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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 8 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 7 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 6 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 5 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 4 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 2 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 1 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 12 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 11 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
Selecting the target year
Understanding Starch Utilization in the Small Intestine of Cattle
Harmon, David L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 915~922
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.08
Ruminants possess the capacity to digest very large amounts of starch. However, in many cases diets approach 60% starch and even small inefficiencies present opportunities for energetic losses. Ruminal starch digestion is typically 75-80% of starch intake. On average, 35-60% of starch entering the small intestine is degraded. Of the fraction that escapes small-intestinal digestion, 35-50% is degraded in the large intestine. The low digestibility in the large intestine and the inability to reclaim microbial cells imposes a large toll on post-ruminal digestive efficiency. Therefore, digestibility in the small intestine must be optimized. The process of starch assimilation in the ruminant is complex and remains an avenue by which increases in production efficiency can be gained. A more thorough description of these processes is needed before we can accurately predict digestion occurring in the small intestine and formulate diets to optimize site of starch digestion.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Milk Production Traits Using a Random Regression Test-day Model in Holstein Cows in Korea
Kim, Byeong-Woo ; Lee, Deukhwan ; Jeon, Jin-Tae ; Lee, Jung-Gyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 923~930
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80110
This study was conducted to compare three models: two random regression models with and without considering heterogeneity in the residual variances and a lactation model (LM) for evaluating the genetic ability of Holstein cows in Korea. Two datasets were prepared for this study. To apply the test-day random regression model, 94,390 test-day records were prepared from 15,263 cows. The second data set consisted of 14,704 lactation records covering milk production over 305 days. Raw milk yield and composition data were collected from 1998 to 2002 by the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation' dairy cattle improvement center by way of its milk testing program, which is nationally based. The pedigree information for this analysis was collected by the Korean Animal Improvement Association. The random regression models (RRMs) are single-trait animal models that consider each lactation record as an independent trait. Estimates of covariance were assumed to be different ones. In order to consider heterogeneity of residual variance in the analysis, test-days were classified into 29 classes. By considering heterogeneity of residual variance, variation for lactation performance in the early lactation classes was higher than during the middle classes and variance was lower in the late lactation classes than in the other two classes. This may be due to feeding management system and physiological properties of Holstein cows in Korea. Over classes e6 to e26 (covering 61 to 270 DIM), there was little change in residual variance, suggesting that a model with homogeneity of variance be used restricting the data to these days only. Estimates of heritability for milk yield ranged from 0.154 to 0.455, for which the estimates were variable depending on different lactation periods. Most of the heritabilities for milk yield using the RRM were higher than in the lactation model, and the estimate of genetic variance of milk yield was lower in the late lactation period than in the early or middle periods.
Estimation of Covariance Functions for Growth of Angora Goats
Liu, Wenzhong ; Zhang, Yuan ; Zhou, Zhongxiao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 931~936
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70036
Body weights of 862 Angora goats between birth and 36 months of age, recorded on a semiyearly basis from 1988 to 2000, were used to estimate genetic, permanent environmental and phenotypic covariance functions. These functions were estimated by fitting a random regression model with 6th order polynomial for direct additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects and 4th and 5th order polynomial for maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively. A phenotypic covariance function was estimated by modelling overall animal and maternal effects. The results showed that the most variable coefficient was the intercept for both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. The direct additive genetic (co)variances increased with age and reached a maximum at about 30 months, whereas the maternal additive genetic (co)variances increased rapidly from birth and reached a maximum at weaning, and then decreased with age. Animal permanent environmental (co)variances increased with age from birth to 30 months with lower rate before 12 months and higher rate between 12 and 30 months. Maternal permanent environmental (co)variances changed little before 6 months but then increased slowly and reached a maximum at about 30 months. These results suggested that the contribution of maternal additive genetic and permanent environmental effects to growth variation differed from those of direct additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects not only in expression time, but also in action magnitude. The phenotypic (co)variance estimates increased with age from birth to 36 months of age.
