Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 8 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 7 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 6 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 5 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 4 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 2 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 1 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 12 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 11 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
Selecting the target year
Genetic and Non-genetic Factors Affecting Mortality in Lori-Bakhtiari Lambs
Vatankhah, M. ; Talebi, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 459~464
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80318
Data and pedigree information for Lori-Bakhtiari sheep used in this study were 6,239 records of lamb mortality from 246 sires and 1,721 dams, collected from 1989 through 2007 from a Lori-Bakhtiari flock at Shooli station in Shahrekord. The traits investigated were cumulative lamb mortality from birth up to 7 days, up to 14 days, up to 21 days, and up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 months of age. The models included fixed factors that had significant effects and random direct genetic, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood procedure applying three animal models with and without maternal and common environmental effects. The overall mean of cumulative lamb mortality rate was 22.95% from birth to 1 year of age, while the overall mortality rate up to 3 and from 3 to 6 months of age was 6.14% and 12.76%, respectively. The mortality rate after 6 months of age declined as the lambs grew older. The age of dam had no important effect on lamb mortality. The type of birth was more important during the preweaning period than at later ages, and lamb mortality rate was higher in twins. The year of birth, month of birth and sex of lamb significantly (p
0.01) affected the cumulative lamb mortality rate at all ages. The least square mean of mortality during the final one-third of the lambing period was higher than the first and middle onethird of the lambing period. Male lambs were found to be at a higher risk of mortality than females. Birth weight of the lamb had a highly significant (p
0.01) effect on lamb mortality at all ages as a quadratic regression. Direct and maternal heritability estimates of lamb mortality ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 and 0.01 to 0.05, respectively. Direct heritability increased with age of lamb, while maternal effects (genetic and common environmental) were important in the preweaning period. These results indicate that lamb mortality can be reduced first through farm management practices and secondly by genetic selection. Both animal and maternal effects should be considered in breeding programmes for reducing lamb mortality at preweaning.
Lower Antibody Response in Chickens Homozygous for the Mx Resistant Allele to Avian Influenza
Qu, L.J. ; Li, X.Y. ; Xu, G.Y. ; Ning, Z.H. ; Yang, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 465~470
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80338
The chicken Mx gene has been regarded as a candidate gene for resistance to avian influenza virus (AIV). In this study, three groups of chickens with homozygotes (AA, GG) and heterozygotes (AG) of the resistant (A) and susceptible alleles (G) to AIV of the Mx gene were constructed from a line of dwarf egg-type chickens. These chickens were not examined for their resistant activities to AIV because the differential resistance had only been detected in vitro. The birds of the three groups were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 AIV vaccine and the level of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody to AIV was detected. The association between disease resistant activity to AIV and antibody response to AIV vaccination in the three groups was analyzed. The chickens with homozygous resistant allele A showed the lowest antibody levels, whereas the heterozygous chickens (AG) presented the highest antibody level after the boosting vaccination, which indicates that the efficiency of artificial selection on the resistant allele of Mx gene will be compromised since the homozygotes of the allele presented the weakest antibody response to the corresponding vaccine.
Investigation of the Insulin-like Growth Factor System in Breast Muscle during Embryonic and Postnatal Development in Langshan and Arbor Acres Chickens Subjected to Different Feeding Regimens
Lu, F.Z. ; Chen, J. ; Wang, X.X. ; Liu, Honglin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 471~482
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80216
Nutrient availability may control muscle growth directly and indirectly through its influence on regulatory factors. We analyzed the effects of nutrient availability on the breast muscle insulin-like growth factor system. Real time RT-PCR was used to quantify the level of transcription in breast muscle from Langshan (LS) layer and Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens subjected to different feeding regimens during embryonic and postnatal development. The AA chickens were fed AA diet (AA, control group) while the LS chickens were either fed LS diet (LL) or AA diet (LA). According to our results, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II (embryonic day 16 (E16) - postnatal day 42 (P42)), IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR, E18-P42), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 (E18-P42), -5 (E16-P14), -7 (E12-P0), and -3 (E12-P0) were positively correlated with IGF-I, while IGFBP-3 (P0-P28) was negatively correlated with IGF-I. In comparison, IGF-IR (E18-P42), IGFBP-2 (E18-P42), IGFBP-5 (E14-P0), and IGFBP-3 (E16-P0) were positively correlated with IGF-II, while IGF-IR (E10-E16) and IGFBP-3 (P0-P28) were negatively correlated with IGF-II. Moreover, IGFBP-2 (E16-P42), -7 (E10-E16), and -3 (E10-E16) were positively correlated with IGF-IR, while IGFBP-3 (P0-P28) was negatively correlated with IGF-IR. Finally, IGFBP-7 (E12-P0) was positively correlated with IGFBP-3, while IGFBP-2 (P0-P28) and -7 (P0-P42) were negatively correlated with IGFBP-3. Overall, the AA chickens exhibited higher levels of IGF-I, IGF-IR, and IGFBP-2 mRNA expression than the LL chickens, while the opposite was true for IGFBP-7. No strain differences in IGF-I, IGF-IR, and IGFBP-7 mRNA expression were detected between LA and AA chickens; however, a strain difference was observed for IGFBP-2. LA chickens exhibited higher levels of IGFBP-2 than LL chickens, while the opposite was true for IGFBP-7. Our data show the first evidence that certain genes may be correlated during specific developmental periods and that strain differences in the expression of those genes in LS and AA chickens are due to differential responses to the same diet.
