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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Genetic Models for Carcass Traits with Different Slaughter Endpoints in Selected Hanwoo Herds I. Linear Covariance Models
Choy, Y.H. ; Lee, C.W. ; Kim, H.C. ; Choi, S.B. ; Choi, J.G. ; Hwang, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1227~1232
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60001
Carcass characteristics data of Hanwoo (N = 1,084) were collected from two stations of the National Livestock Institute of Animal Science (NIAS), Korea and records from thirteen individual cow-calf operators were analyzed to estimate variance and covariance components and the effect of different slaughter endpoints. Carcass traits analyzed were cold carcass weight (CWT, kg), REA (rib eye area, cm2), back fat thickness (mm) and marbling score (1-7). Four different models were examined. All models included sex and contemporary group as fixed effects and the animal's direct genetic potential and environment as random effects. The first model fitted a linear covariate of age at slaughter. The second model fitted both linear and quadratic covariates of age at slaughter. The third model fitted a linear covariate of body weight at slaughter. The fourth model fitted both linear covariates of age at slaughter and body weight at slaughter. Variance components were estimated using the REML procedure with Gibb's sampler. Heritability estimate of CWT was in the range of 0.08-0.11 depending on the model applied. Heritability estimates of BF, REA and MS were in the ranges of 0.23-0.28, 0.19-0.26, and 0.44-0.45, respectively. Genetic correlations between CWT and BF, between CWT and REA, and between CWT and MS were in the ranges of -0.33 - -0.14, 0.73-0.84, and -0.01- 0.11, respectively. Genetic correlations between REA and BF, between MS and BF and between REA and MS were in the ranges of -0.82 ~ -0.72, 0.04~0.28 and -0.08 ~ -0.02, respectively. Variance and covariance components estimated varied by model with different slaughter endpoints. Body weight endpoint was more effective for direct selection in favor of yield traits and body weight endpoints affected more of the correlated response to selection for the traits of yield and quality of edible portion of beef.
RAPD Analysis of Three Deer Species in Malaysia
El-Jaafari, Habiba A.A. ; Panandam, Jothi M. ; Idris, Ismail ; Siraj, Siti Shapor ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1233~1237
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60227
The genetic variability within and among three deer species in Malaysia, namely Cervus nippon (sika), Cervus timorensis (rusa) and Cervus unicolor (sambar), were evaluated using the RAPD technique. The DNA extracted from the buffy coat of 34 sika, 38 rusa and 9 sambar were analysed using ten primers that gave bands which showed good resolution. The primers generated 164 RAPD markers in total, and these ranged in size from 150 to 900 bp. The percent of polymorphism of the bands generated per primer ranged from 66.66-93.33% for rusa, 36.84-61.14% for sambar and 52.38-100% for sika. The overall percent polymorphism observed for the 164 RAPD markers was 99.39%. The results revealed five exclusive, monomorphic markers for sambar and one exclusive, monomorphic marker for sika; none was observed for rusa. However, these cannot be declared as markers for the identification of the species without analysis of more samples, populations and species. The means of within population genetic distances, based on Dice's and Jaccard's similarity indices, were similar for the rusa (0.383 and 0.542, respectively) and sika (0.397 and 0.558, respectively) populations with the sambar population being the least variable (0.194 and 0.323, respectively). The Dice based genetic distances within the species ranged from 0.194 to 0.397 and the genetic distances among the species were 0.791-0.911. The genetic distances based on Dice's and Jaccard's similarity indices between the rusa and sambar were 0.556 and 0.713, between the rusa and sika populations were 0.552 and 0.710, and between sambar and sika were 0.622 and 0.766, respectively.
Genetic Variation and Divergence among Swamp Buffalo, River Buffalo and Cattle: A Microsatellite Survey on Five Populations in China
Zhang, Yi ; Sun, Dongxiao ; Yu, Ying ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1238~1243
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70746
Domestic buffalo and cattle are two extremely important livestock species in worldwide agricultural production. In this paper, to investigate genetic diversity and divergence among swamp buffalo, river buffalo and cattle, 30 microsatellite markers were screened on 168 individuals sampled from five populations. Substantial differences were observed among the three groups of animals with respect to allele frequency distribution, allele size and polymorphism. The cattle sample (Mongolian) showed significantly higher genetic variability (0.674 of gene diversity, p<0.01), and the swamp and river buffalo samples displayed similar degree of genetic variation (0.536 in swamp and 0.546 in river, p = 0.92). Results of both phylogenetic tree and multivariate analysis could distinguish three groups of animals, suggesting their deep evolutionary divergence. Additionally, using
genetic distance, we estimated a divergence time of 1.7 million years between swamp and river buffalo that strongly supported distinct genetic origins for the two buffalo types.
