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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 8 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 7 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 6 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 5 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 4 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 2 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 1 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 12 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 11 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
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Effects of Castration on Androgen Receptor, IGF-I Ea, MGF and Myostatin Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscles of Male Pigs
Yao, Yuchang ; Cai, Zhaowei ; Zhang, Lifan ; Zhao, Chunjiang ; Wu, Keliang ; Xu, Ningying ; Liu, Gang ; Wu, Changxin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1069~1077
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80632
Castration of male pig produces significant negative effects on skeletal muscle development. The androgen receptor (AR), two splice variants of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I Ea and MGF) and the myostatin gene may play important roles in this process. In the present study, the expression of AR, IGF-I Ea, MGF and myostatin genes in three skeletal muscles, the brachialis, longissimus and semitendinosus, were studied using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our experimental design used 14 pairs of male Landrace sire
Yorkshire dam piglets. The two piglets in each pair were full sibs, one of which was castrated at 21 d of age; the other remained intact. The study group was divided into subgroups of equal size. Animals in the first subgroup were slaughtered at 147 d and those of the second at 210 d of age. Carcass weight and lean meat yield were similar between boars and barrows at 147 d of age (p>0.05), whereas barrows had lower carcass weight and less lean meat yield at 210 d of age (p<0.05). Castration caused down-regulation of AR gene expression at both 147 and 210 d of age (p<0.05). The two splice variants of the IGF-I gene from porcine skeletal muscle were cloned using RT-PCR, and it was found that MGF differs from IGF-I Ea in having a 52-base insert in the last coding exon of the mRNA. Both splice variants were down-regulated by castration only at 210 d of age (p<0.05). No differences in expression of the myostatin gene were observed between boars and barrows at either 147 or 210 d of age (p>0.05). These results suggest that the downregulation of AR, IGF-I Ea and MGF gene expression following castration helps to explain the negative effect of castration on skeletal muscle development.
Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone Receptor (MC1R) Genotype and Its Effects on Coat Color in Korean Jindo Dogs
Hong, Kyung-Won ; Kim, Sang-Wook ; Jang, Hong-Chul ; Yang, Seung-Min ; Shin, Young-Bin ; Hong, Yoon-Hye ; Kim, Jong-Seok ; Oh, Seok-Il ; Choi, Yoon-Ju ; Chung, Dong-Hee ; Yang, Boh-Suk ; Lee, Ji-Woong ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1078~1084
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80599
The Jindo dog is a Korean natural monument and is recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. A prominent feature is the diverse coat color within the breed. To analyze the genetic basis of variation in the Jindo coat color, we sequenced the protein-coding regions of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R). The MC1R coding sequence was determined from 154 dogs in five breeds (Jindo, Labrador Retriever, English Springer Spaniel, Belgian Malinois, and German Shepherd). To confirm the genetic structure of sampled populations, we tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and computed
The sample populations did not significantly deviate from HWE.
was 0.02 between white and fawn Jindo dogs; this was lower than
between breeds. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R coding region. Among the six SNPs, five were non-synonymous (S90G, T105A, Q159P, M264V, and R306ter) and one was synonymous SNP (Y298Y). From the SNPs, we predicted four haplotypes (H1, H2, H3, and H4) for Jindo MC1R. Jindo dogs had different haplotypes corresponding to different coat colors. H1 was frequently observed in white Jindo dogs with an odds ratio of 5.03 (95% CI: 2.27-11.18, p<0.0001), whereas H2 and H4 were observed only in fawn Jindo dogs. Our findings indicate that SNP haplotype can influence coat color. Knowledge of MC1R haplotypes can help discriminate white and fawn coats in Jindo dogs. We hope this report will trigger more research into the genetics of this traditional Korean dog and will be a reference for dogs of Asian origin. Also, our results will provide a useful genetic marker for Jindo dog breeders who have selected for specific colors.
