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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
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Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Genetic Effects of Demographic Bottleneck in Muzzafarnagri Sheep from India Using Microsatellite Markers
Arora, R. ; Bhatia, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.60444
Genetic variability is an important component in the ability of populations to adapt in the face of environmental change. Severe human impacts reduced Muzzafarnagri sheep of India from 500,000 in 1972 to 10,989 in 1973-74. Here we report for the first time the effect of this population decline on levels of genetic variability at 13 FAO recommended ovine microsatellite loci and contrast levels of variability to that in a breed from the same geographical region, which differed in numbers, by an order of magnitude (Marwari sheep). Of the 13 loci, 100% were polymorphic in both breeds. A high degree of genetic variation was observed within populations in terms of both allele diversity (number of alleles per locus, >4) and gene diversity (expected heterozygosity, >0.5), which implied that there is still a substantial amount of genetic diversity at the nuclear loci in a declining population. Nevertheless, overall low number of alleles per locus and relatively less abundance of low frequency alleles in Muzzafarnagri sheep suggested that genetic variability has been comparatively reduced in this population. Bottleneck analysis indicated that a genetic bottleneck did not occur during the most recent decline. In addition, we found that the differentiation among populations was moderate (
= 11.8%). This study on assessment of genetic effects of the population declines in ovines is a step towards identification of genetically impoverished or healthy populations, which could prove to be a useful tool to facilitate conservation planning in this important species of small ruminants.
Lmbr1 Expression in Early Embryo Development Stages in White Leghorn and Chinese Silky
Zhang, Ying ; Xu, Weizhuo ; Li, Ning ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 7~12
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80175
Lmbr1 is regarded as a key gene that controls the digital model formation in early developmental stages of the chicken. However, there are few reports of lmbr1 expression levels and tendencies in 4-toe and 5-toe chicken species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the lmbr1 expression in White Leghorn (4-toe) and Chinese Silky (5-toe). Firstly, total RNA was extracted from 14 different embryonic development stages (HH3 to HH31) in White Leghorn and Chinese Silky. Secondly, dramatic gene expression changes of lmbr1 were monitored by RT-PCR, which indicated a general up-down-up tendency with subtle differences between these two species. Moreover, Q-PCR reactions were performed to quantitate the expression level of lmbr1 in the 14 selected developmental stages. These data demonstrated a first lmbr1 expression peak of 18.68 and 15.32, a lmbr1 expression trough of 6.61 and 1.80, and a second lmbr1 expression peak of 22.33 and 12.48 in White Leghorn and Chinese Silky, respectively. Finally, embryonic in situ hybridization analysis identified that lmbr1 expressed in the ectoderm in HH21, HH23 and HH24 developmental stages in both species.
Evaluation of Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationship among North Indian Cattle Breeds
Sharma, Rekha ; Pandey, A.K. ; Singh, Y. ; Prakash, B. ; Mishra, B.P. ; Kathiravan, P. ; Singh, P.K. ; Singh, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70047
In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus). In total, 181 animals belonging to Ponwar, Kherigarh, Gangatiri and Kenkatha breeds were genotyped for 20 cattle specific microsatellite markers. Mean number of alleles observed per locus (MNA) varied between 5.75 (Kenkatha) to 6.05 (Kherigarh). The observed and expected heterozygosity for the breeds varied from 0.48 (Gangatiri) to 0.58 (Kherigarh) and 0.65 (Kenkatha) to 0.70 (Kherigarh), respectively.
estimates of all the breeds indicated significant deficit of heterozygotes being 28.8%, 25.9%, 17.7% and 17.7% for Gangatiri, Ponwar, Kherigarh and Kenkatha, respectively. The
estimates demonstrated that 10.6% was the average genetic differentiation among the breeds. Nei's genetic distance DA and Cavalli- Sforza and Edwards Chord distance (
) and the phylogenetic tree constructed from these reflected the close genetic relationship of Gangatiri and Kenkatha, whereas Ponwar appears to be more distant.