Effects of the Chicken Sex-linked Dwarf Gene on Growth and Muscle Development
Chen, C.F. ; Chen, Y.H. ; Tixier-Boichard, M. ; Cheng, P.Y. ; Chang, C.S. ; Tang, P.C. ; Lee, Y.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 937~942
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80689
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on growth and muscle development during the growing period of the sex-linked dwarf gene in the background of a Taiwan Country chicken strain, L2, selected for egg production. Eight crossbred males, heterozygous for the DW*DW mutation, were each backcrossed to six females of the L2 strain to produce two genotypes of BC females, either normal (DW*N+/-) or dwarf (DW*DW/-). The experiment included 251 normal and 207 dwarf pullets. The effect of the dwarf gene on body weight and shank length was highly significant from 2 weeks of age. The reduction of body weight by the dwarf gene reached 34.8% and 37.4% as compared to normal sibs at 16 and 20 weeks of age, respectively. Parameters of the growth curve were estimated: the age at inflection (TI) was higher in normal pullets (66.9 days) than in dwarf pullets (61.2 days). A significant effect of the dwarf gene on single muscle fiber cross-section area was found from 12 weeks of age onwards, whereas the dwarf gene had no effect on the total number of muscle fibers. Comparing the effect of the dwarf gene on shank length at different ages revealed an earlier effect on skeleton growth, observed from 2 weeks of age, than on muscle development, which was affected from 8 to 12 weeks of age.
Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Dgat2 Gene and Beef Carcass and Quality Traits in Commercial Feedlot Steers
Li, J. ; Xu, X. ; Zhang, Q. ; Wang, X. ; Deng, G. ; Fang, X. ; Gao, X. ; Ren, H. ; Xu, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 943~954
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70457
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step of triglyceride synthesis. Both DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes code proteins with DGAT activity. Studies have shown DGAT1 polymorphisms associate with intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle, but fewer associations between DGAT2 and beef cattle economic traits have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron3 of bovine DGAT2 and evaluate the associations of that with carcass, meat quality, and fat yield traits. Test animals were 157 commercial feedlot steers belonging to 3 Chinese native breeds (22 for Luxi, 24 for Jinnan, and 23 for Qinchuan), 3 cross populations (20 for Charolais
Fuzhou, 18 for Limousin
Luxi, and 17 for Simmental
Jinan) and 1 Taurus pure breed population (16 Angus steers). In the current study, 15 SNP were discovered in intron3 and exon4 of DGAT2 at positions 65, 128, 178, 210, 241, 255, 270, 312, 328, 334, 365, 366, 371, 415, and 437 (named as their positions in PCR amplified fragments). Only 7 of them (128, 178, 241, 270, 312, 328, and 371) were analyzed, because SNP in three groups (65-128-255, 178-210-365 and 241-334-366) were in complete linkage disequilibrium within the group, and SNP 415 was a deletion and 437 was a null mutation. Frequencies for rare alleles in the 3 native breed populations were higher than in the 3 cross populations for 178 (p = 0.04), 270 (p = 0.001), 312 (p = 0.03) and 371 (p = 0.002). A general linear model was used to evaluate the associations between either SNP genotypes or allele substitutions and the measured traits. Results showed that SNP 270 had a significant association with the fat yield associated with kidney, pelvic cavity, heart, intestine, and stomach (KPHISY). Animals with genotype CC and CT for 270 had less (CC: -7.71
3.3 kg and CT: -5.34
2.5 kg) KPHISY than animals with genotype TT (p = 0.02). Allele C for 270 was associated with an increase of -4.26
1.52 kg KPHISY (p = 0.006) and
of retail cuts weight percentage (NMP, Retail cuts weight/slaughter body weight) (p = 0.045); allele G for 312 was associated with an increase of -5.45
2.41 kg KPHISY (p = 0.026). An initial conclusion was that associations do exist between DGAT2 gene and carcass fat traits. Because of the small sample size of this study, it is proposed that further effort is required to validate these findings in larger populations.
