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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 8 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 7 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 6 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 5 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 4 - 00 2009
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Volume 22, Issue 12 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 11 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
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Regulatory Mechanism of Spindle Movements during Oocyte Meiotic Division
Ai, Jun-Shu ; Li, Mo ; Schatten, Heide ; Sun, Qing-Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1477~1486
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.12
Female germ cell meiotic divisions are typically asymmetric, giving rise to two daughter cells with different sizes. Spindle movements including spindle migration from the oocyte center to the cortex and spindle rotation from parallel to perpendicular (typically in the mouse) at the cortex are crucial for these asymmetric divisions and therefore are crucial for gamete production. Different regulatory mechanisms for spindle movements have been determined in different species and a wide variety of different molecular components and processes that are involved in spindle movements have also been identified in different species. Here, we review the current state of knowledge as well as our understanding of mechanisms for spindle movements in different systems with focus on three main aspects: microtubules (MT), microfilaments (MF) and molecules associated with cytoskeletal organization as well as molecules that are not directly related to the cytoskeleton. How they might interact or function independently during female meiotic divisions in different species is discussed in detail.
Genetic Variation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex DRB3.2 Locus in the Native Bos indicus Cattle Breeds
Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra ; Verma, Naresh Kumar ; Behl, Rahul ; Sodhi, Monika ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1487~1494
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90043
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays well-defined roles in eliciting immune responses and combating infectious diseases. The major histocompatibility complex of cattle is referred to as BoLA (Bovine Lymphocyte Antigen). This genetic system is among the most polymorphic. In the present study, polymorphism of the BoLA- DRB3.2 locus in three Bos indicus breeds viz., Sahiwal, Rathi and Hariana was studied by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using the enzymes RsaI, Bst Y1 and Hae III. Both Sahiwal and Rathi are good Indian dairy breeds and survive under tough tropical conditions, while Hariana is a prominent dual-purpose breed reared both as a dairy animal and for bullock production. A total of 30 different BoLADRB3.2 alleles were observed to be present in the 3 Bos indicus breeds. Certain alleles were common amongst the three breeds while there were others that were unique to each breed. Allelic distribution amongst the three breeds showed that each breed had a unique allelic distribution pattern that was different from each other and also different from the earlier breeds studied so far for the existence of allelic variation at this locus. A dendogram was constructed based on the frequencies of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles using the UPGMA method. The Rathi and Hariana animals were genetically the most apart. The Hariana animals clustered on a different branch from the other two breeds viz. the Rathi and the Sahiwal. The smallest genetic distances for the DRB3 alleles were those between Sahiwal and Rathi (0.5461) while genetic distance between Hariana and Sahiwal was 0.6123. A comparison of the allelic frequencies of the BoLADRB3.2 locus in these 3 breeds viz. Sahiwal, Hariana and Rathi with the allelic frequencies present in the previously characterized Bos indicus Kankrej breed, which is a dual purpose breed reared both as a draught and a dairy animal, showed that the Bos indicus Sahiwal and Rathi breeds clustered into one group while the Hariana and Kankrej breeds formed another group. The Rathi and Sahiwal showed the least genetic distance of 0.5461 amongst the breeds whereas the Rathi and Kankrej, with a Nei''s genetic distance of 1.1622, were genetically the most distant apart.
Branched-chain Amino Acids Reverse the Growth of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Rats in a Malnutrition Model
Zheng, Chuan ; Huang, Chengfei ; Cao, Yunhe ; Wang, Junjun ; Dong, Bing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1495~1503
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90127
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with BCAA (branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine and valine) on improving the growth of rats in a malnutritional IUGR (Intrauterine Growth Retardation) model, which was established by feeding restriction. In the experimental treatment, rats were fed purified diets supplemented with BCAA (mixed) during the whole gestation period, while arginine and alanine supplementation were set as the positive and negative control group, respectively. The results showed that, compared to the effect of alanine, BCAA reversed IUGR by increasing the fetus weights by 18.4% and placental weights by 18.0% while fetal numbers were statistically increased. Analysis of gene and protein expression revealed that BCAA treatment increased embryonic liver IGF-I expression; the uterus expressed higher levels of estrogen receptor-
) and progesterone receptor (PR), and the placenta expressed higher levels of IGF-II. Amino acid analysis of dam plasma revealed that BCAA supplementation effectively enhanced the plasma BCAA levels caused by the feed restriction. BCAA also enhanced the embryonic liver gluconeogenesis by augmenting the expression of two key enzymes, namely fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (FBP) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). In conclusion, supplementation of BCAA increased litter size, embryonic weight and litter embryonic weight by improving the dam uterus and placental functions as well as increasing gluconeogenesis in the embryonic liver, which further provided energy to enhance the embryonic growth.
Milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Profile and Metabolic Responses of Dairy Cows Fed with High-temperature-micro-time (HTMT) Treated Diets Containing High Quantity Extruded Soybean (ESB)
Lee, H.G. ; Hong, Z.S. ; Wang, J.H. ; Xu, C.X. ; Jin, Y.C. ; Kim, T.K. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Song, M.K. ; Choi, Yun.-Jaei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1504~1512
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70354
A feeding trial was conducted to examine the effect of high-temperature-micro-time (HTMT) processing of diets containing extruded soybean (ESB) in high quantity on milk fat production, metabolic responses, and the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA). Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows within each block were randomly assigned to either normal concentrate or HTMT treated diets containing ESB (7.5% HTMT-ESB and 15% HTMT-ESB). It was hypothesized that the HTMT-ESB would affect the undegradable fatty acids in the rumen and, thus, would modify the fatty acid profile of milk fat. Both 7.5% and 15% HTMT-ESB did not affect milk yield, fat, protein, lactose and solid-not-fat (SNF), but the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat was significantly increased by these treatments. Content of TVA in milk fat was not affected by HTMT-ESB. The HTMT-ESB influenced the fatty acid profile in milk fat, but there was little difference between 7.5% and 15% of supplementation. HTMT-ESB feeding significantly decreased the concentration of plasma insulin and glucose, while plasma growth hormone (GH), triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and HDLcholesterol were increased by 7.5% and 15% ESB-HTMT supplementation in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in plasma LDL-cholesterol, insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1, T3, T4, and leptin concentrations among treatments (p>0.05). The present results showed that cis-9, trans-11 CLA production was increased by HTMT treatment of dietary ESB without reduction of milk fat, and the unchanged milk fat and yield was assumed to be associated with the constant level of thyroid hormones, leptin, and IGF-1.
Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the Periparturient Period
Mirzaei Alamouti, H.R. ; Amanlou, H. ; Rezayazdi, K. ; Towhidi, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1513~1520
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80665
Forty-six Holstein heifers were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments to evaluate the effects of 2 diets varying in ruminal fermentable carbohydrate sources, namely ground corn (GC) and rolled wheat (RW), on metabolism and performance of primiparous cows in the periparturient period. The heifers were fed diets as a total mixed ration (TMR) with similar energy and crude protein content including i) 18.57% GC, or ii) 18.57% RW from -24.13
7.73 d relative to expected calving until calving. After calving, all animals received the same lactation diet until 28 d. Animals were group fed from the beginning of the study to -7 d relative to expected calving, fed individually from d -7 to 7 days in milk (DIM), and again group fed to 28 DIM. The pre-partum diets affected (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake, energy balance (EB) and urinary pH during the last week pre-partum. There was no effect of pre-partum carbohydrate source on overall plasma concentration of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA),
-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), albumin, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, and cortisol during the periparturient period. Cows fed the RW diet during the pre-partum period had greater calcium for the first week (p<0.05) and during 28 d (p = 0.08) of lactation compared with heifers fed the GC diet. Primiparous cows fed the RW diet produced greater milk protein content and yield (p<0.05). Primiparous cows fed the RW diet had lower milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count (SCC) than cows fed the GC diet (p<0.05). The results of this study show that feeding pre-partum diets with a rapidly fermentable source of starch but low energy content can improve animal metabolism and performance and smooth the transition of primiparous Holstein cows from gestation to lactation.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Rumen Fluid and Milk Fat, and Methane Emission of Lactating Goats Fed a Soybean Oil-based Diet Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate and Monensin