Inhibition of Human
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) -mediated Cytotoxicity in Porcine Fetal Fibroblast Cells by Overexpression of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein Unique Short (US) 2 Gene
Park, K-W. ; Yoo, J.Y. ; Choi, K.M. ; Yang, B.S. ; Im, G.S. ; Seol, J.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80058
Xenotransplantation of pig organs into humans is a potential solution for the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. However, multiple immune barriers preclude its clinical application. In particular, the initial type of rejection in xenotransplantation is an acute cellular rejection by host
cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells that react to donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein Unique Short (US) 2 specifically targets MHC class I heavy chains to relocate them from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to the cytosol, where they are degraded by the proteasome. In this study we transfected the US2 gene into minipig fetal fibroblasts and established four US2 clonal cell lines. The integration of US2 into transgenic fetal cells was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot assay. The reduction of Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)-I by US2 was also detected using Flow cytometry assay (FACS). The FACS analysis of the US2 clonal cell lines demonstrated a substantial reduction in SLA-I surface expression. The level (44% to 76%) of SLA-I expression in US2 clonal cell lines was decreased relative to the control. In cytotoxicity assay the rate of
T cell-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly reduced to 23.8
15.1% compared to the control (59.8
8.4%, p<0.05). In conclusion, US2 can directly protect against
-mediated cell lysis. These results indicate that the expression of US2 in pig cells may provide a new approach to overcome the CTL-mediated immune rejection in xenotransplantation.
Efficient Derivation and Long Term Maintenance of Pluripotent Porcine Embryonic Stem-like Cells
Son, Hye-Young ; Kim, Jung-Eun ; Lee, Sang-Goo ; Kim, Hye-Sun ; Lee, Eugene ; Park, Jin-Kyu ; Ka, Hakhyun ; Kim, Hyun-Jong ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 26~34
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80343
Porcine embryonic stem (ES) cells have a great potential as tools for transgenic animal production and studies of regulation of differentiation genes. Although several studies showed successful derivation of porcine ES-like cells, these cells were not maintained long-term in culture. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish porcine pluripotent ES-like cells using in vivo fertilized embryos and to maintain these cells in long term culture. Porcine ES-like cells from in vivo embryos obtained by immunosurgery or whole explant culture were successfully cultured for over 56 passages. Morphology of porcine ES-like cells was flat-shaped with a monolayer type colony. These cells stained for alkaline phosphatase throughout the culture. Furthermore, porcine ES-like cells reacted with antibodies against Oct-4, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, Tra-1-60, and Tra-1-81, which are typical markers of undifferentiated stem cells. To characterize the ability of porcine ES-like cells to differentiate into three germ layers, embryoid body formation was induced. After plating of these cells, porcine ES-like cells were spontaneously differentiated into various cell types of all three germ layers. In addition, porcine ES-like cells were successfully derived from IVF blastocysts in media containing human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor.
-Mercaptoethanol on the Growth of Preantral Follicles and the Maturation of Intrafollicular Oocytes
Gong, Seung Pyo ; Lim, Jeong Mook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80185
This study was undertaken to evaluate how
-mercaptoethanol (bME), an exogenous antioxidant, interacts with preantral follicles cultured in vitro. Mouse primary or secondary follicles were cultured in glutathione (GSH)-free or GSH-containing medium supplemented with bME of various concentrations, and the growth of preantral follicles, the maturation of intrafollicular oocytes and preimplantation development after parthenogenesis were monitored. In experiment 1, 0, 25, 50 or 100
bME was added to culture medium supplemented with 100
GSH or not. When secondary follicles were cultured in GSH-free medium, no significant change in follicle growth was detected after bME addition. However, exposure to bME in the presence of GSH significantly inhibited both follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Such detrimental effect became prominent in primary follicles and bME strongly inhibited follicle growth in the absence of GSH. In conclusion, there are stage-dependent effects of bME on follicle growth and oocyte maturation, and selective use of antioxidants contributes to establishing an efficient follicle culture system.