Expression and Secretion of the Insulin-like Growth Factor System Components by Pig Liver Cells
Kim, I. ; Jin, E.J. ; Baik, K. ; Park, C.H. ; Kim, W.K. ; Kang, C.W. ; Ko, Y. ; Jang, I. ; Choi, W.S. ; Lee, C.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1244~1251
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70558
The aim of the present study was to delineate the expression and secretion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system components by pig liver cells. Hepatocytes were prepared from 3-wk-old weanling piglets following a two-step collagenase perfusion procedure, after which the cells were incubated for 24 or 48 h at a density of
cells per 35-mm dish in 2-ml Williams' medium E. The cells were found to express the genes encoding IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-2 and -3 and acid-labile subunit (ALS) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) following the culture. However, IGF-I was localized to hepatocytes by immunohistochemical analysis, whereas IGFBP-3 was localized to endothelial cells, but not to hepatocytes. This indicated that the IGFBP-3 gene expression detected by RT-PCR was likely to have been contributed by unidentified non-parenchymal cells that had not been removed during the hepatocyte preparation. The conditioned culture medium (CCM) of the cells contained immunoreactive IGF-I and IGF-II, with the latter being seven-fold more abundant than the former. The CCM also contained 43-, 40-, 34-, 31-kDa doublet and 26-kDa IGFBPs as examined by Western ligand blotting. The 40-, 34- and 31-kDa doublet IGFBPs were approximately three-fold as abundant as the 43- and 26-kDa IGFBPs. Moreover, the 43- and 40-kDa doublet and the 34-kDa IGFBPs were immunoprecipitable with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-2 antibodies, respectively. Overall, these results are similar to those known in the rat, which suggests that the IGF system components are likely to be expressed and secreted in pig liver in a manner similar to that in rat liver.
Tethering Meat Goats Grazing Forage of High Nutritive Value and Low to Moderate Mass
Patra, A.K. ; Puchala, R. ; Detweiler, G. ; Dawson, L.J. ; Animut, G. ; Sahlu, T. ; Goetsch, A.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1252~1261
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60670
Twenty-four yearling Boer
Spanish goats were used in a crossover design experiment to determine effects of tethering on forage selection, intake and digestibility, grazing behavior and energy expenditure (EE) with forage high in nutritive value and low to moderate in mass. Objectives were to determine if tethered goats could be used as a model for study of unrestrained animals and to characterize tethering as a production practice. Four 0.72-ha pastures of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium) were grazed in December and January. Each pasture hosted six animals, three with free movement and three attached to a 4.11-m tether for access to a circular area of
. Tethering areas were moved each day. One animal of each treatment and pasture was used to determine forage selection, fecal output or grazing behavior and EE; therefore, there were eight observations per treatment. Mass of forage DM before grazing in Tethered areas averaged 1,280 and 1,130 kg/ha in periods 1 and 2, respectively. The CP concentration in ingesta was greater ((p<0.05) 239 and 209 g/kg; SE = 8.0) and the NDF level was lower (p<0.05) for Free vs. Tethered animals (503 and 538 g/kg; SE = 12.0); in vitro true DM digestion was similar between treatments (0.808 and 0.807 for Free and Tethered, respectively; SE = 0.0096). Intakes of DM (1,013 and 968 g/d; SE = 78.6), NDF (511 and 521 g/d; SE = 39.9) and ME (10.9 and 10.7 MJ/d; SE = 0.90) were similar between treatments, but CP intake was greater (p<0.05) for Free vs. Tethered animals (241 and 203 g/d; SE = 17.2). There were small treatment differences in in vivo apparent digestibility of OM ((p<0.05) 0.780 and 0.814; SE = 0.0049), CP ((p<0.05) 0.800 and 0.817; SE = 0.0067) and NDF ((p<0.09) 0.777 and 0.760 for Free and Tethered, respectively; SE = 0.0078). There were no treatment effects on time spent ruminating or grazing (346 and 347 min/d for Free and Tethered, respectively; SE = 42.5), but EE was considerably greater (p<0.05) for Free vs. Tethered animals (571 and 489 kJ/kg
; SE = 8.9). In conclusion, with forage of high nutritive value and low to moderate in mass, tethering can offer a production advantage over free grazing of less energy used for activity despite similar grazing time. With forage removal considerably less than that available for grazing, effects of tethering on chemical composition of selected forage were small and less than needed to markedly affect digestion. Tethering may offer a means of studying some aspects of grazing by ruminants, but would not seem suitable for energy metabolism.
