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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
Selecting the target year
QTL Identification Using Combined Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping for Milk Production Traits on BTA6 in Chinese Holstein Population
Hu, F. ; Liu, J.F. ; Zeng, Z.B. ; Ding, X.D. ; Yin, C.C. ; Gong, Y.Z. ; Zhang, Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1261~1267
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10011
Milk production traits are important economic traits for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to refine the position of previously detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. A daughter design with 918 daughters from 8 elite sire families and 14 markers spanning the previously identified QTL region were used in the analysis. We employed a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) approach with two options for calculating the IBD probabilities, one was based on haplotypes of all 14 markers (named Method 1) and the other based on haplotypes with sliding windows of 5 markers (named Method 2). For milk fat yield, the two methods revealed a highly significant QTL located within a 6.5 cM interval (Method 1) and a 4.0 cM interval (Method 2), respectively. For milk protein yield, a highly significant QTL was detected within a 3.0 cM interval (Method 1) or a 2.5 cM interval (Method 2). These results confirmed the findings of our previous study and other studies, and greatly narrowed down the QTL positions.
Association between the Polymorphism in FUT1 Gene and the Resistance to PWD and ED in Three Pig Breeds
Luo, Yanru ; Qiu, Xiaotian ; Li, Hejun ; Zhang, Qin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1268~1275
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90638
Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and oedema disease (ED) caused by E. coli F18 always result in economic losses to pig producers, and no effective methods of controlling PWD and ED are presently available. FUT1 has been identified as a candidate gene controlling the expression of E. coli F18 receptor. This study examined the correlation between F18ab and F18ac adhesion phenotypes and the polymorphism at position M307 of the FUT1 gene in three pig breeds (231 Large White, 107 Landrace and 109 Songliao Black). The results showed: i) Both the susceptible genotypes (GG and GA) and the adhesion phenotypes (adhesive or weekly adhesive) were dominant in all three breeds with frequencies over 95%. ii) Three adhesion patterns of the two F18 variants F18ab and F18ac, i.e., (
) and (
), were found in all three breeds, and there was no significant difference in the distribution of adhesion phenotypes of the two variants (separately or jointly) among the three breeds (p>0.05). iii) The FUT1 M307 genotypes were completely associated with the F18ab adhesion phenotypes and very strongly associated with the F18ac adhesion phenotypes. All individuals of genotype AA were non-adhesive to both F18ab and F18ac. All individuals of genotype GG or GA were adhesive to F18ab, whereas 11% of them were non-adhesive to F18ac. These results suggest that the polymorphism at FUT1 M307 can be used for marker-assisted selection of PWD and ED resistant pigs.
Effects of Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Freezability of Ram Spermatozoa
Farshad, A. ; Khalili, B. ; Jafaroghli, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1276~1281
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90590
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) supplementation on diluted, cooled and frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. After primary evaluation of collected ejaculates, only semen samples with motility of more than 70% and sperm concentration higher than
sperm/ml were used for cryopreservation. The selected semen samples were then pooled and diluted 1:4 with Tris Citrate Fructose Yolk (TCFY) extender supplemented with different concentrations of BHT (0.5, 10, 2.0 and 3.0 mM). As the control, semen was diluted and frozen in the diluent without BHT. Motility, progressive motility, viability, membranes and acrosome integrity were evaluated after dilution (part 1), cooling (part 2) and freezing and thawing (part 3). The results of the first part of the experiment showed that there were no significant difference between treatments in the motility, progressive motility, viability, membranes and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa, but the results with 2.0 mM BHT were slightly better than obtained with other levels of BHT and control extender. Significantly better results (p<0.05) were observed in the second part of the experiment for cooled spermatozoa characteristics, when extender was supplemented with 2.0 and 3.0 mM BHT. Furthermore, the results obtained in the third part of the experiment indicated that, after freezing and thawing, all evaluated semen characteristics were improved significantly (p<0.05) by increasing BHT levels, with the best results obtained for extender containing 2 mM BHT. Comparison of these results with those of control diluent, the effects of supplementation were significantly (p<0.01) better. However, the higher concentration of BHT (3.0 mM) reduced the motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response of spermatozoa compared to extender containing 2.0 mM BHT. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study showed that the semen quality of rams was improved when BHT was added to extender used before the freezing process.