Genetic Relationships among Different Breeds of Chinese Gamecocks Revealed by mtDNA Variation
Qu, L.J. ; Li, X.Y. ; Yang, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1085~1090
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80660
There are currently five primary breeds of Chinese gamecock, the Henan, Luxi, Tulufan, Xishuangbanna andZhangzhou. Though there is historical evidence of cockfighting in China dating as far back as 2,800 years, the origin and genetic relationships of these breeds are not well understood. We used sequence variation from the mtDNA cytb gene and control region (1,697 bp) to examine the domestication history and genetic relationship of the Chinese gamecock. From 75 samples (14-16 per breed) we found 34 haplotypes, and 45 variable nucleotides. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated multiple origins of the gamecock breeds. The breeds in the north and center of China, Tulufan, Luxi and Henan, clustered together in a haplogroup and may have the same ancestor. However the southern breeds, Zhangzhou and Xishuangbanna clustered into two isolated haplogroups, suggesting another two origins of Chinese gamecock. Meanwhile, extensive admixture was also found because samples from different breeds, more or less, were always grouped together in the same clades. Based on these results, we discuss the possibilities of multiple origins of gamecock breeds, from both ancestral gamecocks as well as other domestic chickens and red jungle fowl.
cDNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Boar Testes during the Prepubertal Period
Lee, Dong-Mok ; Lee, Ki-Ho ; Choi, Jin Ho ; Hyun, Jin Hee ; Lee, Eun Ju ; Bajracharya, Prati ; Lee, Yong Seok ; Chang, Jongsoo ; Chung, Chung Soo ; Choi, Inho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1091~1101
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90009
In an attempt to understand the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of the anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone, produced by prepubertal boar testes and its physiological role, normalized complementary DNA (cDNA) from boar testes was generated. DNA sequencing of 2,016 randomly selected clones yielded 794,116 base pairs of high quality nucleotide sequence. Computer-assisted assembly of the nucleotide sequence of each clone resulted in 423 contigs and 403 singletons including several genes for steroidogenic enzymes and molecules related to steroid metabolism. Analysis of gene expression pattern by use of the presently-fabricated cDNA microarray identified a number of genes that were differentially expressed during the postnatal development period in boar testes. Two genes of unknown function were identified to be highly expressed in the testis of 2-weeks-old neonatal boar. In addition, the sequencing of open reading frames of these genes revealed their homology with human alpha hemoglobin and Homo sapiens hypothetical LOC643669, transcript variant 1. Moreover, the transcripts of these genes were also detected in porcine muscle and adipocytes, in addition to Leydig cells of pigs.
Microsatellite-based Genetic Diversity and Evolutionary Relationships of Six Dog Breeds
Ye, J.-H. ; Ren, D.-R. ; Xie, A.-F. ; Wu, X.-P. ; Xu, L. ; Fu, P.-F. ; Zhao, H.-A. ; Yang, Qianyong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1102~1106
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80493
The Tibetan Mastiff is one of the most archaic, ferocious and the largest dogs in the world. The Kunming dog is the chief working-dog breed in China. In this study, ten microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships in six dog breeds, including Tibetan Mastiff, Kunming dog, Belgian Malinois, Labrador Retriever, English Springer Spaniel, and German Shepherd. The highest genetic diversity was exhibited by the Tibetan Mastiff, indicating useful protection and little inbreeding in the modern Tibetan Mastiff. Higher genetic diversity was observed in European breeds, supporting the hypotheses that breeders outcross their pure breed dogs occasionally to avoid deleterious effects in Europe. Evolutionary relationships showed that English Springer Spaniel and Labrador Retriever were clustered together, then with the Tibetan Mastiff, consistent with previous cluster results. German Shepherd and Kunming dog were grouped together, coinciding with the breeding history of Kunming dog. It is the first time that Tibetan Mastiff and Kunming dog have been analyzed with microsatellites.
