Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 9 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 8 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 7 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 6 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 5 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 4 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 2 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 1 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 12 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 11 - 00 2009
Volume 22, Issue 10 - 00 2009
Selecting the target year
Regulation of Fat and Fatty Acid Composition in Beef Cattle
Smith, Stephen B. ; Gill, Clare A. ; Lunt, David K. ; Brooks, Matthew A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1225~1233
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.10
Fat composition of beef, taken here to mean marbling, can be manipulated by time on feed, finishing diet, and breed type. These three factors also strongly influence the fatty acid composition of beef. Both the amount of marbling and the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increase with time on feed in grain-fed and pasture-fed cattle, but much more dramatically in grain-fed cattle. High-concentrate diets stimulate the activity of adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), which is responsible for the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to their
desaturated counterparts. Also, grain feeding causes a depression in ruminal pH, which decreases those populations of ruminal microorganisms responsible for the isomerization and hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The net result of elevated SCD activity in marbling adipose tissue and depressed ruminal isomerization/hydrogenation of dietary PUFA is a large increase in MUFA in beef over time. Conversely, pasture depresses both the accumulation of marbling and SCD activity, so that even though pasture feeding increases the relative concentration of PUFA in beef, it also increases SFA at the expense of MUFA. Wagyu and Hanwoo cattle accumulate large amounts of marbling and MUFA, and Wagyu cattle appear to be less sensitive to the effects of pastures in depressing overall rates of adipogenesis and the synthesis of MUFA in adipose tissues. There are small differences in fatty acid composition of beef from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle, but diet and time on feed are much more important determinants of beef fat content and fatty acid composition than breed type.
Genetic Structure and Differentiation of Three Indian Goat Breeds
Dixit, S.P. ; Verma, N.K. ; Aggarwal, R.A.K. ; Kumar, Sandeep ; Chander, Ramesh ; Vyas, M.K. ; Singh, K.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1234~1240
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80510
Gene flow, genetic structure and differentiation of Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi breeds of goat from North-Western India were evaluated based on 25 microsatellite markers so as to support breed conservation and improvement decisions. The microsatellite genotyping was carried out using an automated DNA sequencer. The gene diversity across the studied loci for the Kutchi breed varied from 0.57 (ILST 065) to 0.93 (OarFCB 304, OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an overall mean of 0.79
0.02. The corresponding values for Mehsana and Sirohi breeds were 0.16 (ILST 008) to 0.93 (OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.76
0.04, and 0.50 (ILSTS 029) to 0.94 (ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.78
0.02, respectively. The Mehsana breed had lowest gene diversity among the 3 breeds studied. All the populations showed an overall significant heterozygote deficit (
). The Fis values were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.36 for Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi goat breeds, respectively. Kutchi and Mehsana were more differentiated (16%) followed by Mehsana and Sirohi (13%).The measures of standard genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest genetic distance was between Kutchi and Sirohi breeds (0.73) and the largest genetic distance was between Mehsana and Kutchi (1.0) followed by Sirohi and Mehsana (0.75) breeds. Mehsana and Kutchi are distinct breeds and this was revealed by the estimated genetic distance between them. All measures of genetic variation revealed substantial genetic variation in each of the populations studied, thereby showing good scope for their further improvement.
A Simple Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for the Discrimination of Three Chicken Breeds
Kubo, Y. ; Plastow, G. ; Mitsuhashi, Tadayoshi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1241~1247
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80576
A large number of branded chicken products exist in Japan, and in some cases, the breed of chicken is an important factor used to attract consumer interest in the retail product. In order to establish a simple method for verifying such breed claims we applied the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to nine chicken breeds (White Cornish, Red Cornish, White Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock, Hinaidori, Tosajidori, Tsushimajidori) to search for molecular markers able to discriminate chicken breeds. Three breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified, one for each of Hinaidori, Tosajidori, or New Hampshire. A total of 219 individuals from the nine breeds were analyzed using a specific PCR test for each of these SNP. The PCR tests made it possible to discriminate between the breeds of chickens to identify products from these three breeds. This PCR method provides an efficient method for the routine analysis and verification of certified chicken products.