Effect of Feeding Ca-salts of Fatty Acids from Soybean Oil and Linseed Oil on c9,t11-CLA Production in Ruminal Fluid and Milk of Holstein Dairy Cows
Sultana, Halima ; Ishida, Takeshi ; Shintaku, Toshihiro ; Kanda, Shuhei ; Itabashi, Hisao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1262~1270
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60730
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids (CaSO) and linseed oil fatty acids (CaLO) on c9,t11-CLA production in ruminal fluid and milk fat from Holstein dairy cows. Rumen fermentation, lactational performances and fatty acid profiles in ruminal fluid and milk fat were also investigated. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allotted randomly into two groups consisting of ten cows in each group according to calving date and average milk yield. The first group of cows was fed a control (without calcium salts) diet and a treatment as 1.0% of CaSO (on DM basis) for 30 days in each period. In the second group, cows were fed the same control diet and 1.0% of CaLO as a treatment in the same manner. The forage: concentrate ratio was 52:48, and diets were formulated to contain 17% crude protein (DM basis) for both groups. Ruminal pH, protozoal numbers and the concentration of total volatile fatty acids were unchanged, however, the ruminal ammonia-N decreased by feeding CaSO or CaLO treatment compared to the control diet. The vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1; VA) in rumen fluid increased (p<0.01) by 169% and 153%, and the c9,t11-CLA content of rumen fluid increased (p<0.01) by 214% and 210% in the CaSO and CaLO treatments, respectively, compared to the control diet. In milk fatty acids, the VA content increased by 130% and 132% in the evening and morning milking times, respectively, and the c9,t11-CLA content increased by 125% in both milking times for the CaSO supplementation than that of control diet. In the case of CaLO supplementation, the VA increased by 117% and 114%, and the c9,t11-CLA increased by 96% and 94% in the evening and morning milking times, respectively, compared to the control diet. The contents of VA and c9,t11-CLA of milk fatty acids were numerically higher in the evening milking time compared to the morning milking time for control and both treatments. Finally, these results indicated that the supplementation of CaSO or CaLO treatment increased the VA and the c9,t11-CLA in both ruminal fluid and milk fat of Holstein dairy cows.
Effects of Soybean Oil or Rumen Protected Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Accumulation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Dairy Cows' Milk
Suksombat, Wisitiporn ; Chullanandana, Khukbuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1271~1277
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80046
The effects of feeding soybean oil (SBO) or rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (RP-CLA) on CLA accumulation in milk, and performance of lactating dairy cows were studied. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging
of milk and
body weight were stratified randomly and assigned in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to three treatments of 8 cows each. The treatments were control, 150 g of SBO and 150 g of RP-CLA supplementation. Performance parameters showed that DM intake, NELP intake and body weight change were similar across treatments, while CP intake was decreased by SBO and RP-CLA supplementation. Milk yield and milk composition were not significantly different among treatments, except for milk fat percentage and fat yield which were significantly decreased by 27% (p<0.05) and by 28% (p<0.01), respectively, by RP-CLA supplements compared with control treatment. Feeding RP-CLA reduced 3.5% FCM compared with the other treatments (p<0.003). Both SBO and RP-CLA supplementation reduced
and CLA concentration in milk fat.