Effect of 2-Bromoethanesulfonic Acid on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Methanogen Population
Lee, S.Y. ; Yang, S.H. ; Lee, W.S. ; Kim, H.S. ; Shin, D.E. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 42~48
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80581
An in vitro incubation study was conducted to investigate effects of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methanogen population. BES at the final concentration of 0, 1 and 5 mM with two different substrates having a different ratio of timothy and concentrate (100% timothy vs. 40% timothy-60% concentrate) was incubated for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h in a
incubator. Total DNA extracted from culture fluid was used as a template for real-time PCR to measure the population of methanogens. Four different primer sets were used for amplification of total bacteria, total methanogens, the order Methanobacteriales and the order Methanomicrobiales. BES reduced (p<0.01) total gas and methane production in a dose-dependent manner. BES at 5 mM inhibited methane production by more than 95% compared to the control. An interaction between substrate and level of BES in total gas and methane was detected (p<0.01). The decrease of methane production with increasing BES level was more pronounced on mixed substrate than on timothy alone. However, hydrogen production was increased by BES treatment (p<0.01). Total VFA concentration was not affected, but molar percentage of propionate and butyrate was increased and acetate to propionate ratio was reduced by BES treatment (p<0.01). BES did not affect the population density of total bacteria but reduced (p<0.01) the population of total methanogens, the order Methanobacteriales and the order Methanomicrobiales in a dose-dependent manner. The type of substrate did not influence the trend, although the magnitude of response was different between all-roughage and 40% roughage substrate.
Effects of Protected Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Milk Fatty Acid in Dairy Cows
Piamphon, N. ; Wachirapakorn, Chalong ; Wanapat, M. ; Navanukraw, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70380
The objective was to determine the effects of supplementation of protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), CLA-20 comprising 10% each of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, on milk production and fatty acid profiles in plasma and milk in lactating dairy cows. Five mid-lactation, multiparous crossbred Holstein Friesian cows with average 402
20 kg BW were used in a 5
5 Latin square design for 21-d periods. Cows were given a total mixed ration (TMR) and supplemented with CLA-20 at 0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 g/d. The results showed that dry matter intake depression occurred in cows supplemented with CLA-20 at 160 g/d. Milk production slightly increased when CLA-20 supplementation was at 20, 40 and 80 g/d. However, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) was not affected by CLA-20 supplementation. Increased levels of CLA-20 supplementation resulted in a significantly decreased percentage of milk fat. Plasma concentrations of fatty acid were not altered by the amounts of CLA-20 supplementation except for the concentration of trans-10, cis-12 CLA. For all dietary treatments, percentages of fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C13:0, C14:0 C14:1 C15:0 C15:1 C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, C18:2n6c, C20:0, C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:1 and C20:3n6) in milk fat were similar. Concentrations of C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 and C18:1n9c were decreased cubically and C18:0 was elevated linearly (p<0.01) according to the increased amounts of CLA-20 supplemented. The linear increase was observed for cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.62, 1.17, 1.94, 1.87 and 1.82% of total fatty acid), trans-10, cis-12 CLA (0.01, 0.63, 0.67, 0.93 and 0.95% of total fatty acid) and total CLA (0.80, 2.25, 3.16, 3.97 and 3.94% of total fatty acid) in milk fat from 0 to 160 g/d of CLA-20 supplement. In conclusion, concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat was concomitantly elevated at an increasing rate with the increased amounts of CLA-20. Based on the results in this study, supplementation of CLA-20 at 80 g/d optimally enhanced total CLA in milk fat.
Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Model for Dairy Cattle Production Systems Integrated with Forage Crop Production
Kikuhara, K. ; Kumagai, H. ; Hirooka, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 57~71
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80098
Crop-livestock mixed farming systems depend on the efficiency with which nutrients are conserved and recycled. Home-grown forage is used as animal feed and animal excretions are applied to cultivated crop lands as manure. The objective of this study was to develop a mixed farming system model for dairy cattle in Japan. The model consisted of four sub-models: the nutrient requirement model, based on the Japanese Feeding Standards to determine requirements for energy, crude protein, dry matter intake, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A; the optimum diet formulation model for determining the optimum diets that satisfy nutrient requirements at lowest cost, using linear programming; the herd dynamic model to calculate the numbers of cows in each reproductive cycle; and the whole farm optimization model to evaluate whole farm management from economic and environmental viewpoints and to optimize strategies for the target farm or system. To examine the model' validity, its predictions were compared against best practices for dairy farm management. Sensitivity analyses indicated that higher yielding cows lead to better economic results but higher emvironmental load in dairy cattle systems integrated with forage crop production.