Relationship between Developmental Ability and Cell Number of Day 2 Porcine Embryos Produced by Parthenogenesis or Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Uhm, Sang Jun ; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar ; Chung, Hak-Jae ; Kim, Jin Hoi ; Park, Chankyu ; Lee, Hoon Taek ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 483~491
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80362
In vitro produced porcine embryos have potential application in reproductive biotechnology. However, their development potential has been very low. This study evaluated the in vitro developmental ability and quality of cloned and parthenogenetic porcine embryos having 2-4 cells or 5-8 cells on Day 2 of in vitro culture. Analysis of results showed that 2 to 4 cell embryos had higher ability to form blastocysts than 5 to 8 cell embryos (p<0.05). Blastocysts produced from culture of 2 to 4 cell embryos also contained higher cell numbers and had lower BAX:BCLxL transcript ratio than those produced from 5 to 8 cell embryos (p<0.05), thereby suggesting 2 to 4 cell embryos have higher development potential. Further investigation revealed that 5 to 8 cell embryos had higher incidence (100
0.0%) of blastomeric fragmentation than 2 to 4 cell embryos (15.2
5.5% for parthenogenetic and 27.7
7.1% for cloned embryos). This suggests that low development potential of 5 to 8 cell embryos was associated with blastomeric fragmentation. In conclusion, we have shown that morphological selection of embryos based on cell number on Day 2 of in vitro culture could offer a practical and valuable non-invasive means to select good quality porcine embryos.
Establishment and Characterization of the Fibroblast Line from Silkie Bantam
Li, L.F. ; Guan, W.J. ; Li, H. ; Bai, X.J. ; Ma, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 492~499
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80480
A Silkie Bantam embryo fibroblast line (named SBF59 line) was successfully established by using direct explant culture and cryopreservation techniques. Cell morphology, viability, dynamic growth and contamination were tested and the karyotype and levels of isoenzymes of lactic dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase were analyzed. Four kinds of fluorescent protein extrogenes, including
were transfected into the cells. The results showed that the cells were healthy and possessed a fibrous structure without a change in morphology. The average viability of the cells was 96% before freezing and 90.5% after thawing. The growth curve appeared as typical "S" shape and the cell growth passed through a detention phase, a logarithmic phase and a platform phase; the estimated population doubling time (PDT) was 38.5 h; assays for the presence of bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasmas were negative; the cell line showed no cross contamination when assessed by isoenzyme analysis; the chromosome number was 2n = 78 on more than 88% of occasions; four kinds of fluorescent protein extro-genes appeared to be expressed effectively with a high transfection efficiency between 18.3% and 42.3%. The cell line met the required quality control standard. It not only preserves the genetic resources of the important Silkie Bantam at the cellular level but also provides valuable materials for genomic, post-genomic, somatic cell cloning research and other applications.