Amplification of Porcine SRY Gene for Sex Determination
Choi, S.G. ; Bae, M.S. ; Lee, E.S. ; Kim, S.O. ; Kim, B.K. ; Yang, J.H. ; Jeon, C.E. ; Kim, H.H. ; Hwang, Y.J. ; Lee, E.S. ; Kim, D.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1107~1112
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90034
The separation of X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm is of use in many aspects of livestock maintenance. In this study, we sought to determine the difference in DNA content between X- and Y-bearing sperm, separate sperm into X- and Y-enriched pools, and assess the efficacy of sorting. Sperm collected from Duroc and miniature pigs were stained with 20.8
Hoechst 33342 and analyzed using a high-speed cell sorter. Measurement of the fluorescence intensity of stained sperm nuclei revealed that the X-bearing sperm of Duroc and miniature pigs respectively contain 2.75% and 2.88% more DNA than Y-bearing sperm. In total, 50.18% of the sperm were assigned to the X-sorted sample and 49.82% was assigned to the Y-sorted sample for Duroc pigs. For miniature pigs, the Xsorted sample represented 50.19% of the population and the Y-sorted represented 49.81% of the population. Duplex PCR was used to evaluate accuracy of sorting. A fast and reliable method for porcine sexing was developed through amplification of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY). Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify the conserved porcine SRY high motility group (HMG) box sequence motif. We found that the primer pair designed in this study was 1.46 times more specific than previously reported primers. Thus, this study shows that the present method can be applied in porcine breeding programs to facilitate manipulation of the sex ratio of offspring and to achieve precise sexing of porcine offspring by amplification of the HMG box of the SRY gene.
Follicular Population during the Oestrous Cycle in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Undergoing Spontaneous and PGF
Warriach, H.M. ; Ahmad, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1113~1116
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90029
The objective of this study was to compare the follicular population during spontaneous and
induced oestrous cycles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. In Exp.1, (n = 13 oestrous cycles) follicular population was monitored using ultrasonography on alternate days. Buffaloes were monitored for ovarian follicles from day 0 (first oestrus) until next oestrus. These animals were observed for oestrus twice daily using a teaser bull. Of 12 oestrous cycles, 9 (75%) had two waves of follicular activity and only 3 (25%) had three waves during the oestrous cycle. The mean number of small, medium and large follicles among various days of the oestrous cycle between two and three waves of follicular development were not significantly different (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, follicular population 3 days before oestrus was compared in buffaloes undergoing spontaneous (n = 12 oestrous cycles) and
induced (n = 6) luteolysis. The mean number of small and large follicles increased (p<0.05) and the number of medium follicles decreased (p<0.05) during the 3 days before oestrus in buffaloes undergoing induced luteolysis as compared to those with spontaneous luteolysis. These results showed that the mean number of small, medium and large follicles among various days of the oestrous cycle were similar between the two and three waves of follicular development, and three days before oestrous the number of small, medium and large follicles altered due to induced luteolysis on day 9, compared to those with spontaneous luteolysis.
Effects of IGF-I and EGF Supplemented to PZM3 Culture Medium on the Development of Porcine Embryos In vitro
Kim, J.Y. ; Park, M.C. ; Kim, S.B. ; Park, H.D. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, Jae-Myeoung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1117~1123
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90051
This study investigated the effects of IGF-I and EGF on the development of blastocysts or hatched blastocysts during the in vitro culture of embryos from immature porcine oocytes. After the in vitro maturation and fertilization of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and their culture in vitro in PZM3 medium, we examined the embryo development rate for 168 h. When different concentrations of IGF-I (0, 1, 10, 20 ng/ml) were supplemented to fertilized porcine embryos in vitro, there were no significant differences in cleavage rate, blastocyst development rate or blastocyst hatching rate among the treated groups. On the other hand, when different concentrations of EGF (0, 1, 10, 20 ng/ml) were supplemented to the in vitro culture medium, blastocyst development rate was highest in the group in which EGF was not supplemented and, specifically, it was higher than in the 20 ng/ml treatment group (p<0.05). When 10 ng/ml IGF-I and 1 ng/ml EGF were supplemented separately or simultaneously, there were no significant differences among the treated groups in blastocyst hatching rate and the number of cells in each condition. This study demonstrated that the addition of IGF-I and EGF into PZM3 medium did not enhance development of the blastocyst stage and total cell number in blastocysts.