Use of In vitro Gas Production Technique to Investigate Interactions between Rice Straw, Wheat Straw, Maize Stover and Alfalfa or Clover
Tang, S.X. ; Tayo, G.O. ; Tan, Z.L. ; Sun, Z.H. ; Wang, M. ; Ren, G.P. ; Han, X.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1278~1285
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70447
Measurement of gas produced during in vitro fermentation was used to investigate the fermentation characteristics and interactions of rice straw, wheat straw or maize stover mixed with alfalfa or clover at proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, respectively. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48 h of incubation, and the Gompertz function was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. In vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearances (IVDMD and IVOMD) were determined after 48 h incubation. The rate of gas production of clover was higher (p<0.05) than that of rice straw, wheat straw, maize stover and alfalfa when straws and hays were incubated separately. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa in the straw-alfalfa mixtures increased (p<0.05) the rates, but not the maximum volume of gas production. However, both rate and the maximum volume of gas production were increased (p<0.01) as the proportions of clover increased in the straw-clover mixtures. The cumulative gas production at 48 h, IVDMD and IVOMD showed no consistent interaction effects between different mixtures of cereal straws and hays. The extent of interactive effects was affected by the types of cereal straw, legume hay and their proportions in the mixture. The appropriate combination for the mixture of rice straw or maize stover with leguminous hays was 75:25 and 25:75, respectively. The better combination occurred at a proportion of 50:50 for the mixture of wheat straw and alfalfa. We conclude that the suitable proportion of low-quality straw and high quality legume hay combination should be considered in the ration formulation system of ruminants according to the extent of positive interactive effects.
Development of Bovine Specific Leptin Radioimmunoassay and Relationship of Plasma Leptin with Vitamin A and Age of Wagyu
Yang, S.H. ; Kawachi, H. ; Khan, M.A. ; Lee, S.Y. ; Kim, H.S. ; Ha, Jong K. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Ki, K.S. ; Kim, S.B. ; Sakaguchi, S. ; Maruyama, S. ; Yano, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1286~1295
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80317
Leptin is produced by adipocytes and its role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, feed intake, productive and reproductive performance of domestic animal species has been greatly stressed and extensively investigated in recent years. This study was conducted to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the estimation of plasma bovine leptin and to determine plasma leptin concentration in fattening Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) and its crossbreds at commercial farms. Relationships of plasma leptin with plasma vitamin A and age of crossbred cattle were also determined. Recombinant bovine leptin (rbleptin) was produced by the E. coli overexpressed leptin as a GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fusion protein. Then antiserum against bovine leptin was obtained by its immunization in rabbits. Using this antiserum, a bovine specific RIA was developed and plasma leptin level was determined in 120 crossbred fattening cattle (WagyuHolstein, 50:50) at commercial farms. The plasma leptin level increased with the age of cattle and its level was greater in the crossbred heifers than in the steers. Plasma vitamin A level was negatively correlated with plasma leptin level in crossbred heifers and steers. This relationship was stronger in heifers than in steers. Plasma leptin was gradually increased with advancing age in fattening Wagyu cattle. In conclusion, development of a bovine specific RIA to estimate plasma leptin will contribute to better understanding of the role of leptin in cattle.
Carcass Characteristics and Chemical Composition of the Longissimus Muscle of Puruna and 1/2 Puruna vs. 1/2 Canchin Bulls Meat Quality of Bulls
Nunes do Prado, Ivanor ; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi ; Martin do Prado, Rodolpho ; Visantainer, Jesui Vergilio ; Moletta, Jose Luis ; Perotto, Daniel ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1296~1302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70708
This work was conducted to study the performance, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle (LM) of first-generation Purunã (n = 7, PUR1), second-generation Purunã (n = 9, PUR2), and 1/2 Puruna vs. 1/2 Canchin (n = 13, PUCA) bulls finished in a feedlot. The animals averaged 18 months of age at the beginning of the experiment. The animals were kept in a feedlot from 18 to 22 months of age. They were fed twice a day with corn silage ad libitum, along with soybean meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salt. PUR1 bulls had greater (p<0.05) final weight (496.0 kg) than PUCA bulls (449.2 kg). However, there was no difference (p>0.05) between PUR1 and PUR2 (472.0 kg), and between PUR2 and PUCA. Hot carcass weight was similar (p>0.05) among the different genetic groups. Hot carcass dressing percentage was similar (p>0.10) between PUR1 (50.4%) and PUCA (53.8%), and higher (p<0.10) than PUR2 (48.6%). Cushion thickness was greater (p<0.05) in PUCA bulls (27.12 cm). The other parameters were similar (p<0.05) among the three genetic groups. Total lipid and cholesterol contents were higher (p<0.01) in PUR2. Moisture, ash and crude protein contents were similar (p>0.05) among the three genetic groups. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) levels were higher (p<0.10) in PUR1 and PUR2 (51.58% and 50.41%, respectively). Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were higher (p<0.05) in PUR1 and PUCA (6.50% and 8.29%, respectively). N-6, n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios were higher (p<0.05) in PUCA. MUFA and n-6/n-3 ratios were similar (p>0.05) among the different genetic groups.
