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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
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Sequencing, Genomic Structure, Chromosomal Mapping and Association Study of the Porcine ADAMTS1 Gene with Litter Size
Yue, K. ; Peng, J. ; Zheng, R. ; Li, J.L. ; Chen, J.F. ; Li, F.E. ; Dai, L.H. ; Ding, SH.H. ; Guo, W.H. ; Xu, N.Y. ; Xiong, Y.ZH. ; Jiang, S.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 917~922
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60724
A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS1) plays a critical role in follicular rupture and represents a major advance in the proteolytic events that control ovulation. In this study, a 9,026-bp DNA sequence containing the full coding region, all 8 introns and part of the 5'and 3' untranslated region of the porcine ADAMTS1 gene was obtained. Analysis of the ADAMTS1 gene using the porcine radiation hybrid panel indicated that pig ADAMTS1 is closely linkage with microsatellite marker S0215, located on SSC13q49. The open reading frame of its cDNA covered 2,844 bp and encoded 947 amino acids. The coding region of porcine ADAMTS1 as determined by sequence alignments shared 85% and 81% identity with human and mouse cDNAs, respectively. The deduced protein contained 947 amino acids showing 85% sequence similarity both to the human and mouse proteins, respectively. Comparative sequencing of three pig breeds revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within exon 7 of which a G-C substitution at position 6006 changes a codon for arginine into a codon for proline. The substitution was situated within a PvuII recognition site and developed as a PCR-RFLP marker for further use in population variation investigations and association analysis with litter size. Allele frequencies of this SNP were investigated in seven pig breeds/lines. An association analysis in a new Qingping female line suggested that different ADAMTS1 genotypes have significant differences in litter size (p<0.01).
Comparison of Genetic Parameter Estimates of Total Sperm Cells of Boars between Random Regression and Multiple Trait Animal Models
Oh, S.-H. ; See, M.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 923~927
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70383
The objective of this study was to compare random regression model and multiple trait animal model estimates of the (co) variance of total sperm cells over the active lifetime of AI boars. Data were provided by Smithfield Premium Genetics (Rose Hill, NC). Total number of records and animals for the random regression model were 19,629 and 1,736, respectively. Data for multiple trait animal model analyses were edited to include only records produced at 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 months of age. For the multiple trait method estimates of genetic and residual variance for total sperm cells were heterogeneous among age classifications. When comparing multiple trait method to random regression, heritability estimates were similar except for total sperm cells at 24 months of age. The multiple trait method also resulted in higher estimates of heritability of total sperm cells at every age when compared to random regression results. Random regression analysis provided more detail with regard to changes of variance components with age. Random regression methods are the most appropriate to analyze semen traits as they are longitudinal data measured over the lifetime of boars.
Association of SNP Haplotypes at the Myostatin Gene with Muscular Hypertrophy in Sheep
Gan, S.Q. ; Du, Z. ; Liu, S.R. ; Yang, Y.L. ; Shen, M. ; Wang, X.H. ; Yin, J.L. ; Hu, X.X. ; Fei, J. ; Fan, J.J. ; Wang, J.H. ; He, Q.H. ; Zhang, Y.S. ; Li, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 928~935
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70473
The myostatin gene of seven important meat (Beltex (Australia), Beltex
Huyang (F1), Meat and Multi-Prolific Chinese Merino Fine Wool, Meat Chinese Merino Fine Wool and Dorper (South Africa)) and non-meat (Huyang and Kazak) sheep breeds was analyzed to study the genetic basis of muscular hypertrophy (double muscling) phenotype in sheep. SNPs, four in regulatory regions and several in the introns in the myostatin gene, were identified, and the former four SNPs were used for further studies. Twelve haplotypes were predicted by PHASE program, of which four main haplotypes (1, 3, 7, 9) were present in 90% of the 364 sheep in the study. Haplotypes 1-4 were mainly present in meat breeds while haplotypes 7 and 9 dominated the non-meat breeds. The association between haplotypes and average daily gain (ADG) was analyzed among 116 sheep with production data, Haplo2 (CGAA) and Haplo8 (TGAA) were identified to have significant (p<0.05) effect on ADG by the model (JMP5.1 software) taking into account the effects of breed, family background, haplotype, birth weight and sex. ADG of these haplotype groups also correlated well (r = 0.82) with hypertrophic phenotype scores. In conclusion, the mutations -956 (T
C), -41 (C
A) and 6223 (G
A) involved in Haplo2 and 8 may be associated with the double-muscling trait by influencing myostatin function and be suitable markers in selecting meat sheep.