Effect of Supplemental Chromium Levels on Performance, Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics of Transport-stressed Lambs
Kraidees, M.S. ; Al-Haidary, I.A. ; Mufarrej, S.I. ; Al-Saiady, M.Y. ; Metwally, H.M. ; Hussein, M.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1124~1132
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80385
A trial was conducted to study the effect of supplemental chromium (Cr) levels from a Cr-yeast source on performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of transport-stressed lambs. Forty-eight Naemi lambs (avg. BW 31.7 kg) were transported by truck for a distance of 1,450 km. On arrival day, the lambs were randomly allocated to four groups receiving diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.6 or 0.9 ppm Cr. Each group consisted of four separately housed replicates of three lambs each. The lambs were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 84 d (21 d stress period, followed by 63 d growing period). Road transit of lambs resulted in a decreased (p<0.001) live body weight of 8.5%. Supplementation of Cr-yeast did not alter the performance of lambs during the stress period. Linear and quadratic increases (p<0.05) were observed in DMI and ADG, respectively, with increasing supplemental Cr levels in the diets during the growing period. Values were greater (p<0.05) by 14.7% and 20.8%, respectively, for lambs fed 0.3 ppm Cr compared to control, while those fed on the other two levels were intermediate. Over the 84-d feeding period, a trend was noted towards a slight increase in loin eye area and a decrease in body wall fat thickness for lambs fed Cr supplementation compared to the control group. This study suggests that the supplementation of Cr-yeast, especially at 0.3 ppm level, is beneficial for improving the performance of growing lambs whether the animals are stressed or not.
Effects of Crude Protein Levels in Total Mixed Rations on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Growing Korean Black Goats
Hwangbo, Soon ; Choi, Sun Ho ; Kim, Sang Woo ; Son, Dong Soo ; Park, Ho Sung ; Lee, Sung Hoon ; Jo, Ik Hwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1133~1139
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80527
This study was carried out to investigate effects of crude protein (CP) levels in total mixed rations (TMR) on growth performance and meat quality in growing Korean black goats. Thirty-six 6-month-old growing black male goats (initial body weight =17.95
0.13 kg) were used. The goats were randomly divided into four treatments and 9 animals were allotted to each treatment. In terms of treatments, CP levels in TMR were 14, 16, 18, and 20% of dry matter (DM) and all diets were isocaloric (2.4 Mcal ME/kg DM). The experiment lasted for 20 weeks with a 15-day adaptation period. After the end of the trial, five goats from each treatment were slaughtered to measure carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily gain (ADG) significantly (p<0.05) increased as dietary CP levels increased, but the highest ADG was found on the 18% CP treatment. The higher CP levels in TMR significantly (p<0.05) decreased feed conversion ratio, but the lowest ratio was on the 18% CP treatment, suggesting a higher bioavailability of nutrients by balanced energy and protein levels on this treatment. There was no significant difference in dressing percentage among treatments, but there was a tendency for levels more than 16% CP in TMR to have a comparatively higher dressing percentage than the 14% treatment. The percentages of meat, fat and bone were not significantly influenced by dietary CP levels. Dietary CP levels did not influence chemical composition of goat meat. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among treatments in any of the sensory parameters except for tenderness. Tenderness was similar for 18 and 20% treatments, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the 14% treatment. The results from this study suggested that an adequate CP level in TMR for achieving optimal growth performance and meat quality of growing Korean black goats might be 18% of DM, and that dietary CP level above 18% seemed not to further increase growth performance and meat quality.