Determination of Phylogenetic Relationships of Turkish Native Cattle Breeds with Other Cattle Breeds Using Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequence Polymorphism
Ozdemir, Memis ; Dogru, Unsal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 955~961
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70549
The aim of this study was to determine the specific polymorphic sites in cattle breeds and inter- and interbreed genetic variation among breeds and to develop a databank of Turkish native cattle mtDNA using sequence analysis. The entire D-loop region was analyzed based on DNA sequences in Turkish Grey, East Anatolian Red, South Anatolian Red, and Anatolian Black native breeds. In total, 68 nucleotide differences were observed at 26 different sites. The variable positions consisted of 22 transitions, two transversions, and two insertions, but no deletions. Haplotype number, haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, and mean number of pairwise difference values were found to be 17, 0.993, 0.00478, and 4.275, respectively. In addition, a phylogeny was developed by comparison among cattle populations for which the entire D-loop sequence was available. A high level of genetic variation was observed within and among the native cattle breeds.
Effects of Oviductal Fluid, Culture Media and Zona Pellucida Removal on the Development of Porcine Embryos by Nuclear Transfer
Zhang, Y.H. ; Song, E.S. ; Kim, E.S. ; Cong, P.Q. ; Lee, S.H. ; Lee, J.W. ; Yi, Y.J. ; Park, Chang-Sik ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 962~968
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80693
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oviductal fluid, porcine zygote medium (PZM)-3, PZM-4 and PZM-5, and modified PZM-5 culture media, and determine the effects of zona pellucida (ZP) removal on the development of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. There were no significant differences in the rates of fusion and cleavage among the five different oviductal fluid concentrations. However, the rates of blastocyst formation and the cell numbers per blastocyst were high in the embryos at the 14 and 28
/ml concentrations of oviductal fluid compared to the 0, 56 and 100
/ml concentrations. The rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation, and the cell numbers per blastocyst were higher in the PZM-3, PZM-5 and modified PZM-5 media than in the PZM-4 medium. However, there were no significant differences in the fusion rates of oocytes among the four culture media. The cell numbers per blastocyst in the embryos without ZP were significantly greater than those with ZP. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of fusion, cleavage and blastocyst formation between the embryos with and without ZP. In conclusion, we improved blastocyst development and the quality of NT embryos by replacing PVA with 3 mg/ml of BSA in PZM-5 medium and supplementing the PZM-5 medium with 14
/ml oviductal fluid. The NT embryos produced by the zona-free NT method had a high rate of blastocyst formation in the modified PZM-5 medium.
Effects of Sperm Pretreatments and In vitro Culture Systems on Development of In vitro Fertilized Embryos Derived from Prepubertal Boer Goat Oocytes in China
Lv, Lihua ; Yue, Wenbin ; Liu, Wenzhong ; Ren, Youshe ; Li, Fuzhong ; Lee, Kyung-Bon ; Smith, George W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 969~976
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90060
Use of oocytes from prepubertal animals for in vitro embryo production holds potential application for reducing generation intervals and increasing genetic progress through embryo transfer. The objective of these studies was to compare the effect of three sperm pretreatments (prior to in vitro fertilization) and seven embryo culture protocols on fertilization rate and (or) subsequent development of in vitro fertilized embryos derived from oocytes harvested from ovaries of 1-6 month old prepubertal Boer goats in China. Cleavage rates were highest for embryos fertilized with heparin-treated versus calcium ionophore- or caffeine-treated sperm. Similar rates of blastocyst development were observed using heparin- and ionophore-treated sperm, which were higher than obtained with caffeine-treated sperm. No differences in cleavage or blastocyst rates were observed following embryo culture in basal medias (synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF), Charles Rosenkrans 1 (CR1) or tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199)) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cumulus or oviductal cell co-culture did not enhance cleavage or blastocyst rates relative to culture in SOF+10% FBS. Replacement of FBS in SOF medium with 0.3% BSA increased cleavage rates, but did not increase rates of blastocyst development. Sequential culture in SOF+0.3% BSA followed by SOF+10% FBS increased blastocyst yield versus continuous culture in SOF+10% FBS and tended to increase blastocyst yield versus continuous culture in SOF+0.3% BSA. These results demonstrate a pronounced effects of sperm pretreatments and in vitro embryo culture systems on rates of blastocyst development and provide a potential protocol (sperm pretreatment with heparin and sequential embryo culture in SOF+0.3% BSA followed by SOF+10% FBS) for generation of the significant numbers of in vitro produced blastocysts from oocytes of prepubertal Boer goats necessary for application of embryo transfer in rural regions of China for distribution of Boer goat genetics.