Effect of Frequency of Meals on Intake and Digestion of Tropical Grass Consumed by Rams
Assoumaya, C. ; Sauvant, D. ; Pommier, F. ; Boval, M. ; Calif, B. ; Archimede, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 72~81
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80067
Eight Black Belly rams (45.2 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae were used in a 2
2 factorial design to determine the effects of feeding frequency and regrowth age on intake and digestion. Rams were fed with 21- or 35-day old fresh pangola grass offered ad libitum two or four times a day. Irrespective of the regrowth age, there was a tendency for intake to be positively correlated with increase in meal frequency. Differences were not significant (p>0.25). Significant effects of meal frequency were observed in NDF and ADF total tract digestibility of the 35-day grass which decreased as the number of meals increased. Meal frequency had no visible effect on feeding behaviour. Total rumen content increased when animals were fed twice a day as opposed to four times a day. Similarly, an accumulation of small and very small particles was observed in the rumen of rams fed twice a day in comparison with those fed four times a day. These results suggest that studies of digestive dynamics performed at a steady state are not representative of the rumen loading observed in farm rams which have two important peaks of meal.
Effects of Addition Level and Chemical Type of Propionate Precursors in Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway on Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production by Rumen Microbes In vitro
Li, X.Z. ; Yan, C.G. ; Choi, S.H. ; Long, R.J. ; Jin, G.L. ; Song, Man K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 82~89
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80413
Two in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effects of propionate precursors in the dicarboxylic acid pathway on ruminal fermentatation characteristics,
production and degradation of feed by rumen microbes. Fumarate or malate as sodium salts (Exp. 1) or acid type (Exp. 2) were added to the culture solution (150 ml, 50% strained rumen fluid and 50% artificial saliva) to achieve final concentrations of 0, 8, 16 and 24 mM, and incubated anaerobically for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h at
. For both experiments, two grams of feed consisting of 70% concentrate and 30% ground alfalfa (DM basis) were prepared in a nylon bag, and were placed in a bottle containing the culture solution. Addition of fumarate or malate in both sodium salt and acid form increased (p<0.0001) pH of culture solution at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h incubations. The pH (p<0.0001) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA, p<0.05) were enhanced by these precursors as sodium salt at 3, 6 and 9 h incubations, and pH (p<0.001) and total VFA (p<0.01) from fumarate or malate in acid form were enhanced at a late stage of fermentation (9 h and 12 h) as the addition level increased. pH was higher (p<0.001) for fumarate than for malate as sodium salt at 3 h and 6 h incubations. Propionate (
) proportion was increased (p<0.0001) but those of
(p<0.01 - p<0.001) were reduced by the addition of sodium salt precursors from 3 h to 12 incubation times while both precursors in acid form enhanced (p<0.011 - p<0.0001) proportion of
from 6h but reduced (p<0.018 - p<0.0005)
proportion at incubation times of 1, 3, 9 and 12 h. Proportion of
was increased (p<0.05 - p<0.0001) at all incubation times by both precursors as sodium salt while that of
was increased (p<0.001) from 6h but
proportion was decreased by both precursors in acid form as the addition level increased. Proportion of
was higher (p<0.01 - p<0.001) for fumarate than malate as sodium salt from 6 h incubation but was higher for malate than fumarate in acid form at 9 h (p<0.05) and 12 h (p<0.01) incubation times. Increased levels (16 and 24 mM) of fumarate or malate as sodium salt (p<0.017) and both precursors in acid form (p<0.028) increased the total gas production, but no differences were found between precursors in both chemical types. Propionate precursors in both chemical types clearly reduced (p<0.0001 - p<0.0002)
production, and the reduction (p<0.001 - p<0.0001) was dose dependent as the addition level of precursors increased. The
generated was smaller (p<0.01 - p<0.0001) for fumarate than for malate in both chemical types. Addition of fumarate or malate as sodium type reduced (p<0.004) dry matter degradation while both precursors in both chemical types slightly increased neutral detergent fiber degradability of feed in the nylon bag.