Bovine Oocytes Can Be Penetrated in Modified Tris-buffered Medium
Park, Kwang-Wook ; Niwa, Koji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 500~506
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80431
A modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) has been widely used as an insemination medium for porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). We examined whether mTBM could be used for bovine IVF. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in a serum-free medium containing 30 ng/ml EGF for 22 h. After culture, COCs were inseminated with spermatozoa for 12 h in mTBM containing 5 mM caffeine and 10 g/ml heparin. The penetration of oocytes increased significantly (p<0.05) as the sperm concentration increased from 0.1 (30%) to 1-10
cells/ml. This was significantly different from values obtained at 1 (87%) and 10
cells/ml. However, when COCs were inseminated with spermatozoa from different bulls, the proportions (62-100%) of oocytes penetrated varied according to the bull. The proportion (18%) of oocytes penetrated was significantly (p<0.05) lower in a fertilization medium without caffeine and heparin but increased with the addition of caffeine and/or heparin to the medium, and the proportion (93-96%) of oocytes penetrated increased significantly (p<0.05) when the medium was supplemented with heparin and caffeine. In this medium, sperm penetration was first observed at 3 h after insemination. Irrespective of the presence of glucose in the fertilization medium, the proportion (93-97%) of oocytes penetrated and the proportion (83-84%) of embryos at the
-cell stage cultured in a chemically defined medium were not significantly different. However, the proportion of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the presence (11%) of glucose in the fertilization medium than in its absence (2%). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that bovine oocytes penetrated in vitro in mTBM can develop to the blastocyst stage and mTBM may be used for the in vitro production of bovine embryos.
Some Factors Affecting Freezing of Boar Semen in 5 ml Maxi-straws
Dai, J.J. ; Wu, C.F. ; Zhang, Defu ; Yin, F.Z. ; Zhang, T.Y. ; Liu, D. ; Wu, H.L. ; Li, L.L. ; Yang, S.T. ; Wang, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 507~515
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80543
A series of experiments were conducted to determine the suitable freezing and thawing temperatures for the freezing of boar semen in 5 ml maxi-straws. The ultrastructure, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and artificial insemination (AI) of frozen-thawed semen were also be evaluated. The 5 cm freezing height gave the best results not only in post-thaw motility rate (54.00%), but also in normal acrosome morphology rate (NAR) (80.23%). There was no significant difference in the post-thaw motility between different thawing temperatures and corresponding thawing times (p>0.05); the group of
and 25 s gave the highest motility rate (45.00%). As a whole, not only from the motility but also the NAR, thawing at
was better than the other two treatments. In the freezing packages, 5 ml maxi-straw gave a little lower mobility (40%), viability rate (49.58%), plasma membrane integrity rate (53.91%) and NAR (52.65%) than the 0.25 ml straw, but there was no significant difference between the two straw volumes (p>0.05). The IVF capacity of frozen-thawed semen in this experiment was similar to fresh semen. From ultrastructure observation, the main damage to boar spermatozoa after freezing was seen in the acrosome, such as swelling and formation of vesicles. After AI in recipient Shanghai White sows, frozen-thawed semen from 5 ml maxi-straws and pellets produced 72.2% and 80% conception rate and 7.8 and 8 litter sizes, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the 5 ml maxi-straw and the pellet (p>0.05).
Effect of Replacing Corn Silage with Whole Crop Rice Silage in Total Mixed Ration on Intake, Milk Yield and Its Composition in Holsteins
Ki, K.S. ; Khan, M.A. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, S.B. ; Yang, S.H. ; Baek, K.S. ; Kim, J.G. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 516~519
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80556
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing whole crop corn silage (WCCS) with whole crop rice silage (WCRS) in the total mixed ration (TMR) on nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition in Holstein cows. The Chucheong rice variety (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) and corn (Pioneer 32 P75) were harvested at yellow-ripe stage and were ensiled in round bales and in trench silos, respectively. Two TMR containing either WCCS or WCRS were prepared. These diets were randomly assigned to 16 midlactating Holstein cows (8 cows per treatment) and were fed for 120 days. The first 20 days were used for dietary adaptation and for the next 100 days daily feed intake, milk yield and its composition were recorded. The pH, lactic acid, NDF, ADF, CP, Ca and P contents were similar in WCRS and WCCS. The DM, ash and EE contents of WCRS were greater compared with WCCS. Nutrient (DM, NDF, TDN and CP) intakes were similar in cows fed WCCS- and WCRS-based TMR. Daily and 4% fat corrected milk yield were not affected by the treatments. Milk composition (percent milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids) was similar in cows fed either WCCS- or WCRSbased TMR. The concentration of milk urea N was greater in cows fed WCRS-based TMR than those fed WCCS-based TMR. In conclusion, round-baled WCRS can replace WCCS in the diet of mid- to late-lactating Holsteins without any deleterious effects on feed consumption, milk yield and its composition. The present findings raise the possibility that WCRS can be used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of dairy cows in countries with surplus rice production.