Bacterial Inoculant Effects on Corn Silage Fermentation and Nutrient Composition
Jalc, D. ; Laukova, Andrea ; Pogany Simonova, M. ; Varadyova, Z. ; Homolka, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 977~983
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80282
The survival and effect of three new probiotic inoculants (Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 4000, L. fermentum LF2, and Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231) on the nutritive value and fermentation parameters of corn silage was studied under laboratory conditions. Whole corn plants (288.3 g/kg DM) were cut and ensiled at
for 105 days. The inoculants were applied at a concentration of
cfu/ml. Uninoculated silage was used as the control. The chopped corn was ensiled in 40 plastic jars (1 L) divided into four groups (4
10 per treatment). All corn silages had a low pH (below 3.55) and 83-85% of total silage acids comprised lactic acid after 105 days of ensiling. The probiotic inoculants in the corn silages affected corn silage characteristics in terms of significantly (p<0.05-0.001) higher pH, numerically lower crude protein content and ratio of lactic to acetic acid compared to control silage. However, the inoculants did not affect the concentration of total silage acids (acetic, propionic, lactic acids) as well as dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of corn silages in vitro. In the corn silages with three probiotic inoculants, significantly (CCM 4231, CCM 4000) lower n-6/n-3 ratio of fatty acids was detected than in control silage. Significant decrease in the concentration of
, and significant increase in the concentration of
was mainly found in the corn silages inoculated with the strains E. faecium CCM 4231 and L. plantarum CCM 4000. At the end of ensiling, the inoculants were found at counts of less than 1.0 log10 cfu/g in corn silages.
Effect of Organic Selenium (Sel-Plex) on Thermometabolism, Blood Chemical Composition and Weight Gain in Holstein Suckling Calves
Ebrahimi, Marzieh ; Towhidi, Armin ; Nikkhah, Ali ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 984~992
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80698
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of milk supplemented with Sel-Plex on thyroid hormones, rectal temperature, plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations, and body weight in suckling calves. Ten Holstein suckling male calves of approximately 1 month of age were selected and randomly allocated to one of two groups and fed either unsupplemented milk (control) or milk supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg DM Se from Sel-Plex (treated). The animals received treated milk and free choice starter for two months. Dry matter intake for each individual animal was recorded daily throughout the study. The calves were weighed and blood samples were taken weekly. Plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine (
), thyroxin (
-Uptake were determined using radioimmunoassay kits. Plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations were determined by enzymatic-colorimetric methods. Rectal temperature was recorded at blood sampling time. During the experiment, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded at the time of blood sampling and every four hours. Treatment significantly (p<0.01) affected the concentration of
) and ratio of
in plasma. The plasma concentrations of
in treated calves were 33% higher than in the control. The plasma concentrations of
(p<0.05), glucose (p<0.01) and cholesterol (p<0.01) were decreased in the treated group. Calves fed Sel-Plex had higher rectal temperature (p<0.01). Plasma free
index (FT4I) did not differ significantly between the two groups. An increase in body weight was observed (p<0.09) in the treated group. The results indicated that milk fortified with Sel-Plex could increase tissue conversion of
and therefore improve thermometabolism in suckling calves.
Effects of Non-ionic Surfactant Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Beef Steers Fed High-roughage Diets
Ahn, Gyu-chul ; Kim, Jeong-hoon ; Park, Eun-kyu ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Lee, Gang-yeon ; Lee, Jung-il ; Kim, Chong-min ; Park, Keun-kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 993~1004
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90095
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of non-ionic surfactant (NIS) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of beef steers fed high-roughage diets. The objective of experiment 1 was to investigate the effects of NIS supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation of cultures administered with corn and barley as grain substrate and rice straw and timothy hay as roughage substrate. The in vivo ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance and digestibility of nutrients were also examined with steers fed a high-roughage diet in experiment 2. The aim of experiment 3 was to determine the responses to NIS of growing steers fed a high-roughage diet. In experiment 1, ammonia nitrogen concentration for NIS supplementation was higher (p<0.05) than for the control with all substrates. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate and valerate of the incubated roughage substrates, rice straw and timothy hay, were higher (p<0.05) for NIS supplementation than for the control whereas VFA concentrations in the cultures of corn and barley were unaffected. These results indicated that effects of NIS on ruminal fermentation are diet dependent, specifically on roughage sources. In experiment 2, ruminal pH of steers supplemented with NIS was lower (p<0.05) than the control. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetate, total VFA and urinary concentrations of purine derivatives were increased (p<0.05) by NIS supplementation. In experiment 3, supplementation of NIS increased (p<0.05) intakes of total feed and corn silage, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of growing steers although they varied depending on supplementation level. Due to the roughage-specific feature of NIS effects, NIS appears to enhance ruminal fermentation of fibrous parts of feeds and, consequently, performance of steers fed a high-roughage diet.