Influence of Sugar Cane Diets and a High Fibre Commercial Diet on Growth and Carcass Performance in Local Caribbean Pigs
Xande, X. ; Despois, E. ; Giorgi, M. ; Gourdinegi, J.L. ; Archimedee, H. ; Renaudeau, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 90~98
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70525
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a milling by-product diet and two sugar cane diets on the local Creole pig breed (CR). A total of 48 CR pigs (24 females and 24 castrated males) were randomly assigned to four different groups of 12 animals. Pigs were allotted to one of 4 dietary treatments: fed with a control soya-bean meal-corn diet containing 19.1% crude protein (CP) and 15.4 MJ DE/kg (diet 1), with an experimental milling by-product diet (soya-bean meal and wheat by-products) containing 19.4% CP and 13.0 MJ DE/kg (diet 2), with ground cane stalks (GCS) or with fresh sugar cane juice (SCJ). Both GCS and SCJ were supplemented with soya-bean meal complement (400 g/d of a 48.7% CP and 16.1 MJ DE/kg diet) in order to obtain diets 3 and 4, respectively. Pigs were fed close to ad libitum level and had free access to water. All the pigs were slaughtered at 65 kg BW. Between 30 and 65 kg BW, growth performance was significantly (p<0.001) affected by dietary treatments: average daily BW gain was 657, 530, 546 and 200 g/d for diets 1, 2, 4, and 3, respectively. Average daily DM intake was 1.8, 1.9, 2.5 and 1.4 kg/d for diets 1, 2, 4, and 3, respectively. Fat cuts (backfat+leaf fat) and backfat thickness were significantly lower on diet 3 than for other treatments (127 vs. 192, 166 g/kg of left half-carcass weight and 24.6 vs. 39.0, 35.3 mm for diet 3 vs. diets 1 and 4, and diet 2, respectively; p<0.001). The dressing weight was significantly lower on diets 2 (82.7 vs. 84.0%; p<0.001). The entire empty digestive tract (DT) weight was higher on diet 2 (73.1 vs. 66.7 g/kg empty BW). However, stomach and large intestine were more developed on diet 3: 12.8 vs. 9.3 g/100 g empty DT (p<0.001) and 26.4 vs. 23.8 g/100 g empty DT (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests the CR pig has the ability to reach rather good growth and carcass performance with a well-formulated sugar cane meal and/or with a milling by-product diet refined according to its low requirements.