Influence of Varying Ruminally Degradable to Undegradable Protein Ratio on Nutrient Intake, Milk Yield, Nitrogen Balance, Conception Rate and Days Open in Early Lactating Nili-Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Nisa, Mahr-un ; Javaid, A. ; Shahzad, M. Aasif ; Sarwar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1303~1311
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70565
Twenty four early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, eight in each group, were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design to evaluate the influence of varying ruminally degradable protein (RDP) to ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) ratio on feed intake, digestibility, N balance, milk yield and its composition, conception rate and days open. Three experimental diets were formulated to contain RDP:RUP of 50:50, 66:34 and 82:18 and were denoted as HRUP, MRUP and LRUP, respectively. Dry matter (DM) intake was higher (p<0.05) in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than in those fed MRUP and LRUP diets. Dry matter digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in buffaloes fed LRUP diet than in those fed HRUP and MRUP diets. Linear increase was observed in DM digestibility with increasing RDP:RUP while Neutral detergent fiber digestibility remained unaltered in buffaloes fed HRUP and MRUP diets, however, it was higher than in those fed LRUP diet. Crude protein digestibility remained unaltered across all treatments. Milk and 4 percent fat corrected milk (4% FCM) yield was higher (p<0.05) in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than those fed MRUP and LRUP diets. Linear decrease in milk yield was observed with increased RDP:RUP. Milk protein and fat yields were higher (p<0.05) in animals fed HRUP diet than those fed MRUP and LRUP diets. Milk protein percent in animals fed HRUP diet was higher than in those fed LRUP diet, whereas it did not differ with those fed MRUP diet. Percent of fat, total solids, solid not fat and lactose remained unaltered across all diets. Nitrogen balance was higher in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than in those fed other diets. Increasing the RDP:RUP resulted in a linear decrease in N balance. The blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen were lower (p<0.05) in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than those fed MRUP and LRUP diets. The blood pH remained unaltered across all treatments. Days open did not differ significantly. Conception rate was higher in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than those fed MRUP and LRUP diets. The findings of the present study indicate that feeding high (50% of the total crude protein) ruminally undegradable protein diet not only increased nutrient intake and milk yield but also improved conception rate in early lactating buffaloes.
The Effect of Probiotics on Microbiology, Health and Performance of Fattening Rabbits
Kritas, S.K. ; Petridou, E.I. ; Fortomaris, P. ; Tzika, E. ; Arsenos, G. ; Koptopoulos, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1312~1317
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70186
The objective of the present trial was to determine the effect of a thermostable probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis on health and production parameters of fattening rabbits from weaning until slaughter. In a rabbitry with average post-weaning mortality of 5-9%, 1,680 rabbits were supplied with: a) a basic feed, or b) the same basic feed supplemented with probiotic from the 4th day postweaning (41st day of age) up to 88th day of age. Clinical signs, microbiological status and growth performance were recorded for two distinct fattening periods, growing and finishing. A significant decrease in mortality of probiotic-treated rabbits when compared to the controls was observed during the growing and entire fattening periods. Within these periods, E. coli and C. perfringens - but not P. multocida - were isolated at a lower frequency from probiotic-treated rabbits (p<0.05). Compared to the control animals, probiotic-treated rabbits were 54 g and 123 g heavier at the end of the growing and finishing phases, respectively, and had significantly higher average daily gain and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05).
Effects of Corn Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles on Production and Egg Quality in Laying Hens
Cheon, Y.J. ; Lee, H.L. ; Shin, M.H. ; Jang, A. ; Lee, S.K. ; Lee, J.H. ; Lee, B.D. ; Son, C.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1318~1323
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70301
Corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a completely new feed ingredient in the Korean feed market. There is an ever increasing need for the Korean feed industry to import and make the best of it as a high protein and high energy feed ingredient. A layer feeding trial was conducted for 10 weeks to investigate the effects of addition of light-colored DDGS to layer diets on laying performance, egg qualities and yolk fatty acid composition. Also, the economics of using DDGS in the Korean situation was analyzed. Nine hundred Hy-line Brown layers, 24 weeks of age, were employed in a feeding trial consisting of four dietary treatments (0, 10, 15, and 20% DDGS), and five replicates per treatment. All experimental diets were prepared as iso-protein (17%) and iso-calorie (TMEn 2,780 kcal/kg). The use of DDGS up to 20% in layer diets did not exert any influence on feed intake, laying rate, total egg mass, mean egg weight and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). The color and breaking strength of eggshell, as well as the albumin height and Haugh unit were not affected by the addition of DDGS up to 20% in the diet. The yolk color was significantly increased by DDGS supplementation (p<0.05). As the DDGS level increased, the oleic acid content decreased, and the linoleic acid increased (p<0.05) in egg yolk. The degree of saturation of yolk fatty acids was not affected by DDGS supplementation. The inclusion of light-colored DDGS up to 20% in layer diets resulted in a decrease of feed cost per kg without any undesirable effect on laying performance. In conclusion, the light-colored DDGS (L* 56.65) could be used up to 20% in layer diets without any harmful effect on laying performance, and possibly provide economic benefits to the Korean poultry industry.