Effect of Forage Feeding on Goat Meat Production: Carcass Characteristics and Composition of Creole Kids Reared Either at Pasture or Indoors in the Humid Tropics
Alexandre, G. ; Limea, L. ; Fanchonne, A. ; Coppry, O. ; Mandonnet, N. ; Boval, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1140~1150
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80593
Forage diets provide good quality carcasses in sheep but very little is known in tropical goats. An experiment was designed with Creole male goats using grass-based systems to assess carcass yield, scores, cuts and composition. After weaning (84 d, 9.2 kg LW) two modes of forage feeding were compared with two replicates of each. Feeding groups were: PF for animals reared at pasture (n = 62) and IF when reared indoors (n = 60). Given that forage finishing will result in low ADG it appeared necessary to study different fattening lengths. The kids were equally divided into 4 groups: group A (n = 32), 4mo after weaning; group B (n = 32), 4mo after A; group C (n = 30), 3mo after B and group D (n = 28), 2mo after C. The animals grazed (in two sub-flocks) on irrigated tropical pastures managed in a rotational system (28 d of re-growth) at a mean stocking rate of 1,200 kg/ha/yr LW. The IF groups were reared in collective pens on a slatted floor (2 replicates of 7 or 8 kids each). They were fed the same stand of tropical grass (25% DM, 12% CP) as that of pasture that was cut daily and provided ad libitum. The ADG (-10%), the weights of omental fat (-60%) and fat in shoulder (-18%), the ultimate pH of carcass (-12%), the meat colour score (-24%), the ""parameter accounting for redness (12%) and the DM and lipid contents (-4%) were significantly lower (p<0.05) in PF than in IF, while the liver was heavier (+23%, p<0.05). Feeding conditions seemed to be similar, thus, differences could be related to gastrointestinal parasitism in the PF system and hypotheses are discussed. Increasing the fattening duration, resulted in significant difference (p<0.01) in many traits: the weights at slaughter and of carcass increased by 40% and 60% from groups A to D and consequently the weights of body compartments and carcass cuts (1.5 to 2.0 fold more). When the results were presented as percentage of empty body weight and carcass weight, these preliminary results (carcass weight 9kg and yield 53%, muscle proportion 70%) and qualitative parameters (low fat score 2/5, fat proportion 5%), seem to be a good incentive for the sector to develop a niche market to meet consumer lean meat expectations. The indoors system could be implemented where there was low availability of grazing areas or problems of dog attacks.
Effects of Flaxseed Diets on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Hanwoo Steers
Kim, Chong-min ; Kim, Jeong-hoon ; Oh, Young-kyoon ; Park, Eun-kyu ; Ahn, Gyu-chul ; Lee, Gang-yeon ; Lee, Jung-il ; Park, Keun-kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1151~1159
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90096
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary level of whole flaxseed (WFS; 0, 10 and 15%) on performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition of serum and subcutaneous, perirenal, and intramuscular adipose tissues of Korean Hanwoo cattle. The daily gains were not different among treatments. Dietary inclusion of WFS decreased (p<0.05) feed intake but improved (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio (feed/gain). Backfat thickness and marbling score were increased (p<0.05) by dietary WFS. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, loin-eye area, and carcass yield and quality were not different among treatments. The proportion of C18:3 in serum and, to a lesser extent, in adipose tissues were increased (p<0.01) by dietary WFS, indicating that lipids from WFS escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed WFS had lower proportions of saturated fatty acid (SFA; C14:0 and 16:0) and higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; C18:2. 18:3, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6) in perirenal and intramuscular fat than animals fed diets without WFS, resulting in an increased PUFA/SFA ratio. Furthermore, feeding WFS increased (p<0.01) proportions of
-6 fatty acids in intramuscular fat but decreased (p<0.05) the
-3 ratio. Relative treatment effects were similar between 10 and 15% WFS. Feeding WFS can effectively alter composition of adipose tissues with enhanced feed conversion ratio.
Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-2 on Morphology, Proliferation and Enzyme Activity of Intestinal Enterocyte Cells of Weaned Piglets In vitro
Jia, Gang ; Jiang, RongChuan ; Wang, KangNing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1160~1166
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80690
This study was conducted according to the single-factor design principle to investigate in vitro the effects of different glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentrations (0,
mol/L) on the morphology, proliferation and enzyme activity of intestinal enterocyte cells of 28-d-old weaned piglets. These cells were primary cultured in 4 pieces of 24-well cell culture plate. After having been grown for 48 h in culture media with hGLP-2, the ileal enterocyte cells of 28-d-old weaned piglets exhibited the typical characteristics of simple columnar epithelium. Compared with the control groups, the quantities of treated cells significantly increased (p<0.05) and their corresponding absorption values in 540 nm (MTT OD) also significantly increased (p<0.01). Likewise, lactic acid concentration, total protein content and protein retention significantly increased (p<0.05).
-ATP enzyme activity was more active (p<0.05), although the activity of alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase in culture media significantly decreased (p<0.01). To summarize, the results indicated that GLP-2 in vitro is capable of promoting the proliferation of intestinal enterocyte cells of 28-d weaned piglets, restraining their apoptosis and maintaining the integrity of their morphology.