Effects of Replacing Soy Protein Concentrate with Fermented Soy Protein in Starter Diet on Growth Performance and Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Weaned Pigs
Min, B.J. ; Cho, J.H. ; Chen, Y.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Yoo, J.S. ; Wang, Q. ; Kim, I.H. ; Cho, W.T. ; Lee, S.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 99~106
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70306
For Exp. 1, 120 ((Yorkshire
Duroc) weaned pigs (7.96
0.01 kg average initial BW, 21 days weaning) were used in a 28 d-growth assay to determine the effects of replacing soy protein concentrate (SPC) with fermented soy protein (FSP) in a starter diet (d 0 to 7) on the growth performance, apparent fecal amino acid digestibility and subsequent performance in weaned pigs. Dietary treatments included: i) FSP0 (basal diet; whey-skim milk powder-SPC based diet); ii) FSP5 (replacing SPC with 5% FSP); iii) FSP10 (replacing SPC with 10% FSP). Pigs were fed the phase I diet for 7 days, and then each group was fed a common commercial diet for 21 days to determine the effect of previous diet on subsequent performance. Average daily gain (ADG) from d 5 to 7 (linear effect, p = 0.01) and d 7 to 14 (linear effect, p<0.001) were increased as FSP level increased. The pigs fed with FSP was heavier than the pigs fed with SPC at d 5 to 7 and d 7 to 14 after weaning (p<0.05). In the entire period (d 0 to 28), there were no significant differences in weight gain and final weight between SPC and FSP diets (p>0.05). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was higher in pigs fed with the 5% FSP diet than those fed with the other diets at d 0 to 2 post-weaning (quadratic effect, p = 0.05). Also, for the entire period of phase I (d 0 to 7), pigs consumed more 5% FSP diet compared to other treatments (quadratic effect, p = 0.03). Gain/feed (G/F) was not affected by dietary SPC or FSP in phase I and subsequent periods, but G/F from d 5 to 7 after weaning was improved linearly (p = 0.04) as dietary FSP level increased. Pigs fed with 10% FSP also improved G/F compared with those fed only SPC (p<0.05). At d 7, there were linear increments in fecal dry matter (DM) (p<0.1) and nitrogen (N) (p<0.01) digestibilities as the dietary FSP level increased. The digestibilities of fecal essential and total amino acids were increased as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.1). For Exp. 2, three ((Yorkshire
Duroc) weaned barrows (average initial BW of 7.32 kg) were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula approximately 15 cm prior to the ileo-cecal junction. The experimental designs were 3
3 latin squares with pigs and periods as blocking criteria. Dietary treatments and composition were the same as in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal N digestibility was increased as FSP level was increased (linear effect, p<0.05). The dietary treatments (SPC and FSP) did not affect apparent ileal DM digestibility (p>0.05). Among essential amino acids, apparent digestibility of ileal arginine (Arg), lysine (Lys), methionine (Met) and phenylalanine (Phe) were improved as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.1). Also, apparent ileal total essential, non-essential and total amino acid digestibilities were increased linearly (p<0.1). In conclusion, replacing SPC with fermented soy protein appeared beneficial in growth performance, N and amino acid digestibility during the early 7 days after weaning, and an equivalent effect showed on growth performance in subsequent period of 7 to 28 days after weaning.
Effects of Feed Particle Size and Feed Form on Growth Performance, Nutrient Metabolizability and Intestinal Morphology in Broiler Chickens
Zang, J.J. ; Piao, X.S. ; Huang, D.S. ; Wang, J.J. ; Ma, X. ; Ma, Yongxi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 107~112
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80352
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feed particle size and feed form on growth performance, nutrient metabolizability and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. This experiment was a 2
2 factorial arrangement including two feed particle sizes (fine and coarse) and two feed forms (mash and pellet). A total of two hundred and eighty eight day-old male Arbor Acre broilers were used in this six week experiment. Birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and twelve birds per replicate. The results showed that pelleting diets resulted in greater ADG (p<0.01), greater ADFI (p<0.01) and lower feed to gain ratio (F/G) (p<0.05) during starter, grower and overall period. Also, pelleting improved both apparent metabolizable energy (AME) (p<0.01) and the apparent metabolizability of crude protein (p<0.05) and organic matter (p<0.05) regardless of the phase. Reduction of feed particle size enhanced AME (p<0.05) during d 19 to 21. Increased villus height (p<0.05) and crypt depth ratio (p< 0.05) within duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were observed in birds fed the pellet diet compared with those given the mash diet. In conclusion, results indicated that feed pellets might enhance performance by improving nutrient metabolizability and digestive tract development.
Analysis of the Structure of the Bacterial Community in the Livestock Manure-based Composting Process
Sasaki, Hiraku ; Nonaka, Jun ; Otawa, Kenichi ; Kitazume, Osamu ; Asano, Ryoki ; Sasaki, Takako ; Nakai, Yutaka ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70658
We investigated the structure of bacterial communities present in livestock manure-based composting processes and evaluated the bacterial succession during the composting processes. Compost samples were derived separately from swine manure, dairy manure and sewage sludge. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using universal eubacterial primers. The genus Bacillus and related genera were mainly detected following the thermophilic composting phase of swine and dairy manure composts, and the members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were mainly detected in the cattle manure waste-based and sewage sludge compost. We recovered and sequenced limited number of the bands; however, the PCR-DGGE analysis showed that predominant diversities during the composting processes were markedly changed. Although PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the presence of different phyla in the early stages of composting, the members of the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were observed to be one of the predominant phyla after the thermophilic phase.