The Probiotic and Adherence Properties of Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 Expressing the Rumen Microbial β-Glucanase
Yu, B. ; Liu, J.R. ; Hsiao, F.S. ; Lee, T.T. ; Chiou, P.W.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1324~1329
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70519
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of the transformed Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 (T-Pg4) harboring the
-glucanase gene as a poultry probiotic. The probiotic properties of the T-Pg4 strain were evaluated in vitro by their adherence capability and acid and bile salt tolerance, and were evaluated in vivo by their survival and adhesion in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The results showed that the T-Pg4 strain exhibited resistance to acidic conditions and contact with bile salt, and adhered efficiently to the crop and intestinal epithelial cells of chickens in vitro. The T-Pg4 strain also could survive and colonize the gastrointestinal epithelium of the experimental SPF chickens in vivo. In addition, radial enzyme diffusion was used to demonstrate that the Lactobacillus spp. randomly isolated from the GIT of the SPF chickens fed T-Pg4 possessed
-glucanase secretion capability. These findings have demonstrated that the transformed L. reuteri Pg4 survives transit through the stomach and intestine, and may secrete
-glucanase in the chicken GIT. Therefore, it is suggested that this organism could be used as a multifunctional poultry probiotic.
Dietary Supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus Extract Modulates Gut Microflora in Weaned Piglets
Yin, Fugui ; Yin, Yulong ; Kong, Xiangfeng ; Liu, Yulan ; He, Qinghua ; Li, Tiejun ; Huang, Ruilin ; Hou, Yongqing ; Shu, Xugang ; Tan, Liangxi ; Chen, Lixiang ; Gong, Jianhua ; Kim, Sung Woo ; Wu, Guoyao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1330~1338
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70583
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract (ASE) as a dietary additive on gut microflora in weaned piglets. A total of sixty pigs were weaned at 21 d of age (BW =
) and allocated on the basis of BW and litter to three dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were: control group (basal diet), antibiotics group (basal diet+0.02% colistin), and ASE group (basal diet+0.1% ASE). On d 7, 14 and 28 after consuming the experimental diets, five piglets per group were sacrificed and then the contents from the jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to determine changes in the microbial community by using a polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique and estimating the contents of Lactobacillus and E. coli by in vitro culturing methods. The results showed that the ASE promoted the microflora diversity in the cecum. Enumeration of bacteria in the gut contents showed that the number of Lactobacillus increased (p<0.05), while that of E. coli decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the other 2 groups as the days of age progressed post-weaning. These findings suggested that the ASE, as a substitute for dietary antimicrobial products, could improve the development of the normal gut microflora and suppress bacterial pathogens, and effectively promote a healthy intestinal environment.
Effect of Green Tea Probiotics on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Immune Response in Finishing Pigs
Ko, S.Y. ; Yang, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1339~1347
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70597
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of green tea probiotics on growth performance, meat quality and immune response in finishing pigs, and to assess the possibility of substituting green tea probiotics for antibiotics in diets of finishing pigs. This green tea probiotics is made by mixing green tea powder and excipients (defatted rice bran and wheat bran) and fermenting the mixture with beneficial bacteria. A total of 90 crossbreed "Landrace
Yorkshire" finishing pigs with an average body weight of
were assigned to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had 3 replications with 6 pigs per replication. The five dietary treatments were control, antibiotic (0.003% chlortetracycline added) and 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% of green tea probiotics. There were no significant differences in final body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the green tea probiotics and antibiotic treatments (p>0.05). Crude protein content was significantly increased in the 0.1 and 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment groups (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in crude fat content of the meat among the treatments. The TBA value of meat was significantly lowered with 0.5 and 1.0% green tea probiotics treatments compared to that of controls and statistically similar to the antibiotic treatment after 3 weeks of storage (p<0.05). The growth of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (0.1 and
) was significantly increased with 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment compared to that of the control treatment (p<0.05). The growth of spleen cells stimulated with LPS (1.0, 3.0 and
) was significantly increased in the 0.5% green tea probiotics group compared to the antibiotic group (p<0.05). In Con A (
) medium, IL-6 production of spleen cells was significantly increased with 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment compared to that of the control (p<0.05). In LPS (
) medium, TNF-
production of spleen cells increased significantly in all green tea probiotics treatment groups compared to that of the control (p<0.05). Finally it can be summarized that addition of green tea probiotic has a positive effect similar to antibiotic and 0.5% is the suitable dietary supplementation dose for finishing pig production.