Li, X.Z. ; Yan, C.G. ; Long, R.J. ; Jin, G.L. ; Shine Khuu, J. ; Ji, B.J. ; Choi, S.H. ; Lee, H.G. ; Song, Man K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1521~1530
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90073
A metabolic study was conducted with four ruminally-cannulated lactating goats (Saanen, 29 weeks lactation, 65
5 kg) in a 4
4 Latin square design with 4 dietary treatments. The goats were fed a basal mixed diet consisting of 80% concentrate and 20% chopped rye grass hay (DM basis, CON). The goats were also fed the CON diet supplemented with soybean oil at a 5% level of the concentrate (SO), the SO diet supplemented with 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate (SO-B) or the SO-B diet supplemented with 30 ppm monensin (SO-BM). The goats were housed in individual pen and the study was conducted for 8 weeks. An increased molar proportion of propionate (C3) was observed at 1 h (p<0.003) and 6 h (p<0.029) post-feeding from all the supplemented diets. Calculated methane emission was markedly decreased prior to morning feeding (p<0.01), and at 1 h (p<0.05) and 6 h post-feeding (p<0.05) in goats fed the supplemented diets. All the supplements increased (p<0.0001) cis9, trans11-CLA content in rumen fluid. Concentrations of both cis9, trans11-CLA (p<0.0001) and trans10, cis12-CLA (p<0.026) were also increased in the milk fat of lactating goats fed the supplemented diets. The SO-B and SO-BM diets further increased CLA content in goat milk compared to the SO diet. All supplements increased unsaturated (UFA, p<0.002), monounsaturated (MUFA, p<0.002) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.014) and reduced SFA to UFA ratio (p<0.023). The concentration of MUFA was even greater (p<0.002) for SO-BM than for the SO-B diet. In conclusion, feeding soybean oil (5% of concentrate) to lactating goats was a useful way to improve milk fat and to improve fatty acid profile in the milk by increasing potentially healthy fatty acids such as CLA. Supplementation of sodium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate with monensin to the soybean oil-based diet increased CLA content further in goat milk. Supplementation of soybean oil may be an effective method to reduce methane emission in lactating goats.
The Effects of Canola or Mustard Biodiesel Press Cake on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chickens
Thacker, P.A. ; Petri, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1531~1539
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90172
This study compared the nutritional value of canola (B. napa) and mustard (B. hirta) press cakes obtained from the biodiesel industry as ingredients for use in diets fed to broiler chickens. A total of 210, one-day old, male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. For the experimental diets, 5, 10 or 15% of the canola meal was replaced with an equal amount of either canola or mustard biodiesel press cake. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were significantly higher for birds fed diets containing either canola or mustard biodiesel press cake compared with canola meal. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of the canola biodiesel press cakes was higher than the mustard biodiesel press cakes. Ether extract digestibility and nitrogen retention were significantly higher for birds fed canola biodiesel press cake compared with canola meal and mustard biodiesel press cake. Body weight gain and feed intake did not differ between birds fed canola or mustard biodiesel press cake and canola meal. In addition, there was no significant difference in body weight gain or feed intake between birds fed diets containing canola or mustard biodiesel press cake. Feed conversion was significantly improved for birds fed either canola or mustard biodiesel press cake compared with canola meal. Mortality was unaffected by treatment. Since the performance of broilers fed canola biodiesel press cakes was essentially the same as that of broilers fed canola meal, it is difficult to justify a premium to be paid for canola biodiesel press cake over that paid for canola meal. In addition, there was no difference in the performance of broilers fed biodiesel press cake obtained from canola or mustard seed. As mustard seeds are generally available at a lower price than canola seed, there may be some incentive to use mustard rather than canola seed for producing biodiesel press cake for use in poultry production.
