 mg Se/kg DM (HSe); iv) a basal diet with 5,000 IU/cow d vitamin E (LVE); v) a basal diet with 10,000 IU/cow d vitamin E (HVE); vi) a basal diet with 0.15 mg Se/kg DM and 5,000 IU/cow d vitamin E (LSeVE); vii) a basal diet with 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and 10,000 IU/cow d vitamin E (HSeVE). Milk fat percentage and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) yield in HVE and HSeVE diets increased (p<0.05) compared with the control diet. In milk fat, dietary supplementation of Se tended to increase the proportion of the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proportion of the sum of saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, compared with the control, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was lower and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was higher when fat diets were supplemented with Se. Our data showed that supplementation with Se and/or VE improved these nutrients in blood and milk. The results indicated that fat diets supplemented with Se improved both antioxidant status in blood and fatty acids in milk fat, and fat diets supplemented with vitamin E alleviated milk fat depression. Therefore, the combination of Se and vitamin E caused synergistic effects on the nutritional quality of milk fat and performance of cows fed a fat diet.
Effect of Galanin Infusion into the Third Ventricle on Plasma Concentrations of Metabolic Parameters in Goats Fed Diets of Different Energy Content
Khazali, H. ; Towhidi, A. ; Moravej, H. ; Parhizkar, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 845~852
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70527
The goal of this study was to determine whether galanin affects the mean plasma concentrations of metabolic parameters such as thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, glucose, fatty acid and urea in goats fed diets differing in energy content. Sixteen goats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were fed 100% and animals in groups 3 and 4 were fed 50% energy content in the diet for 20 days. After 20 days, animals in groups 1 and 3 received a daily infusion of
galanin and groups 2 and 4 received a daily infusion of
galanin into their third ventricle for 5 days. Blood samples were collected daily from the jugular vein before infusion on day 4 until 4 days after the last infusion of galanin. Samples were assayed for plasma T3, T4, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations by double-antibody RIA. Glucose, fatty acid and urea concentrations were also measured. Lower dietary energy intake and infusions of 1 and
galanin significantly (p<0.01) decreased the mean plasma concentrations of T3, T4, insulin and glucose and significantly (p<0.01) increased the mean plasma concentrations of GH, glucagon, fatty acid and urea of the animals in groups 3 and 4. Different dosages of the galanin infusions did not change the plasma concentrations of the metabolic parameters in the animals fed a normal dietary energy content. The results of this experiment indicated that galanin may negatively affect T3, T4, insulin and glucose and increase GH, glucagon, fatty acid and urea in goats with negative energy balance, but not in those with positive energy balance.
Effects of Chromium Yeast on Performance, Insulin Activity, and Lipid Metabolism in Lambs Fed Different Dietary Protein Levels
Yan, Xiaogang ; Zhang, Wei ; Cheng, Jianbo ; Wang, Runlian ; Kleemann, David O. ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 853~860
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70643
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of chromium (Cr), dietary crude protein (CP) level and potential interactions between these two factors on growth rate and carcass response, insulin activity and lipid metabolism in lambs. Forty-eight, 9-week-old weaned lambs (Dorper
Small-tail Han sheep, mean initial body weight =
) were used in a
factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0 ppb, Cr0; 400 ppb, Cr1; or 800 ppb, Cr2 from chromium yeast) and CP levels (157 g/d to 171 g/d for each animal, LP; or 189 g/d to 209 g/d for each animal, HP). Growth data and blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the feed trial, after which the lambs were killed. Both Cr additive groups and the HP group increased final weight and average daily gain, especially the Cr1 and HP group (p<0.01). HP increased pelvic fat weight (p<0.05), fat thickness of the 10th rib (p<0.05), longissimus muscle area (p<0.01) and rate of deposition of intramuscular fat (p<0.01). Supplemental Cr decreased the rate of deposition of intramuscular fat (p<0.05). Fasting insulin level and the ratio of insulin to glucose were lower with Cr1 than other groups, but with no significant difference. Glucose concentration was not affected by any treatment. Nonesterified fatty acids increased in the Cr1 (p<0.05) and HP (p<0.05) conditions and there was a significant
interaction (p<0.05). Cr1 decreased triglycerides (p<0.05) and total cholesterol (p = 0.151) and HP increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05). Cr1 decreased lipoprotein lipase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (aLPL, p<0.05) and the ratio of aLPL to lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle (mLPL, p = 0.079). mLPL and hepatic lipase (hHL) were not affected by any treatment. In the present study, Cr had limited effects on growth rate and carcass response, whereas Cr and CP had some notable effects on plasma metabolites and enzyme activities. Cr has a potential effect on energy modulation between lipid and muscle tissue. In addition, few
interactions were observed.