Effects of Fermented Soy Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Apparent Fecal and Ileal Digestibility in Weaned Pigs
Yoo, J.S. ; Jang, H.D. ; Cho, J.H. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1167~1173
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80274
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of providing fermented soy protein to weaned pigs on nitrogen balance and apparent fecal and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA. Four weaned ((Yorkshire
Duroc) barrows (BW = 6.58
0.98 kg), surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula approximately 15 cm prior to the ileo-cecal junction, were fed four diets according to 4
4 Latin square design. Diets were a basal diet supplemented with one of the following: 3% SDPP (spray dried plasma protein), 5% RBP (soy protein fermented by Lactobacillus spp.), 5% PSP (soy protein fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis), and 2.5% RPP (2.5% RBP+2.5% PSP). No differences were observed in DM and N intakes among treatments. However, the level of urine excretion was greater in the RPP group than in the PSP group. Additionally, fecal DM excretion, fecal N concentration and fecal N excretion were increased in the RBP, PSP and RPP groups when compared with the SDPP group (p<0.05). Furthermore, total excretion was increased in the RPP group when compared with the PSP group (p<0.05). In addition, N absorption and the N absorption ratio were higher in the SDPP group than in the RPP group (p<0.05). Moreover, the DM and N digestibilities were lower in the RBP, PSP and RPP groups than in the SDPP group (p<0.05), and the ash and energy digestibilities were higher in the SDPP and RBP groups than in the PSP and RPP groups (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in the DM, N, Ash, Ca, P or ileal digestibilities among treatments, although the energy digestibility was higher in the SDPP group than the RBP group (p<0.05). In addition, the apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids (Arg, His, Iso, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val) were significantly higher in the SDPP group than in the other groups (p<0.05), and the levels of Ala, Cys, Glu and Try were greater in the SDPP treatment group than the RBP, PSP and RPP groups (p<0.05). Additionally, the levels of Asp, Gly and Ser were higher in the SDPP group than the PSP and RPP groups, and the level of Pro was higher in the SDPP group than the RPP group (p<0.05). Finally, total non-essential amino acid and total amino acid digestibility were higher in the SDPP group than in the other treatments (p<0.05). Taken together, the results of this study indicate that animal protein is more bioavailable than plant protein. However, the N absorption ratio and ileal digestibility were found to be similar in the SDPP and RBP groups.
Effect of Post Hatch Feed Deprivation on Yolk-sac Utilization and Performance of Young Broiler Chickens
Bhanja, S.K. ; Anjali Devi, C. ; Panda, A.K. ; Shyam Sunder, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1174~1179
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80528
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of post-hatch feed deprivation on yolk sac utilization andsubsequent performance of young broiler chickens (280) up to 35 days of age. The experimental treatments included access to feed at 8 h intervals after hatch, up to 48 h (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 or 48 h). Water was offered ad libitum to all the groups immediately after placement. Results indicated that chicks with access to feed immediately after hatch used up the residual yolk more quickly. Access to feed between 8-24 h post-hatch, supported faster utilization of residual yolk compared to those chicks that remained unfed for 40-48 h (p<0.05). Further, deprivation of feed up to 24 h did not alter the lipid and protein contents in residual yolk, but fasting of chicks beyond 24 h (32, 40 and 48 h) led to retention of higher lipid and lower protein content in the yolk sac (p<0.05). At 7 days of age, the weights of proventiculus and gizzard were not affected by feed deprivation up to 48 h. However, the liver, pancreas and jejunum recorded significantly (p<0.05) heavier weights in chicks that were fed during the initial 24 h period compared to delayed feeding (32-48 h). Chicks fed within 24 h after hatch gained significantly (p<0.05) higher weight at 5 weeks of age than those that received feed between 32 and 48 h. Feed deprivation for 48 h was more detrimental to growth than 24-40 h. This study revealed the significance of early posthatch feeding (<24 h) on faster utilization of yolk sac nutrients and optimum development of intestines and organs, culminating in improved weight gain (>10.5%) of broilers at 5 weeks of age.