Fatty Acid Composition in Blood Plasma and Follicular Liquid in Cows Supplemented with Linseed or Canola Grains
Perehouskei Albuquerque, Karina ; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ; Bim Cavalieri, Fabio Luiz ; Rigolon, Luiz Paulo ; do Prado, Rodolpho Martin ; Pizzi Rotta, Polyana ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1248~1255
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80568
This study was carried out to evaluate the fatty acid composition in Nellore cows supplemented with either linseed (n-3) or canola grains (n-6 and n-9). Fifteen Nellore cows, aged five years and bodyweight 550 kg
48 kg, were randomly distributed to the following treatments: CON (control), LIN (linseed) and CAN (canola grains). The cows were fed for 80 days. The concentrations of C18:0, C18:2 n-6 and C20:3 n-6 fatty acid were higher (p<0.10) in CON blood plasma in comparison to follicular liquid. Likewise, PUFA, n-6 contents, PUFA:SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios were higher (p<0.10) in blood plasma. On the other hand, C18:1 n-9, C22:5 n-3, MUFA and n-3 contents were lower (p<0.10) in blood plasma. C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C22:5 n-3, PUFA, n-6, n-3 contents and PUFA:SFA ratio were higher (p<0.10) in LIN blood plasma than in the follicular liquid. Nevertheless, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1 n-7, PUFA, C16:0, C18:1 n-9 and MUFA contents were lower (p<0.10) in LIN blood plasma. On treatment CAN, the C18:0 and SFA contents, and n-6:n-3 ratios were higher (p<0.10) in blood plasma. However, C20:3 n-6, C22:5 n-3, PUFA and n-3 contents were lower (p<0.10) in blood plasma. C16:0, C18:0, PUFA, SFA contents and PUFA:SFA ratio did not differ (p>0.10) among the treatments. C14:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:2 n-6 and n-6 contents were higher (p<0.10) for CON and CAN than LIN. C17:1 n-7, C20:4 n-6 and C 22:0 contents were higher (p<0.10) for CAN than CON and LIN. C18:1 n-9, C18:3 n-3, MUFA and n-3 contents were higher (p<0.10) for LIN and CAN than CON. C20:3 n-6 content and n-6:n-3 ratio were higher (p<0.10) for CON than LIN and CAN. C22:5 n-3 content were higher (p<0.10) for CON and LIN than CAN. The concentrations of fatty acids in blood plasma and follicular liquid were not correlated for any fatty acid, independent of the treatment studied. Canola grain added to the diet of Nellore cows resulted in increased concentrations of fatty acids n-6 and n-3 in follicular liquid.
Effects of Rice Straw Particle Size on Chewing Activity, Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Digestion in Goats
Zhao, X.G. ; Wang, M. ; Tan, Z.L. ; Tang, S.X. ; Sun, Z.H. ; Zhou, C.S. ; Han, X.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1256~1266
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80672
Effects of particle size and physical effective fibre (peNDF) of rice straw in diets on chewing activities, feed intake, flow, site and extent of digestion and rumen fermentation in goats were investigated. A 4
4 Latin square design was employed using 4 mature Liuyang black goats fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae. During each of the 4 periods, goats were offered 1 of 4 diets that were similar in nutritional content but varied in particle sizes and peNDF through alteration of the theoretical cut length of rice straw (10, 20, 40, and 80 mm, respectively). Dietary peNDF contents were determined using a sieve for particle separation above 8 mm, and were 17.4, 20.9, 22.5 and 25.4%, respectively. Results showed that increasing the particle size and peNDF significantly (p<0.05) increased the time spent on rumination and chewing activities, duodenal starch digestibility and ruminal pH, and decreased ruminal starch digestibility and
-N concentration. Intake and total tract digestibility of nutrients (i.e. dry matter, organic matter, and starch) and ruminal fermentation were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF. Increased particle size and peNDF did not affect ruminal fibre digestibility, but had a great impact on the intestinal and total tract fibre digestibility. The study suggested that rice straw particle size or dietary peNDF was the important influential factor for chewing activity, intestinal fibre and starch digestibility, and ruminal pH, but had minimal impact on feed intake, duodenal and ileal flow, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.