Correlations among Shearing Force, Morphological Characteristic, Chemical Composition, and In situ Digestibility of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) Stem
Liu, L. ; Yang, Z.B. ; Yang, W.R. ; Jiang, S.Z. ; Zhang, G.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 520~527
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80477
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is a high-quality forage for ruminants and the main stem is the dominant morphological component contributing to the forage nutritive value in mature alfalfa forage. Shearing force, a fracturing property of plant stem, is an important indictor of forage value. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of morphological characteristic on shearing force, the relationship between shearing force and chemical composition, and the relationship between shearing force and in situ digestibility of alfalfa stem. The results showed that linear density (weight per unit length of stem) was more important than chemical composition in affecting shearing force. There was a positive relationship between lignin content and shearing force (r = 0.78). Correlations were not found between shearing force and other chemical components such as neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicelluloses. In situ digestibility (of dry matter and NDF) was related to shearing force. A negative correlation was found between shearing force and dry matter (DM) digestibility (r = -0.70), and there was also a negative correlation between shearing force and NDF digestibility (r = -0.87). When shearing force was standardized for stem diameter or stem linear density, the relationship between shearing force and digestibility was consistent regardless of stem diameter and stem linear density. Shearing force was significantly correlated with lignin content and in situ digestibility (of DM and NDF), and was a more direct indicator for estimating forage nutritive value related to animal performance, so it can be used to predict the forage value of alfalfa.
Silage Fermentative Quality and Characteristics of Anthocyanin Stability in Anthocyanin-rich Corn (Zea mays L.)
Hosoda, Kenji ; Eruden, Bayaru ; Matsuyama, Hiroki ; Shioya, Shigeru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 528~533
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80525
The fermentative quality and quantitative change in anthocyanin of anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L.) during storage and in vitro ruminal fermentation were studied. The anthocyanin-rich corn silages in bag silo, drum silo and round bale had good fermentative qualities, such as low pH (
5% DM) and butyric acid-free, and its quality was maintained for more than 370 d. The amount of anthocyanin in the anthocyanin-rich corn decreased after ensiling by about 45% (from 3.34 to 1.88 mg/g DM), but stayed constant after day 60. The in vitro incubation of the anthocyanin-rich corn with ruminal fluid revealed little degradation of anthocyanin. These results indicate that the anthocyanin had no negative effect on silage fermentation, and the anthocyanin-rich corn silage is utilizable for practical use as a feedstuff. Our results also demonstrate alteration of the anthocyanin content during storage, and show that anthocyanin-rich corn is a suitable antioxidant source for ruminants because of the high stability of the anthocyanin in ruminal fluid.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Composition, Antinutritional Factors, Ruminal Degradation and In vitro Protein Digestibility of Full-fat Soybean
Taghinejad, M. ; Nikkhah, A. ; Sadeghi, A.A. ; Raisali, G. ; Chamani, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 534~541
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80567
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (
-irradiation) at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on chemical composition, anti-nutritional factors, ruminal dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradibility, in vitro CP digestibility and to monitor the fate of true proteins of full-fat soybean (SB) in the rumen. Nylon bags of untreated or
-irradiated SB were suspended in the rumens of three ruminally-fistulated bulls for up to 48 h and resulting data were fitted to a nonlinear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of DM and CP. Proteins of untreated and treated SB bag residues were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Digestibility of rumen undegraded CP was estimated using the three-step in vitro procedure. The chemical composition of raw and irradiated soybeans was similar. Results showed that phytic acid in
-irradiated SB at dose of 30 kGy was eliminated completely. The trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy
-irradiated SB was decreased (p<0.01) by 18.4, 55.5 and 63.5%, respectively. From in sacco results,
-irradiation decreased (p<0.05) the washout fractions of DM and CP at doses of 30 and 45 kGy, but increased (p<0.05) the potentially degradable fractions. Gamma irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy decreased (p<0.05) effective degradability of CP at a rumen outflow rate of 0.05
by 4.4, 14.4 and 26.5%, respectively. On the contrary, digestibility of ruminally undegraded CP of irradiated SB at doses of 30 and 45 kGy was improved (p<0.05) by 12 and 28%, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of untreated soybean proteins incubated in the rumen revealed that
-conglycinin subunits had disappeared at 2 h of incubation time, whereas the subunits of glycinin were more resistant to degradation until 16 h of incubation. From the SDS-PAGE patterns, acidic subunits of 15, 30 and 45 kGy
-irradiated SB disappeared after 8, 8 and 16 h of incubation, respectively, while the basic subunits of glycinin were not degraded completely until 24, 48 and 48 h of incubation, respectively. It was concluded that
-irradiated soybean proteins at doses higher than 15 kGy could be effectively protected from ruminal degradation.