Suitability of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Hay as a Supplement to Fresh Grass in Dairy Cows
Scharenberg, A. ; Kreuzer, M. ; Dohme, Frigga ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1005~1015
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80675
Two experiments were carried out to determine the utility of sainfoin hay, a temperate tanniferous forage legume, as a dietary supplement for grass-fed cows. The condensed tannins (CT) of sainfoin might counteract the typical metabolic ammonia load of cows in intensive grazing systems. Furthermore, the physical fibrousness of sainfoin might improve ruminal pH stability. In the preliminary experiment, the eating rate of non-lactating Holstein cows of two tanniferous hays, sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil, was compared to that of a grass-clover hay after specific periods of time (n = 4). The eating rate of sainfoin was superior to that of the other forages. In the main experiment, designed as a replicated 3
3 Latin square, six ruminally-cannulated, lactating Red Holstein cows received grass, concentrate and either no supplementation, 3 kg/d of grass hay or 3 kg/d of sainfoin hay (n = 6). Measured intakes of the grass hay and the sainfoin hay were 2.0 and 1.5 kg DM, and two cows entirely refused to eat the sainfoin hay and had to be excluded from data analysis. Grass DMI was similar for cows supplemented with sainfoin hay and cows fed only grass whereas intake of concentrate was higher (p<0.01) for the latter treatment. Continuous measurement of ruminal pH showed that the minimum pH at night tended to be lower (p<0.10) with grass-only feeding compared to sainfoin supplementation, but pH did not decline below the threshold of subacute acidosis for a longer period of time. The slightly higher intake of nitrogen (N) for cows supplemented with sainfoin hay (413 g/d) compared to cows fed only grass (399 g/d) was accompanied by an increased (p<0.05) fecal N excretion and a tendency for an increased (p<0.10) urinary N excretion. Ruminal ammonia concentration, as well as plasma and milk urea, were not affected by sainfoin supplementation. In conclusion, the lack of positive effects typical for CT might be explained either by the limited CT content of this plant species (55 g/kg DM) or the relatively low proportion of sainfoin in the total diet or both. Moreover, due to the unexpected low grass quality, the general ammonia load might have been too low for CT to have an impact.
Energy and Nutrient Digestibility in Four Sources of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Produced from Corn Grown within a Narrow Geographical Area and Fed to Growing Pigs
Stein, Hans H. ; Connot, S.P. ; Pedersen, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1016~1025
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80484
Two experiments were conducted to determine energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced from corn and fed to growing pigs. The objective was to test the hypothesis that energy and nutrient digestibility in DDGS does not vary if samples are procured from ethanol plants that use similar production technologies and use corn that is grown within a narrow geographical area. The four sources of DDGS that were used were procured from ethanol plants that were less than 10 yr old and located within 250 km of each other. In Exp. 1, five growing barrows (initial BW = 71.4 kg) that were fitted with a T-canula in the distal ileum were allotted to a 5
5 Latin square design and used to measure apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA in the four sources of DDGS. Results of this experiment showed that the SID of CP and all AA except Cys and Pro were greater (p<0.05) in two of the DDGS sources than in the other two sources. Exp. 2 was conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, N, P, ether extract, NDF, and ADF in corn and in the same four sources of DDGS as used in Exp. 1. Five pigs (initial BW = 29.7 kg) that were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a 5
5 Latin square design were used. Results of Exp. 2 showed that the average DE and ME in DDGS were 4,072 and 3,750 kcal/kg DM, respectively, which was less (p<0.01) than the DE and ME in corn (4,181 and 4,103 kcal/kg DM, respectively). The average ATTD for P in DDGS was 56.1%, which was greater (p<0.01) than the ATTD for P in corn (31.9%). The ATTD for ADF in DDGS was also greater (p<0.05) than in corn, but the ATTD for ether extract and NDF were greater (p<0.05) in corn than in DDGS. It is concluded that energy and nutrient digestibility vary among sources of DDGS even when the DDGS is procured from ethanol plants that use corn grown within a narrow geographical region. Thus, factors other than corn growing region are responsible for the variability of energy and nutrient digestibility in DDGS.