Prion Protein Genotypes in Pakistani Goats
Babar, M.E. ; Nawaz, M. ; Nasim, A. ; Abdullah, M. ; Imran, M. ; Jabeen, R. ; Chatha, S.A. ; Haq, A.U. ; Nawaz, A. ; Mustafa, H. ; Nadeem, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 936~940
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70493
The PCR-amplified prion protein (PrP) gene was sequenced to determine the frequency of scrapie-associated as well as novel PrP genotypes in 72 healthy goats representing five breeds. A total of six genotypes were detected, resulting from the three reported 143 (H/R), 154 (R/H) and 240 (S/P) and the two novel 39 (S/R) and 185 (I/F) amino acid polymorphisms. Of the four silent mutations 42 (a
g), 138 (c
t), 231 (c
a) and 237 (g
c) detected in this study, 237 (g
c) is novel. A genotype (SIP/RFP) harboring three amino acid polymorphisms 39 (S/R), 185 (I/F) and 240 (S/P) was found in few goats. Although both scrapie-associated genotypes with 143 (H/R) and 154 (R/H) polymorphisms and others with 39 (S/R), 185 (I/F) and 240 (S/P) polymorphisms were present in the studied Pakistani goats, their frequency was lower than that of the wild-type genotype SHRIS/SHRIS (34.7%). These results emphasize the need for further sequencing of the PrP gene in a large number of goats representing the five studied breeds, so that overall PrP variability can be assessed in these breeds in research addressing future concerns about scrapie.
Single-minded 1 Gene Mapping and Its Variants Association with Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality Traits in the Pig
Zhao, X.F. ; Xu, N.Y. ; Chen, Z. ; Wang, Q. ; Guo, X.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 941~946
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70056
Single-minded 1 gene (SIM1) is a homolog of Drosophila SIM1 gene which plays a key role in the midline cell lineage of the central nervous system and is implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and obesity in the human and mouse. In this study, porcine SIM1 gene was firstly mapped to chromosome 1p13 using radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and two polymorphisms were detected at position 607 (A/G) in SIM1 intron7 and position 780 (C/T) in SIM1 exon8. The last substitution was genotyped in a 364 F2 animal-population and an association analysis of these genotypes was performed with growth, carcass and meat quality traits by the statistical animal model. The results showed the significant influence of the SIM1 genotype on growth (p<0.05): live weight at birth, later period of growth and average daily gain; and effects on carcass composition (p<0.05): weight of head and buck kneed foreleg, backfat depth, loin eye area, carcass leaf fat and ham fat weights; and traits related to intramuscular fat content (p<0.05).
Genetic Structure of Mongolian Goat Populations Using Microsatellite Loci Analysis
Takahashi, H. ; Nyamsamba, D. ; Mandakh, B. ; Zagdsuren, Yo. ; Amano, T. ; Nomura, K. ; Yokohama, M. ; Ito, S. ; Minezawa, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 947~953
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70285
We studied genetic diversity and relationships among Mongolian goat populations on the basis of microsatellite DNA polymorphisms. DNA samples from eight populations (Bayandelger, Ulgii Red, Zavkhan Buural, Sumber, Zalaajinst White, Erchim Black, Dorgon, and Gobi Gurvan Saikhan) from geographically distinct areas of Mongolia were analyzed by using 10 microsatellite DNA markers. Since the 10 markers were highly polymorphic, the genetic characteristics of these native goat populations could be estimated. Genetic diversity within populations, as estimated by the expected heterozygosities, was high, ranging from 0.719 to 0.746, but genetic differentiation between populations was low, representing only 1.7% of the total genetic variation. The results suggest that Mongolian native goat populations still have a semi-wild genetic structure reflecting traditional Mongolian nomadism and the short history of artificial selection. The genetic relationships among the populations were not clear in the neighbor-joining tree generated from the modified Cavalli-Sforza chord genetic distances. By using principal components analysis, the five core populations of Mongolian native goats (Bayandelger, Ulgii Red, Zavkhan Buural, Sumber, and Dorgon) and the populations crossed with Russian breeds (Zalaajinst White, Erchim Black, and Gobi Gurvan Saikhan) were distinguished. There was no correlation between genetic relationships among the populations and the geographical distribution of the populations.