Use of Nitrate-nitrogen as a Sole Dietary Nitrogen Source to Inhibit Ruminal Methanogenesis and to Improve Microbial Nitrogen Synthesis In vitro
Guo, W.S. ; Schaefer, D.M. ; Guo, X.X. ; Ren, L.P. ; Meng, Qingxiang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 542~549
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80361
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrate-nitrogen used as a sole dietary nitrogen source on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial nitrogen (MN) synthesis. Three treatment diets were formulated with different nitrogen sources to contain 13% CP and termed i) nitrate-N diet (NND), ii) urea-N diet (UND), used as negative control, and iii) tryptone-N diet (TND), used as positive control. The results of 24-h incubations showed that nitrate-N disappeared to background concentrations and was not detectable in microbial cells. The NND treatment decreased net
production, but also decreased net
production and increased net
production. Total VFA concentration was lower (p<0.05) for NND than TND. Suppression of
production and total VFA concentration may be linked to increased concentration of
. The MN synthesis was greater (p<0.001) for NND than UND or TND (5.74 vs. 3.31 or 3.34 mg/40 ml, respectively). Nitrate addition diminished methane production as expected, but also increased MN synthesis.
Effects of Mannan-oligosaccharides and Live Yeast in Diets on the Carcass, Cut Yields, Meat Composition and Colour of Finishing Turkeys
Konca, Yusuf ; Kirkpinar, Figen ; Mert, Selim ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 550~556
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80350
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide = MOS) and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae = SC) in finishing turkey diets on carcass, cut yield, meat composition and colour. A total of 72 ten-weeksold Big6 male turkey poults were used in the trial. There were eight replicate floor pens per floor with three birds in each. The experiment lasted up to 20 wks of age. The trial was set up as a completely randomized design with 3 dietary treatments. The treatments were: i) negative control (C, no additive); ii) MOS 1 g per kg of diet and iii) SC 1 g per kg of diet (strain SC47,
CFU/kg). Body weight (BW) and feed intake were determined for each of the two week intervals. Twenty-four birds were slaughtered and eviscerated to determine carcass, carcass parts and internal organ weights at 20 wks of age. Meat colour and pH levels were measured 24 h after slaughter. The dietary treatments did not affect BW and average daily gain during the trial (p>0.05). The average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio of turkey toms fed with MOS were higher than those of control and SC groups during the overall period (p<0.05). The dietary treatments did not affect carcass yield, breast meat, thigh, wing, liver, heart, empty gizzard, intestine, and abdominal fat pad proportions and meat pH, composition and pigmentation (p>0.05). These results suggest that the addition of MOS and SC is not likely to produce any performance or carcass characteristics in finishing turkeys at 10 to 20 wks of age.
Nutritional Evaluation of Full-fat Sunflower Seed for Broiler Chickens
Salari, Somayyeh ; Nassiri Moghaddam, H. ; Arshami, J. ; Golian, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 557~564
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80481
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of various levels of full-fat sunflower seeds (FFSS) on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. In the first experiment, FFSS was included in a basal diet at 70, 140, and 210 g/kg and the
values of the experimental diets were determined. The linear regression equation of
values on rate of inclusion was calculated. Extrapolation value for the
of FFSS at 100% inclusion was 14.22 MJ/kg. In the second experiment, diets containing various levels (0, 70, 140, and 210 g/kg) of FFSS were given to broilers (Ross strain) from 0 to 49 d. At 28 days of age, blood parameters and digestive enzyme activities were determined and carcass parameters were evaluated at 49 days of age. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p<0.05) when broilers were fed various levels of FFSS in the starter and finisher diets. Breast, thigh, gastrointestinal tract and gizzard weight percentages were not affected by dietary treatments; however, liver weight percentage was decreased significantly (p<0.05) and weight of abdominal fat decreased but this effect was not significant. The activities of digestive enzyme (protease and
-amylase) were not influenced by the treatments. Activity of alkaline phosphatase, concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, triglyceride, protein, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were not affected by incorporation of FFSS in the broiler diet. Although concentration of HDL increased and LDL decreased, these effects were not significant. The results of this study indicate that FFSS can be used at up to 21% in broiler diets without adverse effects on performance or other parameters of chickens.