Effects of Exogenous Ghrelin on the Behaviors and Performance of Weanling Piglets
Wu, Xingli ; Tang, Maoyan ; Ma, Qiugang ; Hu, Xinxu ; Ji, Cheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 861~867
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70574
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous ghrelin on the behaviors, weight gain, and feed intakes of weanling piglets. A total of 25 pairs of Duroc
Large White piglets weaned at 21 days of age were used in this experiment which finished on day 36. Each pair of healthy piglets from the same litter with similar body weight and of the same gender were selected and randomly arranged to ghrelin or control groups. Thus, there were 50 piglets (ghrelin 25; control 25) kept in 10 pens (ghrelin 5; control 5) and 5 piglets per pen. Initial body weight of the pigs did not differ between the control and ghrelin treatment (
; p = 0.81). Experimental pigs were infused with ghrelin (
pig) via the marginal ear vein between 0750 and 0800 h at 22, 23, 24 days of age. Control pigs were infused with 0.9% saline. Feed consumption was measured on days 23, 24, 25, 29 and 36. Body weight was measured on days 22, 23, 24, 25, 29 and 36. Behavior data of individual piglets were collected by real-time observation from 0800-1500 h through remote supervisory equipment at 22, 23 and 24 days of age. The results indicated that ghrelin infusion could increase drinking (p<0.05) and lying behaviors (p<0.01) and decrease mounting behaviors (p<0.05). No significant influence of ghrelin was found on average daily weight gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in this experiment (p>0.05). In conclusion, exogenous ghrelin by the method above and at the dosage of
pig could cause a variety of behavioral effects, but not improve performance of weanling piglets.
Long Term Feeding Effects of Dietary Dehulled Soybean Meal as a Fish Meal Replacer in Growing Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Young Chul ; Yoo, Gwang Yeol ; Wang, Xiaojie ; Lee, Seunghyung ; Shin, In Soo ; Bai, Sungchul C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 868~872
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70496
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the long term effects of dehulled soybean meal (DHSM) as fish meal (FM) replacer in the diet for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, for 42 wk at a commercial fish farm. The four experimental diets were MP (moist pellet based on raw fish),
(fish meal based dry pellet),
(30% fish meal was replaced by DHSM) and COMD (commercial dry pellet). Fish were fed one of the four diets containing 50% crude protein and 16.7 kJ available energy/kg diet for 42 wk. Fish averaging
) were initially distributed to each tank as a group of 6,000 fish reared in a flow-through system. At the end of the experiment, average body weight of fish was
) ). Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish fed MP, DHSM0 and DHSM30 showed no significant difference among the diet treatments. However, WG and FE of fish fed MP were significantly higher than those of fish fed COMD (p<0.05). Specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and survival of fish fed all diets were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. Therefore, these results indicate that DHSM could replace up to 30% white fish meal with amino acid supplementation in olive flounder diets for long-term feeding practice at the commercial farm.