Expression Analysis of miRNAs in Porcine Fetal Skeletal Muscle on Days 65 and 90 of Gestation
Chen, Jian-hai ; Wei, Wen-Juan ; Xiao, Xiao ; Zhu, Meng-Jin ; Fan, Bin ; Zhao, Shu-Hong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 954~960
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70521
MiRNAs (microRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules of ~21 nucleotides that down- regulate the expression of target genes at post-transcriptional level. In this study, we first accomplished a preliminary scan of miRNA expression using 65 and 90 day fetal pig skeletal muscle samples by microarray hybridization, and 34 miRNAs showed strong positive signals. Five of these miRNAs were selected for further investigation by real-time RT-PCR. The statistical analyses indicated that three miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression (p<0.05) during porcine muscle development from 65 to 90 days of gestation, e.g., miR-24 and miR-424 were down-regulated while miR-133a was up-regulated. Multi-tissue RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression patterns of the five miRNA precursors. The results showed that most of these precursor miRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in different porcine tissues.
Maternal and Direct Genetic Parameters for Production Traits and Maternal Correlations among Production and Feed Efficiency Traits in Duroc Pigs
Hoque, M.A. ; Kadowaki, H. ; Shibata, T. ; Suzuki, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 961~966
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70641
Direct and maternal genetic parameters for production traits in 1,642 pigs and maternal genetic correlations among production (1,642 pigs) and feed efficiency (380 boars) traits were estimated in 7 generations of a Duroc population. Traits studied were daily gain (DG), intramuscular fat (IMF), loineye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), daily feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). The RFI was calculated as the difference between actual and predicted feed intake. The predicted feed intake was estimated by adjusting the initial test weight, DG and BF. Data for production traits were analyzed using four alternative animal models (including direct, direct+maternal permanent environmental, or direct+maternal genetic+maternal permanent environmental effects). Direct heritability estimates from the model including direct and all maternal effects were
for LEA and
for BF. Estimated maternal heritabilities ranged from
for production traits. Antagonistic relationships were observed between direct and maternal genetic effects (
) for LEA (-0.21). Maternal genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits with FI (
of FI with FCR and RFI were
, respectively) and LEA (rg of LEA with FCR and RFI were
, respectively) were favorable. The estimated moderate genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for IMF and LEA indicated that maternal effects has an important role in these traits, and should be accounted for in the genetic evaluation system.
Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Genes Regulate the Level of Adipose Arachidonic Acid in Sus Scrofa
Choi, Kyung-Mi ; Moon, Jin-Kyoo ; Choi, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Kwan-Suk ; Choi, Yang-Il ; Kim, Jong-Joo ; Lee, Cheol-Koo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 967~971
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80059
We compared the fatty acid composition of adipose tissues prepared from Korean native and Yorkshire pigs that have different characteristics in growth and fat deposition. There was no significant difference in the content of most fatty acids between the two breeds, with the exception of arachidonic acid and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid. We also investigated the transcriptional levels of genes encoding three different types of oxygenases, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, which metabolize arachidonic acid. We found a significant difference in the expression of the CYP genes, CYP2A13, CYP2U1 and CYP3A4, but no differences for the latter two genes between the two breeds. Our results suggest that the difference in arachidonic acid content between the two breeds was caused by differential expression of the CYP genes. Eventually, different levels of EETs and HETEs produced from arachidonic acid by the activity of CYP might contribute partly to the difference of fatness between the two breeds.
An Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide to the LH Receptor Attenuates FSH-induced Oocyte Maturation in Mice
Yang, Jiange ; Fu, Maoyong ; Wang, Songbo ; Chen, Xiufen ; Ning, Gang ; Xu, Baoshan ; Ma, Yuzhen ; Zhang, Meijia ; Xia, Guoliang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 972~979
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70534
It has been recently shown that expression of the LH receptor (LHR) in cumulus cells is related with FSH-induced meiotic resumption of mouse cumulus enclosed oocytes (CEOs). However, to date, it is still unclear whether LHR expression in cumulus cells plays a key role during FSH-induced oocyte maturation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the functional role of LHRs in cumulus cells. CEOs were isolated from eCG-primed preovulatory follicles and cultured in hypoxanthine (HX) arrested medium. LHR protein expression in cumulus cells was time-dependent increasing during the process of FSH-induced oocyte maturation. While the sense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) had no effect, antisense ODN inhibited FSH-induced LHR expression and meiotic resumption. Moreover, this antisense ODN against LHR could inhibit FSH-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. This study suggested that LHR expression in cumulus cells is involved in FSH-induced oocyte meiotic resumption, which process is possibly regulated by MAPK cascade.