Improved Broiler Chick Performance by Dietary Supplementation of Organic Zinc Sources
Jahanian, Rahman ; Moghaddam, Hasan Nassiri ; Rezaei, Abbas ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1348~1354
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70699
Two inorganic (zinc sulfate and zinc oxide) and three organic (zinc acetate, zinc-methionine, and zinc-lysine) zinc sources were evaluated for their effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. The birds were randomly assigned to one control (non-supplemented) and 15 treatment (supplemented) groups consisting of four replicates of 10 chicks each in a
factorial arrangement of treatments (five zinc sources and three supplemental zinc levels). Birds were kept in floor pens in a temperature-controlled room from 1 to 42 d of age and fed a non-supplemented basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 40, 80 or 120 mg/kg of Zn as mentioned sources. Dietary zinc source had considerable effect on feed intake in all experimental periods. Increasing Zn level from 80 to 120 mg/kg decreased the average feed intake in the growth stage (p<0.01) and also in the entire experimental period (p<0.001). Similarly, the average daily gain during the entire trial period was affected by the type of Zn source (p<0.001) and supplemental level (p<0.01). One degree of freedom contrast comparisons showed that the inclusion of organic zinc sources into the diets caused significant increases in feed intake and body gain when compared with inorganic counterparts. Except in wk 1, dietary supplementation with organic sources improved (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio; FCR values were not affected by dietary Zn source or supplementation level. Breast meat yield increased with supplemental levels of organic Zn sources; however, other carcass parameters were not affected by dietary Zn source. On the other hand, organic versus inorganic zinc supplementation caused a significant increase in liver, breast and carcass weight percentages. The present findings suggest that supplemental levels of organic Zn compounds had beneficial effects on broiler performance, and Zn requirements can be reduced using these feed supplements in poultry rations.
Evaluation of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid on Serum Iron Status, Blood Characteristics, Egg Performance and Quality in Laying Hens
Chen, Y.J. ; Cho, J.H. ; Yoo, J.S. ; Wang, Y. ; Huang, Y. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1355~1360
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70634
Effects of dietary
-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) supplementation on serum iron status, blood characteristics, egg production and quality were examined in laying hens in an 8-week feeding trail. Two hundred and forty (Hy-line brown, 40-week-old) layers were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments with ten replications (six layers in adjacent three cages). Dietary treatments included: 1) CON (basal diet), 2) ALA1 (CON+ALA 5 ppm), 3) ALA2 (CON+ALA 10 ppm) and 4) ALA3 (CON+ALA 15 ppm). All nutrient levels of diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1994) recommendations for laying hens. During the entire experimental period, differences of serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were significantly increased in ALA1 supplemented treatment (quadratic effect, p<0.05). The difference of total protein between 8 and 0 weeks was significantly higher in ALA2 treatment than CON treatment (quadratic effect, p<0.05). No significant effects were observed on hemoglobin, WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and albumin concentrations. Egg production and egg weight were not influenced by the ALA supplementation. Egg yolk index was also significantly higher in ALA3 treatment than CON treatment at the end of 4 and 8 weeks (linear effect, p<0.05). Haugh unit was increased in ALA3 treatment compared to CON and ALA1 treatments at the end of 8 weeks (linear effect, p<0.05). However, egg shell thickness, breaking strength and yolk color unit were not affected by the ALA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary ALA supplementation at a level of 5 ppm can affect iron concentration in serum while higher levels (10 or 15 ppm) have some beneficial influences on blood profiles and egg quality.