Effect of Butyric Acid on Performance, Gastrointestinal Tract Health and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
Panda, A.K. ; Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Shyam Sunder, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1026~1031
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80298
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of graded levels of butyric acid (butyrate) on performance, gastrointestinal tract health and carcass characteristics in young broiler chickens. Control starter (0-3 wk) and finisher (4-5 wk) diets were formulated to contain 2,900 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP, and 3,000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP, respectively. Subsequently, four other experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.05% antibiotic (furazolidone) or 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% butyric acid. Each diet was fed at random to 8 replicates of 6 chicks each throughout the experimental period (0-5 wk). The results showed that 0.4% butyrate in the diet was similar to antibiotic in maintaining body weight gain and reducing E. coli numbers but superior for feed conversion ratio. No added advantage on these parameters was obtained by enhancing the concentration of butyrate from 0.4 to 0.6% in the diet. Feed intake and mortality were not influenced by the dietary treatments. A reduction in pH of the upper GI tract (crop, proventiculus and gizzard) was observed by inclusion of butyrate in the diets of broilers compared to either control or antibiotic-fed group. Butyrate at 0.4% was more effective in reducing the pH than 0.2% butyrate. Within the lower GI tract, 0.4 and 0.6% butyrate was effective in lowering pH in the duodenum, but no effect was found in either the jejunum or ileum. The villus length and crypt depth in the duodenum increased significantly in all the butyrate treated diets irrespective of the level tested. Carcass yield was higher and abdominal fat content was lower significantly in all the butyrate treatment groups compared to the control or antibiotic group. From these findings, it is concluded that 0.4% butyric acid supplementation maintained performance, intestinal tract health, and villi development and carcass quality in broiler chickens.
Effect of Partial Substitution of Dietary Spray-dried Porcine Plasma or Fishmeal with Soybean and Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling Piglets
Sun, Zhantian ; Ma, Qiugang ; Li, Zhongrong ; Ji, Cheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1032~1037
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70107
The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of partial replacement of spray-dried porcine protein (SDPP) or fish meal with soybean and shrimp protein hydrolysate (SSPH) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters in weaned pigs. Two hundred and forty 21
2 d old pigs ((Pietrain
Large Yorkshire)) with initial weight of 6.9
0.5 kg were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and eight piglets per replicate. The control diet (T1) contained 2% SDPP and 6% fishmeal, and SDPP for experimental diets T2 and T3 was replaced with 1% and 2% SSPH, respectively, on an iso-nitrogenous basis. The fishmeal for experimental diets T4 and T5 was replaced with 1% and 2% SSPH, respectively, also on an iso-nitrogenous basis. The experimental period was 21 days. The results showed that weaned piglets fed the diets containing 1% and 2% SSPH as a replacement for SDPP had similar average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed/gain (F/G), diarrhea rate and serum biochemical indices e.g. blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total serum protein (TP), albumin to globulin ratio (A/G), globulin (GLO), serum glucose (GLU), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to those fed the control diet during 0-10 d and 0-21 d of the experiment. The substitution of 1% SSPH on an iso-nitrogenous basis for fish meal appeared to be beneficial for ADG (p = 0.59) and ADFI (p = 0.23) of piglets during the overall period. The digestibility of calcium was higher (p<0.01) in pigs fed diets containing SSPH than on the control diet. Addition of 1% SSPH on an iso-nitrogenous basis for fish meal could increase the digestibilities of dry matter and energy of the diet. Dietary replacement of fish meal with 1% and 2% SSPH had no effect on the concentrations of BUN, TP, A/G, GLO, GLU, and IgG. In conclusion, dietary SDPP or fish meal could partially replace SSPH without any adverse effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters in weaned piglets.