Effects of Protein Supply from Soyhulls and Wheat Bran on Ruminal Metabolism, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal and Omasal Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen of Steers
Kim, Jeong-Hoon ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Choi, Chang-Won ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Seol, Yong-Joo ; Kim, Do-Hyung ; Ahn, Gyu-Chul ; Song, Man-Kang ; Park, Keun-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1267~1278
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90090
Three beef steers fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used to determine the effects of protein supply from soyhulls (SH) and wheat bran (WB) on ruminal metabolism, blood metabolites, nitrogen metabolism, nutrient digestion and concentrations of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). In a 3
3 Latin square design, steers were offered rice straw and concentrates formulated either without (control) or with two brans to increase crude protein (CP) level (9 vs. 11% dietary DM for control and bran-based diets, respectively). The brans used were SH and WB that had similar CP contents but different ruminal CP degradability (52 vs. 80% CP for SH and WB, respectively) for evaluating the effects of protein degradability. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were higher for bran diets (p<0.01) than for the control, and for WB (p<0.001) compared to the SH diet. Similarly, microbial nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased (p<0.05) by bran and WB diets, respectively. Retained nitrogen tended (p<0.082) to be increased by SH compared with the WB diet. Intestinal and total tract CP digestion was enhanced by bran diets. In addition, bran diets tended (p<0.085) to increase intestinal starch digestion. Concentrations of SNAN fractions in RD and OD were higher (p<0.05) for bran diets than for the control, and for WB than for the SH diet. More rumendegraded protein supply resulting from a higher level and degradability of CP released from SH and WB enhanced ruminal microbial nitrogen synthesis and ruminal protein degradation. Thus, free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins from microbial cells as well as degraded dietary protein may have contributed to increased SNAN concentrations in the rumen and, consequently, the omasum. These results indicate that protein supply from SH and WB, having a low level of protein (13 and 16%, respectively), could affect ruminal metabolism and nutrient digestion if inclusion level is relatively high (>20%).
Effect of Inorganic and Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Fecal Mineral Excretion of Phase-fed, Grow-finish Swine
Burkett, J.L. ; Stalder, K.J. ; Powers, W.J. ; Bregendahl, K. ; Pierce, J.L. ; Baas, T.J. ; Bailey, T. ; Shafer, B.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1279~1287
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.70091
Concentrated livestock production has led to soil nutrient accumulation concerns. To reduce the environmental impact, it is necessary to understand current recommended livestock feeding practices. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of trace mineral supplementation on performance, carcass composition, and fecal mineral excretion of phase-fed, grow-finish pigs. Crossbred pigs (Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), (n = 528); Experiment 2 (Exp. 2), (n = 560)) were housed in totally-slatted, confinement barns, blocked by weight, penned by sex, and randomly assigned to pens at approximately 18 kg BW. Treatments were allocated in a randomized complete block design (12 replicate pens per treatment) with 9 to 12 pigs per pen throughout the grow-finish period. In Exp. 1, the control diet (Io100) contained Cu as
, Fe as
, and Zn (of which 25% was ZnO and 75% was
) at concentrations of 63 and 378 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment 2 (O100) contained supplemental Cu, Fe, and Zn from organic sources (Bioplex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) at concentrations of 19, 131, and 91 mg/kg, respectively, which are the commercially recommended dietary inclusion levels for these organic trace minerals. Organic Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations from O100 were reduced by 25% and 50% to form treatments 3 (O75) and 4 (O50-1), respectively. In Exp. 2, treatment 5 (Io25) contained 25% of the Cu, Fe, and Zn (inorganic sources) concentrations found in Io100. Treatment 6 (O50-2) was identical to the O50-1 diet from Exp. 1. Treatment 7 (O25) contained the experimental microminerals reduced by 75% from concentrations found in O100. Treatment 8 (O0) contained no trace mineral supplementation and served as a negative control for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, tenth-rib backfat, loin muscle area and ADG did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. Pigs fed the control diet (Io100) consumed less feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets containing organic trace minerals, thus, G:F was greater (p = 0.03). In Exp. 2, there were no differences among treatment means for loin muscle area, but pigs fed the reduced organic trace mineral diets consumed less (p<0.05) feed and tended (p = 0.10) to have less tenth-rib backfat compared to pigs fed the reduced inorganic trace mineral diet. Considering that performance and feed intake of pigs was not affected by lower dietary trace mineral inclusion, mineral excretion could be reduced during the grow-finish phase by reducing dietary trace mineral concentration.