Effect of Different Vegetable Oils on Growth and Fatty Acid Profile of Rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton); Evaluation of a Return Fish Oil Diet to Restore Human Cardio-protective Fatty Acids
Karanth, Santhosh ; Sharma, Prakash ; Pal, Asim K. ; Venkateshwarlu, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 565~575
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80301
Two experiments in the sequential order were conducted to determine the effects of different dietary lipid sources on the growth and fatty acid composition of rohu (Labeo rohita) and to examine the viability of a return fish oil finisher diet in restoring the human cardio-protective fatty acid profile. In the first experiment, fish were fed either with coconut oil (D1), olive oil (D2), sunflower oil (D3), linseed oil (D4) and fish oil (D5) as the main lipid source in the isonitrogenous diet for 90 days. No significant differences in growth were observed. Among the experimental diets moisture content of fish varied significantly (p<0.05) between the groups. Dietary lipid sources had a profound influence on the fatty acid profile of the muscle and liver as tissue fatty acid profile reflected the dietary fatty acid composition. Increased amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were observed in tissue of fish fed D4 and arachidonic acid was observed in the tissue of fish fed D3. We have also detected the metabolites of n-3 and n-6 pathway in D4 and D3 groups respectively, which prompted us to conclude that rohu, can desaturate and elongate
essential fatty acids to
HUFA. A second feeding trial was conducted using the animals from the five different treatment groups for the duration of 30 days with fish oil rich diet (D5). Feeding with fish-oil rich washout diet resulted in the near equalization of all the other treatment groups tissue fatty acid profiles to that of fish oil (D5) fed group. These results indicate that a finishing fish oil diet can be effectively used to restore the human cardioprotective fatty acid profile in rohu fed with vegetable oils as lipid source.
Study on the Lipolytic Function of GPR43 and Its Reduced Expression by DHA
Sun, Chao ; Hou, Zengmiao ; Wang, Li ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 576~583
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80422
G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) is a newly-discovered short-chain free fatty acid receptor and its functions remain to be defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the function of GPR43 on lipolysis. We successfully cloned the GPR43 gene from the pig (EU122439), and measured the level of GPR43 mRNA in different tissues and primary pig adipocytes. The expression level of GPR43 mRNA was higher in adipose tissue and increased gradually with adipocyte differentiation. Then we examined GPR43 mRNA level in different types, growth-stages and various regions of adipose tissue of pigs. The results showed that the expression level of GPR43 mRNA was significantly higher in adipose tissue of obese pigs than in lean pigs, and the expression level also gradually increased as age increased. We further found that the abundance of GPR43 mRNA level increased more in subcutaneous fat than visceral fat. Thereafter, we studied the correlation between GPR43 and lipid metabolism-related genes in adipose tissue and primary pig adipocytes. GPR43 gene had significant negative correlation with hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL, r = -0.881, p<0.01) and triacylglycerol hydrolase gene (TGH, r = -0.848, p<0.01) in adipose tissue, and had positive correlation with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
, r = 0.809, p<0.01) and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL, r = 0.847, p<0.01) in adipocytes. In addition, we fed different concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to mice, and analyzed expression level changes of GPR43, HSL and TGH in adipose. The results showed that DHA down-regulated GPR43 and up-regulated HSL and TGH mRNA levels; GPR43 also had significant negative correlation with HSL (low: r = -0.762, p<0.01; high: r = -0.838, p<0.01) and TGH (low: r = -0.736, p<0.01; high: r = -0.586, p<0.01). Our results suggested that GPR43 is a potential factor which regulates lipolysis in adipose tissue, and DHA as a receptor of GPR43 might promote lipolysis through down-regulating the expression of GPR43 mRNA.