The Effects of Cellulose, Pectin and Starch on Standardized Ileal and Apparent Total Tract Amino Acid Digestibilities and Bacterial Contribution of Amino Acids in Feces of Growing Pigs
Ma, Q.G. ; Metzler, B.U. ; Eklund, M. ; Ji, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 873~882
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70478
Eight ileally cannulated pigs (BW
) were randomly allotted according to a
Latin square design to determine the effects of cellulose, pectin and starch on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) as well as on the bacterial AA contribution in feces. The pigs were fed the control diet (20.2% CP, % dry matter (DM)) or one of the three experimental diets in which 25% of the control diet was substituted by cellulose, starch or pectin. Due to this substitution, dietary CP levels were lower in the cellulose (15.5% CP, % DM), pectin (15.4% CP, % DM) and starch diet (15.2% CP, % DM). Following a 15-d adaptation period, feces were collected for 5 d and ileal digesta for a total of 24 h. Starch increased SID of CP, while cellulose and pectin had no significant effect on the digestibility of CP. Overall, starch supplementation resulted in higher (p<0.05) SID values of histidine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine and serine compared with cellulose, while pectin decreased (p<0.05) SID of valine and proline compared with the starch and control diet. Both cellulose and pectin reduced (p<0.05) the ATTD of CP and AA, while starch decreased (p<0.05) ATTD of phenylalanine, alanine, proline and serine compared with the control. With regard to bacterial AA composition of the fecal mixed bacterial mass (MBM), cellulose supplementation increased (p<0.05) its content of N and almost all AA, except for valine, while pectin caused higher contents of arginine, histidine and proline compared with the control (p<0.05). The bacterial contribution of arginine in feces was higher (p<0.05) in the cellulose treatment, while pectin reduced (p<0.05) the bacterial contribution of leucine, alanine, glutamic acid and proline in feces compared with the control. In conclusion, the effects of cellulose, starch and pectin on SID were rather small. Bacterial activity in the large intestine can only explain the reduced ATTD values for arginine in the cellulose treatment, but not for the other AA in the cellulose and pectin treatments, suggesting higher endogenous losses of these AA in the large intestine.
Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation on Antioxidation and Lipid Profiles of Rats on Diets Supplemented with Cholesterol and Olive Oil
Kurtoglu, Firuze ; Kurtoglu, Varol ; Sivrikaya, Abdullah ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 883~889
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70613
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been identified as an important component of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of supplementation with cholesterol (0.5%), olive oil (5%) and vitamin E (0.05%) on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol, HDL-LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol, brain and liver MDA and GSH concentrations of rats were investigated. A total of 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 6 months, and of equal body weight were used and fed a standard ration ad libitum. Animals were housed in the University of Selcuk, Veterinary Faculty Experimental Animals Unit. The experiment lasted 60 days and there were five experimental groups as follows: 1. Control, 2. Cholesterol (0.5%), 3. Olive oil (5%), 4. Cholesterol plus vitamin E (0.05%), 5. Olive oil plus vitamin E (0.05%). At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and erythrocyte GSH, plasma MDA, cholesterol, HDL-LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol and also GSH and MDA concentrations in brain and liver tissue of rats were spectrophotometrically determined. Supplementation of olive oil and cholesterol into rat diets (groups 2 and 3) caused significant differences in lipid parameters; HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased in the olive oil group and LDL cholesterol was lower than in the cholesterol fed group. Moreover, these decreases in LDL and triacylglycerol concentrations were more significant with vitamin E supplementation. The high plasma MDA concentrations showed that lipid peroxidation occurred in the olive oil group and the highest brain MDA concentrations were determined also in the olive oil group. These findings suggest that vitamin E addition may decrease the sensitivities of several oils to oxidation and that monounsaturated fatty acids in olive oil may decrease the incidence of atherosclerosis by regulating blood lipid profiles.
Effect of Resveratrol on Serum and Liver Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemia Rats
Zhu, Lixian ; Luo, Xin ; Jin, Zhengyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 890~895
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70638
The antioxidant activity of resveratrol in cholesterol-fed rats, along with its hypolipidemic effects was determined. Thirty two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (Control, Res30 and Res70) and fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 4 weeks. Resveratrol was suspended in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution and given to rats of the Res30 and Res70 groups once a day for 4 weeks by oral intubation at a dose of 30 and 70 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The control group received 0.3% CMC solution alone. Resveratrol significantly lowered serum lipid, hepatic cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels compared to the control. Excretion of bile acids was significantly enhanced by resveratrol. The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the resveratrol as plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered while serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased in the cholesterol-fed rats. These findings suggest that resveratrol maintains an antioxidant efficacy as well as its anti-hyperlipidemic effect.