Effects of Cell Status of Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cell (BOEC) on the Development of Bovine IVM/IVF Embryos and Gene Expression in the BOEC Used or Not Used for the Embryo Culture
Jang, H.Y. ; Jung, Y.S. ; Cheong, H.T. ; Kim, J.T. ; Park, C.K. ; Kong, H.S. ; Lee, H.K. ; Yang, B.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 980~987
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70413
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cell status of BOEC on development of bovine IVM/IVF embryos and gene expression in BOEC before or after culturing of embryos. The developmental rates beyond morula stage in the BOEC co-culture group was significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05). In particular, blastocyst production in the BOEC co-culture group (28.3%) was dramatically increased compared with the control group (7.2%). In the in vitro development of bovine IVM/IVF embryos according to cell status, the developmental rates beyond morula stage in the primary culture cell (PCC) co-culture group were the highest of all experimental groups. Expression of genes related to growth (TGF-
EGF and IGFBP), apoptosis (Bax, Caspase-3 and p53) and antioxidation (CuZnSOD, MnSOD, Catalase and GPx) in different status cells of BOEC for embryo culture was detected by RT-PCR. While EGF gene was detected in isolated fresh cells (IFC) and PCC, TGF-
and IGFBP were found in IFC or PCC after use in the embryo culture, respectively. Caspase-3 and Bax genes were detected in all experimental groups regardless of whether the BOEC was used or not used in the embryo culture. However, p53 gene was found in IFC of both conditions for embryo culture and in frozen/thawed culture cells (FPCC) after use in the embryo culture. Although antioxidant genes examined were detected in all experimental groups before using for the embryo culture, these genes were not detected after use. This study indicated that the BOEC co-culture system used for in vitro culture of bovine IVF embryos can increase the developmental rates, and cell generations and status of BOEC might affect the in vitro development of bovine embryos. The BOEC monolayer used in the embryo culture did not express the growth factors (TGF-
and EGF) and enzymatic antioxidant genes, thereby improving embryo development in vitro.
Pineal-adrenal Relationship: Modulating Effects of Glucocorticoids on Pineal Function to Ameliorate Thermal-stress in Goats
Sejian, V. ; Srivastava, R.S. ; Varshney, V.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 988~994
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70482
The purpose of the investigation was to establish how the pineal-adrenal axis plays an important role in thermoregulation in female goats under short-term heat stress. The study was conducted to observe the influence of glucocorticoids on pineal function in goats and its influence on stress alleviation capability. Melatonin and glucocorticoid secretions and several other endocrine and biochemical blood parameters reflecting the animals well being were determined over a one week period after goats had been exposed to
and 60% relative humidity for 10 days. Six female goats were used in the study. These animals served as self controls prior to the start of the experiment. The study was conducted for a period of seventeen days in a psychrometric chamber at
and 60% relative humidity. Chemical pinealectomy was achieved using propranolol followed by exogenous hydrocortisone treatment. Blood samples were drawn twice daily after each treatment to find the effect of hydrocortisone on plasma glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, melatonin and corticosterone. Chemical pinealectomy significantly (
) affected plasma levels of the parameters studied and these could be significantly (
) counteracted by administration of hydrocortisone. Chemical pinealectomy aggravated thermal stress, although administration of hydrocortisone could ameliorate the condition. This indicated a role of the pineal in support of thermoregulation. The study establishes the modulating effect of glucocorticoids on pineal activity to relieve thermal stress in goats.