Effects of Fermented Soy Protein on Growth Performance and Blood Protein Contents in Nursery Pigs
Min, B.J. ; Cho, J.H. ; Chen, Y.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Yoo, J.S. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Park, B.C. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1038~1042
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80240
Fifty-four cross-bred ((Landrace
Duroc) pigs (13.47
0.03 kg average initial BW) were evaluated in a 42 d growth assay to determine the effects of the fermented soy product (FSP). The dietary treatments were: FSP 0 (corn-soybean basal diet), FSP 2.5 (FSP 0 amended with 2.5% FSP), and FSP 5 (FSP 0 amended with 5% FSP). The body weight at the end of the experiment increased linearly (p = 0.05) as the FSP levels in the diets increased. In addition, the ADG and G/F ratio also increased (linear effect, p = 0.06) as the levels of FSP increased. However, there was no effect of FSP on ADFI or DM digestibility (p>0.05). Furthermore, the N digestibility increased as the FSP levels increased (linear effect, p = 0.003), although the total protein concentration in the blood was not affected by FSP (p>0.05). Additionally, the albumin concentration was higher in pigs fed diets that contained 2.5% FSP than in pigs in the control group or the FSP 5 group (quadratic effect, p = 0.07). The creatinine concentrations were also evaluated at d 42 and found to be greater in pigs that received the FSP 2.5 diet (quadratic effect, p = 0.09). Moreover, the creatinine concentration increased linearly in response to FSP treatment (p = 0.09). Finally, although the BUN concentration on the final day of the experiment was greater in pigs that received the FSP 2.5 diet (quadratic effect, p = 0.10), there were no incremental differences in BUN concentrations among groups (p>0.05). Taken together, the results of this study indicate that feeding FSP to pigs during the late nursery phase improves growth performance and N digestibility.
In vivo Methane Production from Formic and Acetic Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of White Roman Geese
Chen, Yieng-How ; Wang, Shu-Yin ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1043~1047
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80319
Three experiments were conducted to determine the conversion rate of formic and acetic acids into methane in the gastrointestinal tracts of geese. In experiment I, two sets of two 4-month-old male White Roman geese were allocated to one of two treatment groups. Each set of geese was inoculated either with formic acid or with phosphate buffer solution (PBS). After the acid or the PBS was inoculated into the esophagi of the geese, two birds from each treatment were placed in a respiratory chamber as a measurement unit for 4 h in order to determine methane production rate. In experiment II and III, 6- and 7-wk-old male White Roman goslings were used, respectively. Birds were allocated to receive either formic acid or PBS solution injected into the ceca in experiment II. Acetic acid or PBS solution injected into the cecum were used for experiment III. After either the acids or the PBS solution were injected into the cecum, two birds from each treatment were placed in a respiratory chamber as a measurement unit for 3 h; each treatment was repeated 3 times. The results indicated that formic acid inoculated into the oesophagi of geese was quickly converted into methane. Compared with the PBS-injected group, methane production increased by 5.02 times in the formic acid injected group (4.32 vs. 0.86 mg/kg BW/d; p<0.05). Acetic acid injected into the ceca did not increase methane production; conversely, it tended to decrease methane production. The present study suggests that formic acid may be converted to methane in the ceca, and that acetic acid may not be a precursor of methane in the ceca of geese.
Effect of Chitosan on Nitric Oxide Content and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Serum and Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA in Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens
Li, H.Y. ; Yan, S.M. ; Shi, B.L. ; Guo, X.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1048~1053
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80708
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in serum, and relative expression of iNOS mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old Arbor Acre mixed-sex broiler chickens were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with five replicates in each treatment and eight chickens in each replicate. The broiler chickens in the six treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg chitosan. The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that dietary chitosan enhanced NO content and iNOS activity in serum as well as iNOS mRNA expression in the duodenum and ileum of broiler chickens in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.05), and improved jejunum iNOS mRNA expression in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.10) with increasing addition of chitosan. Chicks fed a diet containing 0.5-1.0 g/kg chitosan had higher NO content and iNOS activity in serum as well as small-intestinal iNOS mRNA expression compared with birds given the control diet, but positive effects of chitosan tended to be suppressed when addition of chitosan in the diet was increased to 2.0 g/kg. These results implied that there was a threshold level of chitosan inclusion beyond which progressive reductions in serum NO content and small intestinal iNOS expression occured, and the regulation of chitosan on immune functions in chickens is probably associated with activated expression of iNOS and NO secretion.