Effect of Different Raising Techniques on In vivo Performance and Carcass and Meat Traits of Ischia Grey Rabbit
Bovera, Fulvia ; Di Meo, Carmelo ; Nizza, Sandra ; Piccolo, Giovanni ; Nizza, Antonino ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1361~1366
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80017
One-hundred and twenty Ischia grey rabbits, traditionally raised in pits, were equally divided after weaning (32 days) into three groups: group C, housed in cages (4 rabbits/cage) and fed a commercial concentrate; group GF, housed as C group and fed grasses collected on the island and crushed faba beans supplemented with an appropriate mineral vitamin mix; group P, housed in pits (8 rabbits/pit) and fed as GF group. Feed intake was recorded daily and live weight monthly up to slaughter (92 days). At slaughter, 10 rabbits per group were used to measure carcass and meat traits. The carcasses were weighed and measured according to the standard procedures and meat samples from the Longissimus dorsi and left hind leg were analysed for water holding capacity and chemical composition, respectively. During the entire trial, group C consumed significantly (p<0.01) a higher quantity of feed than the other groups (126.1 vs. 63.4 and 66.5 g/d, resp. for groups C, GF and P) and at slaughter showed a significantly (p<0.01) higher body weight (2,529.7 vs. 1,324.4 and 1,375.4 g, resp. for groups C, GF and P). Significant differences (p<0.01) were found also for dressing out percentage (68.6 vs. 66.6 and 66.9%, resp. for groups C, GF and P) and for meat chemical composition, in particular lipid percentage (4.13 vs. 1.84 and 1.93%, resp., for groups C, GF and P, p<0.01) and moisture (73.7 vs. 76.4 and 76.3%, resp. for groups C, GF and P, p<0.01). The results suggest the opportunity to obtain heavier animals raised in the pits if their diets were integrated with commercial feed.
Improved Apparent Digestibility Coefficient of Protein and Phosphorus by Supplementation of Microbial Phytase in Diets Containing Cottonseed and Soybean Meal for Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Pham, Minh Anh ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ; Dang, Tuyet Mai ; Lim, Se-Jin ; Ko, Gyung-Yong ; Eo, Jinee ; Oh, Dae-Han ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1367~1375
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80053
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase in diets containing cottonseed and soybean meal (CS) on growth performance, feed utilization and digestibility of protein and phosphorus in juvenile olive flounder (initial body weight 2.5 g), Paralichthys olivaceus. Four experimental diets replacing 0%, 30%, 30% and 40% fish meal protein with CS in equal proportion were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (designated as CS0, CS30, CS30+P, CS40+P, respectively). Phytase of 1,000 FTU/kg was supplemented in diets CS30+P and CS40+P. Three groups of fish (25 fish per group) were fed one of the experimental diets for 10 weeks. No significant differences were observed in growth performance of fish groups except for the CS40+P diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and phosphorus in fish fed phytase-containing diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CS0 diet. Serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in fish fed the CS-containing diets. Antioxidant activities in the diets and liver of fish were significantly increased with the increment of dietary CS. Gossypol was only detected and found in liver of the fish fed the CS-containing diets. The findings suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase could improve the apparent digestibility of protein and phosphorus in juvenile olive flounder fed the CS-containing diets.
Carcass Variables and Chemical Composition of Commercial Broiler Chickens and the Red Jungle Fowl
Iman Rahayu, H.S. ; Zulkifli, I. ; Vidyadaran, M.K. ; Alimon, A.R. ; Babjee, S.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 9, 2008, Pages 1376~1382
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70662
The carcass characteristics and composition of both male and female commercial broiler chickens (CB) and the red jungle fowl (RJF) were compared at a common body weight of
. The RJF and CB were 133 and 17 d of age, respectively, when they reached 800 g. The yields of breast and thigh portions and their muscle to bone ratios were higher for RJF as compared to CB. On the other hand, the latter had significantly greater hearts, livers and gizzards. The weights of the whole thigh and drumstick, and their muscles were lower in females than males. The CB had more abdominal fat than RJF. While sex had no significant effect on the absolute weights of abdominal fats in CB, the female RJF were fatter than their male counterparts. The fat and cholesterol contents of the breast and leg muscles of CB were significantly higher than those of RJF. The opposite was noted for protein content of both muscles. The effect of sex on fat and cholesterol contents varied according to muscle type. Comparison of CB and RJF at a common body weight suggested that the rate of development of body components have changed concomitantly with selection for rapid growth in the former.