Development of Probiotic Candies with Optimal Viability by Using Response Surface Methodology and Sequential Quadratic Programming
Chen, Kun-Nan ; Chen, Ming-Ju ; Shiu, Jia-Shian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 896~902
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70465
The objective of this research was to create a new probiotic candy with good flavor and healthy benefits by using the response surface method and a sequential quadratic programming technique. The endpoint was to increase the varieties of dairy products and enhance their market values. In this study, milk was mixed with yogurt cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium longum) and incubated at
for 20 h. The samples were blended with lyoprotectants (galactose, skim milk powder and sucrose), freeze dried and then mixed with sweeteners (lactose and xylitol) to improve the texture for forming tablets. The processing conditions were optimized in two steps: the first step constructed a surface model using response surface methodology; the second step optimized the model with a sequential quadratic programming procedure. Results indicated that skim milk inoculated with L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and B. longum and blended with 6.9% of galactose, 7.0% of sucrose and 8.0% of skim milk powder would produce a new probiotic candy with the highest viability of probiotics and good flavor. A relatively higher survival of probiotics can be achieved by placing the probiotic candy product in a glass bottle with deoxidant and desiccant at
. These probiotic counts remained at 106-108 CFU/g after being stored for two months.
Quality Improvement of Frozen and Chilled Beef biceps femoris with the Application of Salt-bicarbonate Solution
Sultana, A. ; Nakanishi, A. ; Roy, B.C. ; Mizunoya, W. ; Tatsumi, R. ; Ito, T. ; Tabata, S. ; Rashid, H. ; Katayama, S. ; Ikeuchi, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 903~911
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70544
The effects of salt and bicarbonate solution on overall meat quality in beef biceps femoris muscle were investigated with the application of chilling and freezing conditions. Muscles were injected to a target of 120% of original meat weight with a solution containing 1.2 M sodium chloride, 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate and 0.1% ascorbic acid (pH 7.2). Half of the meat samples, considered as chill treatment and chill control, were stored at
up to five days; while the other half, frozen treatment and frozen control, were kept in a freezer at
for seven days. Compared with untreated control, treated meats had higher water holding capacity (p<0.05), lower drip loss (p<0.05) and lower shear force (p<0.07) with higher overall acceptability (p<0.05) in sensory evaluation. Morphological observations demonstrated smooth and gummy meat surface due to the solubilization of myofibrillar proteins and the distortion of connective tissue in treated raw meats; and in the case of cooked meat, treatment caused the fragmentation of myofibrils, which might be responsible for a lower shear value in salt-bicarbonate treated beef biceps femoris muscle.
A Review: Influences of Pre-slaughter Stress on Poultry Meat Quality
Ali, Md. Shawkat ; Kang, Geun-Ho ; Joo, Seon Tea ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 6, 2008, Pages 912~916
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.06
Pre-slaughter conditions affect poultry meat quality. Therefore, stresses before slaughter like heat stress, struggle and shackling on the shackle line, crating and transport and feed withdrawal are very important for the poultry industry in respect of quality as well as welfare of the birds. However, exposure to heat in oxidative stress can in turn lead to cytotoxicity in meat type birds. Chickens exposed to heat stress before slaughter showed the lowest ultimate pH and birds shackled for a longer time the highest. The abdominal fat content was higher in heat stressed birds. Struggling on the shackle line hastened the initial rate of the pH drop and increased the redness of breast meat. Again, with increasing struggling activity, lactate concentration in breast muscle of chicken increased. Paler meat was found in birds that were transported for a longer time than in those after a small journey or not transported. The pre-slaughter and eviscerated weights were decreased as the length of feed withdrawal period increased.