Effects of Xylanase on Performance, Blood Parameters, Intestinal Morphology, Microflora and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets
Luo, Dingyuan ; Yang, Fengxia ; Yang, Xiaojun ; Yao, Junhu ; Shi, Baojun ; Zhou, Zhenfeng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1288~1295
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90052
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of xylanase on performance, blood parameters, intestinal morphology, microflora and digestive enzyme activities of broilers. The wheat-based diets were supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 U/kg xylanase. Xylanase supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved the feed:gain ratio of broilers from 1 to 21 d and 1 to 42 d. Supplementing 500 U/kg and 1,000 U/kg xylanase improved (p<0.05) the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the small intestine. Excess supplementation of xylanase (5,000 U/kg) increased the villus height in the ileum (p<0.01) and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum (p<0.05). The microflora in the ileum and caecum, digestive enzyme activities in the small intestine and the concentrations of serum glucose, uric acid, insulin and IGF-I were not affected by the supplementation of xylanase. Excess level of xylanase (5,000 U/kg) had a tendency to induce the multiplication of E. coli and total aerobes. The results suggested that supplementing 500 U/kg and 1,000 U/kg xylanase was beneficial for broilers and excess xylanase supplementation resulted in no further improvement or negative effects.
The Effect of Clinoptilolite in Low Calcium Diets on Performance and Eggshell Quality Parameters of Aged Hens
Gezen, Serife Sule ; Eren, Mustafa ; Balci, Faruk ; Deniz, Gulay ; Biricik, Hakan ; Bozan, Birgul ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1296~1302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80671
Ninety six beak-trimmed 72 week-old Lohmann Brown hens were randomly divided into four equal groups. Each group comprised 4 replicates. Isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets contained low calcium (3.5%); optimum calcium (4.2%); low Ca (3.5% Ca)+1% Clinoptilolite (CLP); low Ca (3.5% Ca)+2% CLP. Data were collected biweekly and the experiment lasted 6 weeks. Egg production, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, tibia Ca, P, ash and eggshell thickness were not affected by addition of CLP to the diets (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in egg shell strength and ash when data were analyzed individually in measurement periods (
weeks). However, according to pooled data (
weeks), eggshell strength was increased (p<0.05) only by 2% CLP supplementation versus low Ca (3.5%) diet, and shell ash was significantly increased by 2% CLP supplementation compared with the other diets. The damaged egg ratio on 1% and 2% CLP diets was significantly decreased between 76-78 weeks'data when compared with the low Ca diet. However; damaged egg ratio on the 2% CLP diet was significantly decreased when pooled data (74-78) were compared with no CLP diets. The differences in marketable egg ratio paralleled damaged egg ratio. The plasma calcium level at the end of experiment was increased on the 2% CLP diet when compared with the low Ca (3.5%) diet (p<0.05). Furthermore, at the end of the experiment a marked decrease of manure moisture was observed on both CLP diets (p<0.01). In conclusion, Clinoptilolite (2%) supplementation to layer diets tends to improve eggshell quality and manure dry matter (1% and 2% CLP) after six weeks.