Effect of Nursing Frequency and Creep Feed Provision on the Milk and Feed Intake and Performance of Zero Day Weaned Piglets Reared on a Dummy Sow
Weng, R.C. ; Edwards, S.A. ; Hsia, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1540~1546
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80250
One hundred and forty-four piglets with an average birth weight of 1,672
13.4 g were used to evaluate different feeding strategies for piglets reared from birth on a dummy sow. A 3
2 factorial experiment compared three nursing frequencies (1, 3 or 6 h intervals) and two feeding regimes (milk only, or milk combined with access to creep feed and water). The piglets which were nursed at one hour intervals had the lightest body weights at all days, and the poorest combined milk and creep feed dry matter conversion efficiency to piglet body weight gain in the second week. Piglets which were nursed at 3 h intervals had the heaviest body weight at day 15 and 22, but those nursed at 6 h intervals achieved similar body weight by days 29 (milk withdrawal) and 36. Piglets offered creep feed were observed to wean themselves before cessation of milk availability, and the timing of this self-weaning depended on the nursing frequency. The piglets nursed at one hour intervals weaned themselves between day 22 and day 29, those nursed at 3 h intervals weaned themselves between day 15 and day 22, whilst those nursed at 6 h intervals weaned themselves between day 8 and day 15. The piglets which were nursed at 6 h intervals had the highest total dry matter intake in weeks 3 and 4 when fed with milk, creep feed and water but not when fed milk only. They consequently had the poorest dry matter conversion efficiency in the fourth week and overall when fed with milk, creep feed and water, but not when fed milk only. It is concluded that the optimal management routine under these conditions is a 3 h nursing cycle with provision of supplementary creep feed and water.
Effects of Different Sources of Dietary Chromium on Growth, Blood Profiles and Carcass Traits in Growing-finishing Pigs
Park, J.K. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Chae, B.J. ; Ohh, S.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1547~1554
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80633
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium on growth performance, blood profile and carcass trait in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 200 growing pigs (Landrace
Duroc, average initial weight 8.5 kg) were allotted to 5 treatments with 4 replicates per treatment and 10 pigs per replicate. Five treatments were designated as follows according to the source of chromium. i) Control (No chromium): corn-soybean meal based basal diet, ii)
: control diet+200 ppb Cr as
, iii) CrPic: control diet+200 ppb Cr as Cr picolinate, iv) CrMet-1: control diet+100 ppb Cr as Cr methionine, and v) CrMet-2: control diet+200 ppb Cr as Cr methionine. After the feeding trial, three pigs per replicate (12 pigs per treatment) were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed: gain ratio (F/G) were not different (p>0.05) among dietary Cr sources. However, whole-period ADG of pigs fed CrPic, CrMet-1 and CrMet-2 diets was higher (p<0.05) than for the control diet. Nutrient digestibility was not different (p>0.05) among dietary Cr sources, but the nutrient digestibility of pigs fed CrPic, CrMet-1 and CrMet-2 diets was higher (p<0.05) than for the control diet. BUN level decreased with more magnitude (p<0.05) in pigs fed Cr during the 20 to 50 kg period. Although both serum cholesterol and triglyceride were different (p<0.05) among treatments, there was no consistent response that could be related to the dietary Cr sources regardless of growth phase. However, the overall data suggested that serum cholesterol level increased as BW of pigs increased. Blood total protein (TP) increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed Cr only during the 90-110 kg phase, and blood creatinine (Creat) level was higher in
and CrPic treatments than in the control only during the 90-110 kg phase. Backfat thickness was thinner (p<0.05) in pigs fed CrMet-2 than in the control treatment. Therefore, lean percentage was higher (p<0.05) in CrMet-2 than in control pigs. However, dressing percentage and Longissimus muscle area (LMA) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 ppb Cr, via either CrPic or CrMet, improved pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, dietary CrMet supplementation for the growing-finishing pig is evidently remarkable for improving both lean percentage of the carcass and backfat thickness.