Yield and Species Composition of Binary Mixtures of Kura Clover with Kentucky Bluegrass, Orchardgrass, or Smooth Bromegrass
Kim, B.W. ; Albrecht, K.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 995~1002
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70316
Kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) is a rhizomatous perennial legume that has potential as a forage crop in the North-Central USA because of its excellent persistence under environmental extremes. Little information is available about defoliation effects on productivity of mixtures of kura clover with grasses typically grown in this region. Two field trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of defoliation management on yield and species composition of binary mixtures of 'Rhizo' kura clover with 'Comet' orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), 'Badger' smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), 'Park' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and solo-seeded kura clover near Arlington, WI. Three harvest schedules (three, four, or five times annually) and two cutting heights (4 or 10 cm) were imposed. Infrequent defoliation and lower cutting height produced significantly greater total forage yield, 6.6, 5.8, and 5.2 Mg/ha in 3-, 4-, and 5-harvest systems, respectively; and 6.5 and 5.2 Mg/ha for the 4- and 10-cm cutting height, respectively. Averaged over 3 yr and two environments, mixtures had higher forage productions than solo kura clover (6.3, 5.7, and 6.0 Mg/ha for the Kentucky bluegrass, orchardgrass, and smooth bromegrass mixtures, respectively; compared to 5.2 Mg/ha for solo kura clover). The proportion of kura clover in mixtures increased from yr 1 to yr 2 and was constant from yr 2 to yr 3 (34, 58, and 57%, respectively). We conclude that kura clover has excellent potential as a long-term component of grass-legume mixtures regardless of the cutting height, harvest frequency or grass species, even though the proportion of kura clover in harvested forage was significantly greater with less frequent harvest and shorter cutting height of all mixtures.
Metabolic Characteristic of the Liver of Dairy Cows during Ketosis Based on Comparative Proteomics
Xu, Chuang ; Wang, Zhe ; Liu, Guowen ; Li, Xiaobing ; Xie, Guanghong ; Xia, Cheng ; Zhang, Hong You ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1003~1010
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70392
The objective of the present study was to identify differences in the expression levels of liver proteins between healthy and ketotic cows, establish a liver metabolic interrelationship of ketosis and elucidate the metabolic characteristics of the liver during ketosis. Liver samples from 8 healthy multiparous Hostein cows and 8 ketotic cows were pooled by health status and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional-electrophoresis (2D-E). Statistical analysis of gels was performed using PDQuest software 8.0. The differences in the expression levels of liver proteins (p<0.05) between ketotic and healthy cows were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry. Five enzymes/proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in the livers of ketotic cows: expression of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2 (HCDH), acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT) and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) were down-regulated, whereas that of alpha-enolase and creatine kinase were up-regulated. On the basis of this evidence, it could be presumed that the decreased expression of HCDH, which is caused by high concentrations of acetyl-CoA in hepatic cells, in the livers of ketotic cows, implies reduced fatty acid ??oxidation. The resultant high concentrations of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl CoA would depress the level of ACAT and generate more ??hydroxybutyric acid; high concentrations of acetyl-CoA would also accelerate the Krebs Cycle and produce more ATP, which is stored as phosphocreatine, as a consequence of increased expression of creatine kinase. The low expression level of elongation factor Tu in the livers of ketotic cows indicates decreased levels of protein synthesis due to the limited availability of amino acids, because the most glucogenic amino acids sustain the glyconeogenesis pathway; thus increasing the level of alpha-enolase. Decreased protein synthesis also promotes the conversion of amino acids to oxaloacetate, which drives the Krebs Cycle under conditions of high levels of acetyl-CoA. It is concluded that the livers of ketotic cows possess high concentrations of acetyl-CoA, which through negative feedback inhibited fatty acid oxidation; show decreased fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein synthesis; and increased gluconeogenesis and energy production.
Effects of Yeast Culture Supplementation to Gestation and Lactation Diets on Growth of Nursing Piglets
Kim, Sung Woo ; Brandherm, Mike ; Freeland, Mike ; Newton, Betsy ; Cook, Doug ; Yoon, Ilkyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1011~1014
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70438
A total of 335 sows at a commercial operation (Hitch Pork Producers Inc, Guymon, OK) was used to determine dietary effects of yeast culture supplementation (
, Diamond V Mills) on litter performance. Sows were grouped by parity (parity 1 to 12). Pigs within a group were then allotted to treatments. Treatments consisted of: CON (no added yeast culture) and YC (12 and 15 g/d XPC during gestation and lactation, respectively). Sows were housed individually and fed their assigned gestation and lactation diets from d 35 of gestation to d 21 of lactation. Sows were fed 2.0 kg/d during gestation and ad libitum during lactation. Voluntary feed intake was measured daily during lactation. At farrowing, numbers of pigs born total and alive were measured. Weights of litters were measured at birth and weaning on d 21 of lactation. Litter weight gain of the YC treatment was 6.9% greater (p<0.01) than that of the CON. However, voluntary feed intake of sows and litter size did not differ between treatments. This study indicates that dietary yeast culture supplementation benefits sow productivity by improving litter weight gain. At present, it is not confirmed if improved litter weight gain was due to milk production, which remains to be investigated.