Effects of Dietary Zinc Level and an Inflammatory Challenge on Performance and Immune Response of Weanling Pigs
Sun, Guo-jun ; Chen, Dai-wen ; Zhang, Ke-ying ; Yu, Bing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1303~1310
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80683
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary zinc level on growth performance and immune function in normal (Experiment 1) and immunologically challenged (Experiment 2) weanling pigs. Treatments consisted of the following: i) a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 36.75 mg/kg total Zn, ii) basal diet+60 mg/kg added Zn as
, iii) basal diet+120 mg/kg added Zn as
. Each diet was fed to six pens of four pigs per pen (Exp. 1) or six pens of three pigs per pen (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, the dietary zinc level had no effect on average daily growth (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Concentrations of tissue and serum zinc were not affected. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was not affected by dietary treatments. Supplementation of 120 mg/kg Zn decreased (p<0.05) the antibody response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) on d 7 compared with pigs fed the basal diet, but not on d 14. In Exp. 2, LPS challenge had no effect on ADG, ADFI and FCR in the entire trial (from d 0 to 21). LPS challenge significantly decreased ADG and ADFI (p<0.01) from d 7 to 14, but FCR was not affected. LPS challenge increased PBLP (p<0.05) and serum concentration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (p<0.01), whereas the antibody response to BSA and serum concentration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) were not affected. Supplementation of Zn did not affect ADFI and FCR from d 7 to 14, but there was a trend for ADG to be enhanced with Zn supplementation (p<0.10). Supplementation of Zn tended to increase PBLP (p<0.10). Dietary treatment had no effect on the antibody response to BSA or concentrations of serum IL-1 and IL-2. Results indicate that the level of Zn recommended by NRC (1998) for weanling pigs was sufficient for optimal growth performance and immune responses. Zn requirements may be higher for pigs experiencing an acute phase response than for healthy pigs.
Evaluation of Soybean Oil as a Lipid Source for Pig Diets
Park, S.W. ; Seo, S.H. ; Chang, M.B. ; Shin, I.S. ; Paik, InKee ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1311~1319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90104
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soybean oil supplementation replacing tallow in pig diets at different stages of growth. One hundred and twenty crossbred (Landrace
Duroc) pigs weighing 18 kg on average were selected. Pigs were randomly allotted to 12 pens of 10 pigs (5 pigs of each sex) each. Three pens were assigned to each of the four treatments: TA; tallow diet, TA-SO-80; switched from tallow to soybean oil diet at 80 kg average body weight, TA-SO-45; switched from tallow to soybean oil diet at 45 kg average body weight, and SO; soybean oil diet. Treatment SO was significantly lower in ADG than tallow diets (TA, TA-SO-80 and TA-SO-45) during the grower period (18 to 45 kg). However, treatment SO showed greatest compensation in ADFI and ADG during the finisher-2 period (after 80 kg body weight). ADFI and ADG and Gain/Feed for the total period were not significantly different among treatments. Loin area, back fat thickness, firmness and melting point of back fat were not significantly different. The levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein+very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum were significantly lower in treatment SO than in treatments TA-SO-45, TA-SO-80 and TA. The level of serum triglyceride linearly increased as the length of the tallow feeding period increased. Serum immunoglobulin-G (IgG) level was significantly higher in the soybean oiltreatment than in other treatments. Major fatty acid composition of short rib muscle and back fat were significantly influenced by treatments. Contents of
-linolenic acid (C18:3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) linearly increased as the soybean oil feeding period increased. In conclusion, soybean oil can be supplemented to the diet of pigs without significant effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially
fatty acids in the carcass was increased by soybean oil supplementation.
Effect of Nicotinamide on Proliferation, Differentiation, and Energy Metabolism in Bovine Preadipocytes
Liu, Xiaomu ; Fu, Jinlian ; Song, Enliang ; Zang, Kun ; Wan, Fachun ; Wu, Naike ; Wang, Aiguo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1320~1327
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.90091
This study examined the effects of nicotinamide on proliferation, differentiation, and energy metabolism in a primary culture of bovine adipocytes. After treatment of cells with 100-500
nicotinamide, cell growth was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and cellular lipid content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and a triglyceride (TG) assay. Several factors related to energy metabolism, namely adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, the number of mitochondria and the relative expression of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-
) and inducible NOS (iNOS), were also investigated. Results showed that nicotinamide induced both proliferation and differentiation in bovine preadipocytes. Nicotinamide decreased NO production by inhibiting NOS activity and iNOS mRNA expression, and controlled lipolytic activity by increasing ATPase activity and the number of mitochondria. The present study provides further evidence of the effects of nicotinamide on lipid and energy metabolism, and suggests that nicotinamide may play an important role in the development of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. This emphasizes the importance of investigating bovine adipose tissue to improve our understanding of dairy cow physiology.