Analysis of Functional Genes in Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathway of Anaerobic Rumen Fungus Neocallimastix frontalis PMA02
Kwon, Mi ; Song, Jaeyong ; Ha, Jong K. ; Park, Hong-Seog ; Chang, Jongsoo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1555~1565
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80371
Anaerobic rumen fungi have been regarded as good genetic resources for enzyme production which might be useful for feed supplements, bio-energy production, bio-remediation and other industrial purposes. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis was constructed and functional genes from the EST library were analyzed to elucidate carbohydrate metabolism of anaerobic fungi. From 10,080 acquired clones, 9,569 clones with average size of 628 bp were selected for analysis. After the assembling process, 1,410 contigs were assembled and 1,369 sequences remained as singletons. 1,192 sequences were matched with proteins in the public data base with known function and 693 of them were matched with proteins isolated from fungi. One hundred and fifty four sequences were classified as genes related with biological process and 328 sequences were classified as genes related with cellular components. Most of the enzymes in the pathway of glucose metabolism were successfully isolated via construction of 10,080 ESTs. Four kinds of hemi-cellulase were isolated such as mannanase, xylose isomerase, xylan esterase, and xylanase. Five
-glucosidases with at least three different conserved domain structures were isolated. Ten cellulases with at least five different conserved domain structures were isolated. This is the first solid data supporting the expression of a multiple enzyme system in the fungus N. frontalis for polysaccharide hydrolysis.
Differential Action of trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Adipocyte Differentiation of Ovine and 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Iga, T. ; Satoh, T. ; Yamamoto, S. ; Fukui, K. ; Song, S.H. ; Choi, K.C. ; Roh, S.G. ; Sasaki, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1566~1573
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80475
Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes in non-ruminant animals (mice, rat, and human). However, the effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA have not been clear in ruminants. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA on adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes. Differentiation of these preadipocytes was facilitated by treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased the number and size of oil red O-stainable lipid drops as well as the levels of GPDH activity. PPAR-
and adipophilin mRNA, adipogenic marker genes, were increased by treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. This result was different from that observed with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, a clonal cell line derived from rodents. Furthermore, trans-10, cis-12 CLA alone induced the adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes in differentiation-induction medium without troglitazone. These results suggest that CLA is an inducer and regulator in adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes, with species differences between ovine and rodent preadipocytes.
Effect of Individual, Group or ESF Housing in Pregnancy and Individual or Group Housing in Lactation on Sow Behavior
Weng, R.C. ; Edwards, S.A. ; Hsia, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1574~1580
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80254
To evaluate the effect of different housing systems on sow behavior, 80 gilts were randomly allocated at puberty to four treatments: i) sow stall in gestation followed by farrowing crate (SC), ii) group housing with individual feeding in gestation followed by farrowing crate (GC), iii) ESF (Electronic Sow Feeding) system in gestation followed by farrowing crate (EC), and iv) ESF system followed by group farrowing pen (EG). Behavioral observations were carried out on a total of 16 animals per treatment at the following stages: first day of allocation to housing treatment, day of service, 80 days after service, 109 days after service on entry to farrowing accommodation, 24 h before farrowing, day of farrowing, 14, 27 and 28 days after farrowing, at weaning. On each occasion, individual animals were observed for a 24 period with one minute time sampling. There were significant differences (p<0.001) between stages of the reproductive cycle for all the behavior patterns in all treatments. On the first day in experimental housing treatments, sows spent more time rooting and dog-sitting. Activity and investigatory behavior decreased as pregnancy progressed. An activity peak was apparent just before farrowing, followed by a high level of inactivity on the day of farrowing. Time spent active, eating and drinking increased as lactation progressed, and greatest activity and locomotion was seen immediately following weaning. There were significant differences between housing treatments (p<0.01) for standing, moving, eating, drinking, dog-sitting and lying. During pregnancy SC sows spent more time standing, rooting, drinking and dog sitting, while EC sows spent less time rooting and drinking and more time lying. During lactation, GC sows spent more time standing, moving and eating, less time dog sitting and lateral lying. Nursing frequency was reduced in GC sows (p<0.001). The maternal and piglet behaviors were influenced strongly by environment during lactation. However, it was also shown that previous housing history can influence the maternal behavior in the pre-farrowing stage and during early lactation.