In vivo Antimutagenicity of Dadih Probiotic Bacteria towards Trp-P1
Surono, Ingrid S. ; Pato, Usman ; Koesnandar, Koesnandar ; Hosono, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 119~123
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80122
In vitro acid- and bile-tolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated and identified from Indonesian traditional fermented milk dadih might be considered as potential probiotic strains after further characterization with animal models, especially for their therapeutic properties. Five dadih lactic bacteria isolates each had moderate survival rate for 2 h at pH 2.0, as well as bile tolerance. The aim of this research was to identify candidate probiotic lactic bacteria among indigenous dadih lactic isolates originated from Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatra, especially their in vivo antimutagenic property. Milk cultured with Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 significantly lowered fecal mutagenicity of rats as compared to the control group, skim milk, and milk cultured with L. plantarum IS-20506. These results suggest that Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 may serve as a potential probiotic strain with its antimutagenicity.
Estimation of Interaction Effects among Nucleotide Sequence Variants in Animal Genomes
Lee, Chaeyoung ; Kim, Younyoung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80314
Estimating genetic interaction effects in animal genomics would be one of the most challenging studies because the phenotypic variation for economically important traits might be largely explained by interaction effects among multiple nucleotide sequence variants under various environmental exposures. Genetic improvement of economic animals would be expected by understanding multi-locus genetic interaction effects associated with economic traits. Most analyses in animal breeding and genetics, however, have excluded the possibility of genetic interaction effects in their analytical models. This review discusses a historical estimation of the genetic interaction and difficulties in analyzing the interaction effects. Furthermore, two recently developed methods for assessing genetic interactions are introduced to animal genomics. One is the restricted partition method, as a nonparametric grouping-based approach, that iteratively utilizes grouping of genotypes with the smallest difference into a new group, and the other is the Bayesian method that draws inferences about the genetic interaction effects based on their marginal posterior distributions and attains the marginalization of the joint posterior distribution through Gibbs sampling as a Markov chain Monte Carlo. Further developing appropriate and efficient methods for assessing genetic interactions would be urgent to achieve accurate understanding of genetic architecture for complex traits of economic animals.
Fibrolytic Rumen Bacteria: Their Ecology and Functions
Koike, Satoshi ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 1, 2009, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.01
Among rumen microbes, bacteria play important roles in the biological degradation of plant fiber due to their large biomass and high activity. To maximize the utilization of fiber components such as cellulose and hemicellulose by ruminant animals, the ecology and functions of rumen bacteria should be understood in detail. Recent genome sequencing analyses of representative fibrolytic bacterial species revealed that the number and variety of enzymes for plant fiber digestion clearly differ between Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Therefore, the mechanism of plant fiber digestion is also thought to differ between these two species. Ecology of individual fibrolytic bacterial species has been investigated using pure cultures and electron microscopy. Recent advances in molecular biology techniques complement the disadvantages of conventional techniques and allow accurate evaluation of the ecology of specific bacteria in mixed culture, even in situ and in vivo. Molecular monitoring of fibrolytic bacterial species in the rumen indicated the predominance of F. succinogenes. Nutritive interactions between fibrolytic and non-fibrolytic bacteria are important in maintaining and promoting fibrolytic activity, mainly in terms of crossfeeding of metabolites. Recent 16S rDNA-based analyses suggest that presently recognized fibrolytic species such as F. succinogenes and two Ruminococcus species with fibrolytic activity may represent only a small proportion of the total fibrolytic population and that uncultured bacteria may be responsible for fiber digestion in the rumen. Therefore, characterization of these unidentified bacteria is important to fully understand the physiology and ecology of fiber digestion. To achieve this, a combination of conventional and modern techniques could be useful.