Effect of Individual, Group or ESF Housing in Pregnancy and Individual or Group Housing in Lactation on the Performance of Sows and Their Piglets
Weng, R.C. ; Edwards, S.A. ; Hsia, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1328~1333
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80249
To evaluate different housing systems, 80 gilts were randomly allocated at puberty to four treatments: i) sow stall in gestation followed by farrowing crate (SC), ii) group housing with individual feeding in gestation followed by farrowing crate (GC), iii) ESF (Electronic Sow Feeding) system in gestation followed by farrowing crate (EC), and iv) ESF system followed by group farrowing pen (EG). The results showed that stalled sows had a longer interval between puberty and second estrus (p<0.001). The sows kept in the ESF system gained more body weight (p<0.01) and backfat (p<0.05) prior to service, and more backfat during gestation (p<0.05), but also had greater backfat losses in the subsequent lactation (p<0.01). Sows changing from loose housing to confinement at farrowing had longer gestation length (p<0.001). Total litter size did not differ significantly between gestation treatments, but the number of stillborn piglets was significantly higher in the SC treatment (p<0.01). After weaning, SC sows had the longest interval for rebreeding (p<0.001). Some EG sows came into heat before weaning, giving this treatment the shortest interval. These results indicate that gestation confinement in sow stalls had several detrimental effects on sow performance relative to group housing.
Stewardship, Stockmanship and Sustainability in Animal Agriculture
Szucs, E. ; Geers, R. ; Sossidou, E.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1334~1340
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.80603
Sufficient food supply for all humans was, is, and will remain one of the main priorities for mankind. The choice between food from crops or animals is related to philosophical, religious and ethical, but also cultural and economical, values. However, the concept of sustainable agriculture takes into account the organization of food supply through future generations. Not only quantity, but also quality is important, especially in relation to food safety and the method of production. Specifically, the aspect of animal welfare is becoming increasingly important with the focus on stewardship and stockmanship, i.e. responsibility of humans for their animals. In the future, implications for sustainability in animal production may be of more concern to stewardship paired by stockmanship, responsibility, consciousness and morality. The moral as a basic concept of sustainable agriculture is to maintain continuous development in harmony with nature to meet requirements in the world for living creatures including human beings to live in and steward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the above issues from different viewpoints on sustainable food supply, increasing food consumption and environmental protection.
Dietary Transformation of Lipid in the Rumen Microbial Ecosystem
Kim, Eun Joong ; Huws, Sharon A. ; Lee, Michael R.F. ; Scollan, Nigel D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 22, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1341~1350
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2009.r.11
Dietary lipids are rapidly hydrolysed and biohydrogenated in the rumen resulting in meat and milk characterised by a high content of saturated fatty acids and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which contributes to increases in the risk of diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. There has been considerable interest in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant products with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Metabolism of dietary lipids in the rumen (lipolysis and biohydrogenation) is a major critical control point in determining the fatty acid composition of ruminant lipids. Our understanding of the pathways involved and metabolically important intermediates has advanced considerably in recent years. Advances in molecular microbial technology based on 16S rRNA genes have helped to further advance our knowledge of the key organisms responsible for ruminal lipid transformation. Attention has focused on ruminal biohydrogenation of lipids in forages, plant oils and oilseeds, fish oil, marine algae and fat supplements as important dietary strategies which impact on fatty acid composition of ruminant lipids. Forages, such as grass and legumes, are rich in omega-3 PUFA and are a useful natural strategy in improving nutritional value of ruminant products. Specifically this review targets two key areas in relation to forages: i) what is the fate of the lipid-rich plant chloroplast in the rumen and ii) the role of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase in red clover as a natural plant-based protection mechanism of dietary lipids in the rumen. The review also addresses major pathways and micro-organisms involved in lipolysis and biohydrogenation.