Chemical and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus Muscle of Crossbred Bulls Finished in Feedlot
do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ; de Oliveira, Adriana Nery ; Pizzi Rotta, Polyana ; Perotto, Daniel ; do Prado, Rodolpho Martin ; Silva, Roberio Rodrigues ; de Souza, Nilson Evelazio ; Moletta, Jose Luiz ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1054~1059
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80533
This work was carried out to study the chemical and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle (LM) of crossbred young bulls finished in a feedlot. After weaning (at 8 months old), the bulls were kept in a feedlot for 180 days. The bulls were kept in individual pens and fed (twice daily) with corn silage, soybean hulls, cracked corn, limestone, urea and mineral salt. The bulls were slaughtered with a final weight of 464 kg. Forty bulls were used: 10 Caracu (CAR), 10 Canchim (CAN), 10 Caracu vs. Charolais (CCH) and 10 Canchim vs. Aberdeen Angus (CAA). The percentages of moisture, ash, crude protein, total lipids, as well as the fatty acid composition, were measured in the LM. The moisture percentage was lower (p<0.05) for bulls from CAA genetic group (71.2%) in comparison to bulls from CAR (74.2%), CAN (74.9%) and CCH (74.7%) genetic groups. On the other hand, there was no difference (p>0.05) among bulls from CAR, CAN and CCH genetic groups. Ash percentage was lower (p<0.05) for CAR bulls (0.96%) in comparison with the other genetic groups. There was no difference (p>0.05) among CAN, CCH and CAA genetic groups. Similarly, there was no difference (p>0.05) in crude protein among the different genetic groups. Total lipids percentage was higher (p<0.05) for CAA bulls (5.35%) and lower (p<0.05) for CAN (1.85%) and CCH (1.41%) genetic groups. Genetic group has little effect on the fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle of bulls. However, CLA (C 18:2 c-9 t-11) percentage was higher (p<0.05) for CAR (0.33%) and CCH (0.37%) in comparison to CAN (0.27%) and CAA (0.29%) genetic groups. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 and n-3 percentages did not differ (p>0.05) among genetic groups. PUFA/SFA ratio ranged from 0.10 to 0.15, with no difference (p>0.05) among genetic groups. Similarly, n-6/n-3 ratio ranged from 12.6 to 16.3, without difference (p>0.05) among genetic groups.
Nutritional Management for Buffalo Production
Sarwar, M. ; Khan, M.A. ; Nisa, M. ; Bhatti, S.A. ; Shahzad, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 7, 2009, Pages 1060~1068
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.09
The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important contributor to milk, meat, power, fuel and leather production in many developing countries. Buffaloes can be categorized into Asian and Mediterranean buffaloes. Asian buffalo includes two subspecies known as Riverine and Swamp types. Riverine (water buffalo) and Swamp buffaloes possess different genetics (50 vs. 48 chromosomes, respectively), morphology (body frame, body weight, horn shape and skin color) and behavior (wallowing in mud or water) and thus, are reared and used for different purposes. Low per head milk yield, poor reproductive performance (seasonal breeding behavior, anestrous, and longer calving interval) and low growth rate in buffaloes have been attributed to insufficient supply of nutrients. In many parts of Asia, where the buffalo is an integral part of the food chain and rural economy, irregular and inadequate availability of quality feedstuffs and their utilization are hampering the performance of this unique animal. Balanced nutrition and better management can enhance buffalo productivity. Many efforts have been made in the last few decades to improve nutrient supply and utilization in buffaloes. Recent research on locally available feed resources such as crop residues, and industrial by-products, dietary addition of micronutrients, use of performance modifiers and use of ruminally protected fat and protein sources have shown significant potential to improve growth, milk yield and reproductive performance of buffaloes. However, a number of issues, including establishment of nutrient requirements for dairy and beef, development of buffalo calf feeding systems, nutritional management of metabolic and reproductive anomalies, and understanding and exploitation of the buffalo gut ecosystem, need to be addressed. Extensive coordinated research and extension efforts are required for improved buffalo nutrition in developing countries.