The Effects of the Hot, Humid Tropical Climate and Early Age Feed Restriction on Stress and Fear Responses, and Performance in Broiler Chickens
Al-Aqil, A. ; Zulkifli, I. ; Sazili, A.Q. ; Omar, A.R. ; Rajion, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1581~1586
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90021
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on stress and fear reactions, and performance in broiler chickens raised in a hot, humid tropical climate. On day 1, chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32
on day 1 and gradually reduced to 23
by day 21) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24
; maximum, 34
). An equal number of chicks from each housing system was subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on day 4, 5 and 6 (FR). The CH birds showed greater weight gain, higher feed consumption and better feed conversion ratios (FCR) than their OH counterparts. Feeding regimen had negligible effect on overall performance. Neither housing nor feeding regimen had a significant (p<0.05) effect on mortality rate. Although the CH birds were less stressed, as measured by plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), than those of OH, the former showed longer TI duration suggesting higher magnitude of underlying fearfulness. A significant (p<0.05) effect of housing on heterophil/lymphocyte ratios was only noted among the AL birds where the CH birds had higher values than OH. Collectively, these results suggest that although OH birds had poorer performance and higher level of stress than CH, the former were less fearful. Although FR had negligible effect on growth performance, the regimen alleviated both stress and fear reactions in broilers.
Antioxidative Activities of Hydrolysates from Duck Egg White Using Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Chen, Yi-Chao ; Chang, Hsi-Shan ; Wang, Cheng-Taung ; Cheng, Fu-Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1587~1593
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90119
Duck egg white (DEW) hydrolysates were prepared by five enzymes (papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alcalase, and flavourzyme) and their antioxidant activities investigated in this study. DEW hydrolyzed with papain (DEWHP) had the highest peptide content among the five enzymatic treatments. Besides, the peptide content of DEWHP increased when the enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S ratio) increased. It was suggested that higher E/S ratio contributed to elevate the degree of hydrolysis of DEW effectively. Similar results were also obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE. In addition, SDS-PAGE patterns indicated papain was the only one amongst all enzymes with the ability to hydrolyze DEW. In antioxidant properties, DEWHP showed more than 70% of inhibitory activity on linoleic acid peroxidation and superoxide anion scavenging. Moreover, the
chelating effect of DEWHP was greater than 90%, while no significant difference was observed in DPPH radical scavenging and reducing ability. The results of peptide contents, antioxidant activities and electrophoresis suggested that the higher the peptide content, the stronger the antioxidant activities in DEWHP.
Carcass Traits and the Quality of Meat from Cattle Finished on Diets Containing Barley
Oliveros, M.C.R. ; Park, K.M. ; Kwon, E.G. ; Choi, N.J. ; Chang, J.S. ; Hwang, Inho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1594~1608
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90202
Research on barley as an animal feed started some decades ago but its utilization in animal production has been limited to countries that grow the crop extensively. Corn has been the most popular energy feed in cattle rations, but the high price of corn and the decreased supply of the grain in the international market have shifted the focus of the animal industry to other cereal crops like barley. Studies have indicated that growth performance of cattle fed barley-based diets has been generally comparable with that of those fed corn-based diets, while results for cattle fed whole-crop barley silage have been more variable. Beef from cattle fed barley-based diets has proved to be as tender and as acceptable for taste as that from animals fed other finishing diets when compared at similar growth rates and degree of finish. The barley crop contains good amounts of antioxidants like 2"O-GIV isovitexin, so from the meat science point of view, a desirable influence of these components on meat quality traits such as meat color, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics might be expected. Furthermore, the effect of the distinctive fatty acid profile of beef fed from whole-crop barley silage on sensory traits is also an important subject to be elucidated. A lot of studies have been made over past decades on the effect of barley, and especially whole crop barley, on beef cattle production and meat quality, but these data have not been collectively documented in a review. The current review re-visits previous literature to underline the effects of barley in the diet on beef quality traits and to identify areas for further studies.