Meat Quality, Digestibility and Deposition of Fatty Acids in Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Restricted, Iso-energetic Amounts of Diets Containing either Beef Tallow or Sunflower Oil
Mitchaothai, J. ; Everts, H. ; Yuangklang, C. ; Wittayakun, S. ; Vasupen, K. ; Wongsuthavas, S. ; Srenanul, R. ; Hovenier, R. ; Beynen, A.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1015~1026
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70515
The influence of dietary beef tallow (BT) versus sunflower oil (SO) on meat quality and apparent digestibility and deposition of individual fatty acids in the whole carcass was investigated in pigs fed diets containing either BT or SO. The diets contained equal amounts of energy in the form of the variable fats and were fed on an iso-energetic, restricted basis. Crude fat in the SO diet was better digested (p<0.001) than in the BT diet. The dietary fat type had no effect on growth performance, physical properties of the carcass and meat quality. The pigs fed the BT diet showed lower (p<0.001) apparent digestibilities for palmitic and linoleic acid, but those of oleic and
-linolenic acid were not affected. The ratio of deposition in the carcass to intake of digestible fatty acids for the whole feeding period was decreased (p<0.01) for oleic and linoleic acid in pigs fed the SO diet. The pigs fed the SO diet instead of the BT diet had a lower (p<0.05) deposition:intake ratio for mono-unsaturated fatty acids. The calculated minimum de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids was increased for the SO diet, but that of mono-unsaturated fatty acids was not different. In conclusion, the iso-energetic replacement of BT by SO had a marked impact on the fatty acid composition of tissues, but did not affect carcass and meat quality traits in spite of the marked difference in the deposition of linoleic acid in adipose tissues, loin muscle and the whole body. In addition, it became clear that the type of dietary fat had marked, specific effects on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.
Growth Performance and Antibody Response of Broiler Chicks Fed Yeast Derived β-Glucan and Single-strain Probiotics
An, B.K. ; Cho, B.L. ; You, S.J. ; Paik, H.D. ; Chang, H.I. ; Kim, S.W. ; Yun, C.W. ; Kang, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1027~1032
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70571
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary yeast derived
-glucan and single-strain probiotics on the growth performance and antibody response in broiler chicks. Six hundred and thirty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were divided into seven groups, placed into three pens per group (30 birds per pen) and fed one of seven non-medicated corn-SBM based experimental diets containing 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1% Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-glucan and 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA-pro,
) or devoid of them for 5 wk. The body weight gains in groups fed diets containing 0.025 or 0.1%
-glucan, 0.1% or 0.2% BA-pro were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control over 1-35 d. Feed conversion rates of groups fed
-glucan and BA-pro tended to be improved compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weights of liver, abdominal fat and breast muscle. No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum enzymes and concentrations of various cholesterol fractions. The antibody titers against Newcastle disease or infectious bronchitis virus in the chicks fed diets containing
-glucan and BA-pro were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control. The concentrations of cecal lactic acid bacteria in all groups fed BA-pro were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the control. These results indicated that dietary yeast derived
-glucan and BA-pro exerted growth-promoting and immune-enhancing effects in broiler chickens. In addition, BA-pro added to the diets modulated the profiles of cecal microflora, reflecting a potential to be beneficial microorganisms in chickens.
Effects of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Growth Hormone Secretion and Pituitary mRNA Expression in Finishing Pigs
Wang, M.Q. ; He, Y.D. ; Xu, Z.R. ; Li, W.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1033~1037
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70692
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on growth hormone (GH) secretion and pituitary GH mRNA expression in finishing pigs. Forty eight crossbred pigs with an initial body weight of 65.57 kg (SD = 1.05) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to two treatments with three replicates. Each group was fed the diet supplemented with or without
chromium from CrPic for 40 days. The results showed that average daily gain of pigs was increased by 9.84% (p<0.05), and longissimus muscle area was increased by 17.29% (p<0.05) with the supplementation of CrPic. The results of GH dynamic secretion showed that supplemental CrPic increased the mean level and peak value of GH by 36.58% (p<0.05) and 26.60% (p<0.05), respectively, while there was no significant effect on basal value, peak amplitude and peak duration. Pituitary mRNA expression of GH was not significantly influenced by supplemental CrPic. These results indicated that CrPic increased pigs GH secretion without change of pituitary GH mRNA expression.