Effect of Dietary Energy Level on Nutrient Utilization, Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Plasma, Liver and Longissimus dorsi Muscle in Growing-finishing Pigs Using Soybean Oil as an Energy Source
Du, W. ; Li, Y.J. ; Zhao, G.Y. ; Yin, Y.L. ; Kong, X.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1180~1185
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90027
Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of dietary energy level on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) utilization, growth performance, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma, liver and longissimus dorsi muscle in growing-finishing pigs. In experiment 1 (Exp 1), 15 castrated male pigs (Duroc
Large White) (Body weight, BW, 55.6
1.8 kg) were divided into three groups and fed rations containing 13.33, 14.87 and 17.35 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg as treatments I, II and III, respectively, using soybean oil as an energy source. The experiment lasted 8 days and faecal and urinary samples were collected during the last 3 days. The results showed that the digestibility of dry matter (DM), energy and N was increased from treatments I to III (p<0.01). N-retention and N-retention rate were not influenced by dietary DE level (p>0.05). In experiment 2 (Exp 2), 36 female pigs (Duroc
Large White) (BW 41.5
3.8 kg) were divided into three groups. The pigs were fed with the same three rations used in Exp 1 for 60 days. At the end of Exp 2, eight pigs were selected from each group for blood sampling and 4 pigs for slaughter trial. The results indicated that average daily feed intake (ADFI) and N-intake were significantly decreased (p<0.01), and DE intake (p<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.05) were increased. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05). No significant differences in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in liver and longissimus dorsi muscle were found between different treatments. It was concluded that higher dietary DE level improved nutrient digestibility, ADG and feed/gain ratio when soybean oil was used as an energy source in the ration of growing-finishing pigs. No significant differences were found in Nretention and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in liver and longissimus dorsi muscle between different treatments.
The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks
Wei, Hen-Wei ; Kuo, Hsin-Mei ; Chiu, Wen-Zan ; Chen, Bao-Ji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1186~1194
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80642
The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.
Effects of Dietary Alpha-lipoic Acid on Anti-oxidative Ability and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers
Zhang, Y. ; Hongtrakul, Kittiporn ; Ji, C. ; Ma, Qiugang ; Liu, L.T. ; Hu, X.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1195~1201
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90101
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of 240 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments (0, 300 ppm, 600 ppm, and 900 ppm dietary LA supplementation, respectively). Birds were slaughtered at 42 days old. Live body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average feed intake (AFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage, breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, muscle color (L*, a*, b*), pH values at 24 h postmortem, meat shear force value (SFV) and anti-oxidative ability were measured. Results showed that addition of 600 ppm or 900 ppm LA decreased BW (p<0.01), ADG (p<0.01) and AFI (p<0.05) compared with other diets. FCR was not affected by dietary LA content. LA had no marked effect on dressing percentage, breast muscle percentage or thigh muscle percentage. Abdominal fat percentage was lower (p<0.05) in the 900 ppm LA supplementation group than the control group. Dietary 900 ppm LA increased (p<0.05) breast and thigh muscle pH value at 24 h postmortem compared with the control treatment. Dietary LA increased thigh muscle a* value, though no significant difference was found in thigh muscle a* value among the treatments. Dietary LA significantly decreased breast muscle L* value (p<0.05), breast muscle b* value (p<0.01) and thigh muscle b* value (p<0.05). Broilers fed LA had higher breast muscle a* value (p<0.05) and thigh muscle L* value (p<0.05). All test groups had lower (p<0.05) breast muscle SFV than the control group. Dietary 600 ppm or 900 ppm LA both decreased (p<0.01) thigh muscle SFV compared with the control treatment. Dietary 900 ppm LA significantly increased (p<0.05) TAOC, SOD and GSHPx compared with no LA treatment. Broilers fed LA had lower (p<0.01) MDA compared with the control treatment. These results suggested that dietary LA enhanced the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative stability, and contributed to the improvement of meat quality in broilers.
Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs
Lee, Shin Ja ; Shin, Nyeon Hak ; Ok, Ji Un ; Jung, Ho Sik ; Chu, Gyo Moon ; Kim, Jong Duk ; Kim, In Ho ; Lee, Sung Sill ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1202~1208
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90045
Synbiotics is the term used for a mixture of probiotics (live microbial feed additives that beneficially affects the host animal) and prebiotics (non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the organism). This study investigated the effect of probiotics from anaerobic microflora with prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in weaning pigs. 150 pigs with an initial BW of 6.80
0.32 kg (20 d of age) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments as follows: i) US, basal diet+0.15% antibiotics (0.05% oxytetracycline 200 and 0.10% tiamulin 38 g), ii) BS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from bacteria), iii) YS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from yeast), iv) MS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from mold), v) CS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (from compounds of bacteria, yeast and mold). The probiotics were contained in
tfu/ml of bacteria, yeast and molds, respectively. The same prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharide, lactose, sodium acetate and ammonium citrate) was used for all the synbiotics. Pigs were housed individually for a 16-day experimental period. Growth performance showed no significant difference between antibiotic treatments and synbiotics-added treatments. The BS treatment showed higher (p<0.05) dry matter (DM) and nitrogen digestibility while ether extract and crude fiber digestibility were not affected by the dietary treatment. Also, the BS treatment decreased (p<0.05) fecal ammonia and amine gas emissions. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was also decreased (p<0.05) in BS, YS and MS treatments compared to other treatments. Moreover, all the synbioticsadded treatments increased fecal acetic acid concentration while the CS treatment had lower propionic acid concentration than the US treatment (p<0.05) gas emissions but decreased in fecal propionate gas emissions. Total fecal bacteria and Escherichia coli populations did not differ significantly among the treatments, while the Shigella counts were decreased (p<0.05) in synbiotics-included treatment. Fecal bacteria population was higher in the YS treatment than other treatments (p<0.05). The BS treatment had higher yeast concentration than YS, MS and CS treatments, while US treatment had higher mold concentrations than MS treatment (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that synbiotics are as effective as antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora composition in weaning pigs. Additionally, synbiotics from anaerobic microflora can decrease fecal noxious gas emission and synbiotics can substitute for antibiotics in weaning pigs.
The Concept of Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities: Principles and Application in Feed Ingredients for Piglets
Urbaityte, R. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Eklund, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1209~1223
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80471
In this review, the terminology that is used to describe ileal amino acid (AA) digestibilities in piglet feed ingredients is defined. If one accepts that the determination of AA digestibilities should be based on the ileal analysis method, one should consider that ileal digesta contains variable amounts of endogenous crude protein (CP), which originates mainly from digestive secretions, sloughedoff epithelial cells and mucins. The ileal endogenous CP and AA losses are separated into basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses (
), which are not influenced by the feed ingredient composition, and specific ileal endogenous CP and AA losses (
), which are induced by feed ingredient characteristics such as level and type of fiber and anti-nutritional factors (ANF). Depending how ileal endogenous CP and AA losses are considered in the measurement of CP and AA digestibilities, digestibility values are expressed as apparent (AID), standardized (SID), or true (TID) ileal digestibilities of CP and AA. The main concern associated with the use of AID values in diet formulation for pigs is that they are not additive in mixtures of feed ingredients. Consequently, the concept of standardized ileal CP and AA digestibilities was introduced by correcting AID values for basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses (
). The correction for both
yields TID values, however, routine procedures to measure
are not yet available. In principle, SID values should be preferred, because they represent the fundamental properties of the feed ingredient. There exist only few reports on SID of CP and AA in feedstuffs frequently used in piglet nutrition. These include soybeans (SB), soybean meal (SBM), soy proteins (SP), soy protein concentrate (SPC), soy protein isolate (SPI), corn gluten (CG), wheat gluten (WG), pea protein (PeaP), potato protein (PotP), fish meal (FM) and whey proteins (WP), but the results obtained are inconsistent. Differences in SID values within feed ingredients may, at least in part, be attributed to different processing conditions or inherent differences of the assay feed ingredients. Moreover, there is some evidence that the determination of SID values and
in piglets may be confounded by the dietary CP level of the assay diet, age and (or) body weight (BW), the level of feed intake or the methodological approach used to determine