Effects of Number of Washes and pH Adjustment on Characteristics of Surimi-like Materials from Pork Leg Muscle
Jin, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Il-Suk ; Choi, Yeung-Joon ; Yang, Han-Sul ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 584~590
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80462
The effects of different washing time and pH adjustment of surimi-like materials from pork leg on quality characteristics were investigated. Surimi was made from pork leg by washing two or four times with water, as well as by pH adjustments of 3.0 or 11.0. The control surimi was made by two times washing from Alaska pollock. The content of crude protein was higher in the surimi manufactured from pork leg with pH adjustments. The highest gel strength was found in the control, and the control had greater lightness and whiteness value. The control had higher texture attributes than the other samples, whereas the surimi from pork leg made by a pH 11.0 adjustment had higher texture attributes than the pH 3.0 adjustment. The sensory color was higher in the control compared to other surimi samples, whereas aroma was lower in the control. However, there were no significant differences in overall acceptability among the surimi samples.
Improvement of Functional Properties of Egg White Protein through Glycation and Phosphorylation by Dry-heating
Enomoto, Hirofumi ; Nagae, Shiho ; Hayashi, Yoko ; Li, Can-Peng ; Ibrahim, Hisham R. ; Sugimoto, Yasushi ; Aoki, Takayoshi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 591~597
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80363
Egg white protein (EWP) was glycated with maltopentaose (MP) through the Maillard reaction and subsequently phosphorylated by
dry-heating at pH 4.0 for 1 d in the presence of pyrophosphate. The functional properties of glycated, phosphorylated EWP were compared with those of native EWP and with EWP which was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate under the same conditions. The phosphorus content of EWP was increased to ~0.60% by phosphorylation, and to ~0.74% by glycation with MP and subsequent phosphorylation. The electrophoretic mobility of EWP increased through phosphorylation. The stability of EWP against heat-induced insolubility at pH 7.0 was considerably improved by phosphorylation alone and further by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovalbumin antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation and phosphorylation, and further reduced by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovomucoid antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation, phosphorylation and phosphorylation after glycation. The calcium phosphate-solubilizing ability of EWP was enhanced by both phosphorylation methods.
Carcass Characteristics and Chemical Composition of the Longissimus Muscle of Nellore, Caracu and Holstein-friesian Bulls Finished in a Feedlot
Rotta, Polyana Pizzi ; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ; do Prado, Rodolpho Martin ; Moletta, Jose Luiz ; Silva, Roberio Rodrigues ; Perotto, Daniel ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 598~604
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80538
This work was carried out to study the carcass characteristics, the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile in Longissimus muscle (LM) of bull breeds Nellore, NEL (11), Caracu, CAR (12) and Holstein-Friesian, HFR (12) finished in a feedlot. The bulls were fed twice a day with corn silage, cotton meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salt. NEL and CAR bulls had similar (p>0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight. However, NEL and CAR bulls had higher (p<0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight than HFR bulls. Carcass hot dressing, carcass conformation, cushion thickness, Longissimus muscle area and texture were similar (p>0.05) among NEL, CAR and HFR bulls. NEL and HFR bulls had higher (p<0.05) carcass length in comparison to the CAR breed. Nellore breed had higher (p<0.05) leg length in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. Leg length was similar (p>0.05) between CAR and HFR breeds. Thickness fat, color and marbling score were lower (p<0.05) in NEL breed in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. LM of NEL bulls had higher (p<0.05) meat moisture content in comparison to CAR and HFR bulls. In contrast, lipid content was lower (p<0.10) in HFR bulls. LM ash and crude protein contents were similar (p>0.05) among breeds. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were higher (p<0.10) in HFR animals. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6, n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the different breeds. N-6/n-3 ratio was higher (p<0.05) in CAR animals.
Nutrigenomics Approach-A Strategy for Identification of Nutrition Responsive Genes Influencing Meat Edible Quality Traits in Swine
Yin, Jingdong ; Li, Defa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 2009, Pages 605~610
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.05
In the last 20 years, meat quality, especially meat edible quality has become a more intriguing topic in the field of swine production. In this paper, we briefly review the progress of meat quality research from the aspects of genetic selection and nutritional modulation, and propose a possible approach -nutrigenomics- to explore the nutrition-responsive major genes that affect meat quality formation during the growing and fattening of pigs.