Effect of Measured Energy Restriction and Age Intervals on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Parameters, Bone Characteristics and Stress in Broiler Breeders during the Rearing Period
Sunder, G. Shyam ; Kumar, Ch. Vijaya ; Panda, A.K. ; Gopinath, N.C.S. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Rao, S.V. Rama ; Reddy, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1038~1047
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70548
This study aimed at targeting fixed increases in body weight (100 g/wk) by quantitatively regulating energy allowances (ME) in broiler breeders from 5 to 20 wks of age. Four energy regimes were tested: 1. The energy required for maintenance, activity and growth was calculated for 100 g increases in body weight/wk and a measured quantity of grower diet (160 g protein and 2,600 kcal ME/kg) was offered to the control group (ME-100) to achieve the anticipated weight gain. The energy allowances increased with age from 132 to 294 kcal/d. 2. Additionally, three energy regimes were considered, quantitatively reducing ME by 10% (ME-90) or 20% (ME-80) and increasing by10% (ME-110) over the control group. Each test group had 23 replicates5 female chicks housed in cages. The influence of energy regimes and age on growth, nutrient digestibility, carcass attributes, bone parameters and stress was evaluated at 4 wk intervals. Quantitative ME restriction by 10% (119-265 kcal/d) produced an average weight gain of 98.1 g/wk, which was closer to the targeted increase of 100 g/wk, whereas the control group attained it nine days earlier. Restriction of energy by 10 or 20% produced better conversion efficiency of feed, energy and protein and apparent digestibility of protein, Ca and P than 10% excess ME. Energy regimes did not influence eviscerated meat yield, but higher energy allowances (ME-110) significantly increased abdominal fat pad and liver weights and decreased giblet weight, percent muscle protein and tibia ash. Relatively higher stress was recorded in ME-restricted groups, as reflected by wider heterophil and lymphocyte ratios and increased bursa weight. Early age (5-12 wk) significantly influenced bone mineralization, conversion efficiency of feed, energy and protein and apparent digestibility of protein, Ca and P, while later ages (13-20 wk) increased eviscerated meat yield, abdominal fat, tibia weight and muscle protein and reduced stress. Energy regime x age interactions were significant and are discussed. In conclusion, the synthetic broiler line used in our study responded positively to controlled energy feeding during the rearing period. Breeders offered 119-265 kcal/d, a reduction of 10% energy over the control group, were more effective in regulating grower performance than the latter. In addition to energy regimes, age intervals also exhibited significant influence on specific parameters during the grower phase.
Effect of Sodium Selenite and Zinc-L-selenomethionine on Performance and Selenium Concentrations in Eggs of Laying Hens
Chantiratikul, Anut ; Chinrasri, Orawan ; Chantiratikul, Piyanete ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1048~1052
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70576
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine on performance and egg Se concentration in laying hens. Two hundred and twenty-four CP Browns aged 71 weeks were divided according to a
factorial in a completely randomized design. One more group without additional Se supplementation was used as a negative control. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained eight laying hens. The dietary treatments were T1: basal diet; T2, T3 and T4: basal diets plus 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg Se from sodium selenite/kg, respectively; T5, T6 and T7: basal diets plus 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg Se from zinc-L-selenomethionine/kg, respectively. The findings revealed that feed conversion rate/kg eggs, egg production, egg weight, Haugh units and eggshell thickness were not affected by source and level of Se (p>0.05). Increasing level of dietary Se significantly increased (p<0.05 the Se content of eggs. Zinc-L-selenomethionine markedly increased p<0.05 egg Se concentration as compared with sodium selenite. The results indicated that Se source did not influence performance of laying hens. However, zinc-L-selenomethionine increased p<0.05 egg Se concentration more than sodium selenite.
Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Palm Kernel Cake and Palm Oil, and Enzyme Supplementation on Performance of Laying Hens
Chong, C.H. ; Zulkifli, I. ; Blair, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1053~1058
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70581
A total of 392 twenty eight week-old laying hens was used to study the effects of dietary inclusion of solvent-extracted palm kernel cake (PKC) (0%, 12.5% and 25%) and enzyme (mixture of mannanase,
-galactosidase and protease) supplementation (0 kg/t, 1 kg/t and 2 kg/t) on the performance of laying hens. The levels of PKC did not significantly influence nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) of the diets. Enzyme-supplemented PKC had significantly higher AME and TMEn values than PKC diets with no enzyme supplementation. Dietary inclusion of 12.5% and 25% PKC in the diets of laying hens did not adversely affect mean egg production or daily egg mass. However, layers consumed significantly more PKC-based diets and had significantly poorer feed conversion ratios (FCR) than controls. However, the feed intake and FCR of hens provided the 12.5% PKC-based diets with enzyme supplementation at 1 kg/t did not differ from the controls. Dietary inclusion of PKC or enzyme did not affect eggshell quality, but egg yolk colour was significantly paler when layers were fed the 25% PKC diet.
The Effects of Dietary Sulfur and Vitamin E Supplementation on the Quality of Beef from the Longissimus Muscle of Hanwoo Bulls
Lee, Sung Ki ; Panjono, Panjono ; Kang, Sun Moon ; Kim, Tae Sil ; Park, Yeon Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1059~1066
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70372
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary sulfur (S) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on the quality of beef from longissimus muscle of Hanwoo bulls. Eleven, 29 months-aged Hanwoo bulls were randomly divided into three feed supplementation groups (S (n = 4), Vit E (n = 4) and S+Vit E (n = 3)). S was given as much as 12 g/head/d and Vit E was given as much as 1,200 IU/head/d; both supplements were given for 3 months prior to slaughter. At 24 h post-slaughter, the carcasses were weighed and evaluated by official grader for carcass traits. At 48 h post-slaughter, the M. longissimus from each carcass was collected and stored at
for 10 days. There were no significant differences in yield and quality grades of carcass and proximate composition, physical properties and aroma pattern of meat among all groups. At 5 days of storage, the TBARS value of meat from cattle with S+Vit E supplementation was significantly lower (p<0.05) than other groups; and at 10 days of storage, the TBARS value of meat from cattle with Vit E and S+Vit E supplementations was significantly lower (p<0.05) than from cattle with S supplementation. At 5 days of storage, MetMb concentration of meat from cattle with S+Vit E supplementation was significantly lower (p<0.05) than from cattle with Vit E supplementation; and at 10 days of storage, MetMb concentration of meat from cattle with S+Vit E supplementation was significantly lower (p<0.05) than from other groups. At 10 days of storage, the redness value of meat from cattle with S supplementation was significantly higher (p<0.05) than from cattle with Vit E supplementation and the hue-angle value of meat from cattle with S and S+Vit E supplementations was significantly lower (p<0.05) than from cattle with Vit E supplementation. Dietary Vit E supplementation had a better effect on lipid stability whereas dietary S supplementation had a better effect on OxyMb stability. The dietary combination of S and Vit E created the highest protection for beef from myoglobin oxidation and thus improved the color stability of meat.
Effects of Fucoxanthin Addition to Ground Chicken Breast Meat on Lipid and Colour Stability during Chilled Storage, before and after Cooking
Sasaki, Keisuke ; Ishihara, Kenji ; Oyamada, Chiaki ; Sato, Akiyuki ; Fukushi, Akihiko ; Arakane, Tomohiro ; Motoyama, Michiyo ; Yamazaki, Makoto ; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 7, 2008, Pages 1067~1072
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70670
Effects of fucoxanthin (FX), a major carotenoid in algae, on lipid peroxidation and meat colour in ground chicken breast meat were investigated. FX and/or
-tocopherol (Toc) were added to ground samples at a content level of 200 mg/kg. The samples were subjected to a chilling storage test before and after cooking. In the storage test before cooking, neither FX nor Toc affected the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on days 1 and 6, and FX decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values. In the storage test after cooking, both FX and Toc decreased TBARS values on days 1 and 6. FX decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values, similar to what occurred in the storage test before cooking. Based on these results, we concluded that FX is a potent ingredient for improvement of the appearance and shelf life of chicken meat and its products.