Cytotec Induced Embryotoxicity in Developing Mus musculus
Naeem, Khadija ; Ahmad, Naveed ; Asmatullah, Asmatullah ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1282~1290
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90636
The study was carried out to assess the developmental abnormalities induced by Cytotec in mice during intrauterine life. Pregnant mice were exposed to a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and
/g BW on day 8 of gestation. Fetuses were recovered on day 18 of gestation. These fetuses were subjected to morphological and morphometric studies. Morphological studies showed abnormalities like anophthalmia, microophthalmia, micromelia and syndactyly. In addition to these, resorptions were also encountered in the higher dose groups. Morphometric analysis showed an overall reduction in body weight, crown rump length, brain and eye circumference, pinna and snout size, length of fore and hind limb and tail size with a significant difference (p<0.001) compared to controls. The outcomes of histological studies revealed some brain defects like hydrocephaly, enlarged third ventricle and undifferentiated ectoneural cells and abnormalities of the heart included right auricle thrombosis and degeneration of trabecular zone.
Expression of Prolactin Receptor mRNA after Melatonin Manipulated in Cashmere Goats Skin during Cashmere Growth
Yue, Chunwang ; Du, Lixin ; Zhang, Wei ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Kong, Xianghao ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1291~1298
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10010
The aim of this research was to investigate the dynamic changes of the level of total prolactin receptor (PRLR) mRNA and the short form prolactin receptor (S-PRLR) mRNA in skin of cashmere goats from the initiation of cashmere fibre growth to active growth. Eighteen half-sib wethers were allocated randomly to two groups. Melatonin implants were used in order to initiate growth of cashmere fibre before the normal time and reduce blood plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was used to determine PRLR mRNA expression levels of skin from June to November. The results showed that, in Chinese Inner Mongolia cashmere goats, there were seasonal variations in expression of total PRLR mRNA in skin with levels decreasing from June to October. Synchronously, the cashmere fibre growth rate gradually increased during this period, but the expression levels of S-PRLR mRNA did not decrease along with seasonal variation from initiation to active growth of cashmere fibre. These results suggest that expression levels of S- PRLR mRNA might be involved in the process of cashmere growth. It was also possible that the change of alternative splicing of PRLR occurred in the skin of cashmere goats from proanagen to anagen.
Effect of Dietary Antioxidant and Energy Density on Performance and Anti-oxidative Status of Transition Cows
Wang, Y.M. ; Wang, J.H. ; Wang, C. ; Wang, J.K. ; Chen, B. ; Liu, J.X. ; Cao, H. ; Guo, F.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1299~1307
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90529
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antioxidant and energy density on performance and antioxidative status in transition cows. Forty cows were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a
factorial design. High or low energy density diets (1.43 or 1.28 Mcal
/kg DM, respectively) were formulated with or without antioxidant (AOX, a dry granular blend of ethoxyquin and tertiary-butylhydroquinone; 0 or 5 g/cow per d). These diets were fed to cows for 21 days pre-partum. During the post-partum period, all cows were fed the same lactation diets, and AOX treatment followed as for the pre-partum period. Feeding a high energy diet depressed the DMI, milk yield, and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) of cows. However, AOX inclusion in the diet improved the milk and 4% FCM yields. There was an interaction of energy density by AOX on milk protein, milk fat and total solids contents. Feeding a high energy diet pre-partum increased plasma glucose and
-hydroxybutyrate, whereas dietary AOX decreased plasma
-hydroxybutyrate value during the transition period. There were also interactions between time and treatment for plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content during the study. Cows fed high energy diets pre-partum had higher plasma glutathione peroxidase activity 3 days prior to parturition, compared with those on low energy diets. Inclusion of AOX in diets decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in cows 3 and 10 days pre-partum. Addition of AOX significantly decreased malondialdehyde values at calving. Energy density induced marginal changes in fatty acid composition in the erythrocyte membrane 3 days post-partum, while AOX only significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid composition. The increase in fluidity of the erythrocyte membrane was only observed in the high energy treatment. It is suggested that a diet containing high energy density pre-partum may negatively affect the anti-oxidative status, DMI and subsequent performance. Addition of AOX may improve the anti-oxidative status and reduce plasma
-hydroxybutyrate, eventually resulting in improved lactation performance; the response to AOX addition was more pronounced on the high energy diet.
Effects of Castor Meal on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Beef Cattle
Diniz, L.L. ; Filho, S.C. Valadares ; Campos, J.M.S. ; Valadares, R.F.D. ; Da Silva, L.D. ; Monnerat, J.P.I.S. ; Benedeti, P.B. ; De Oliveira, A.S. ; Pina, D.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1308~1318
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10041
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with treated castor meal with (CMT) or without lime (CMNT) on the nutrient intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and yield of commercial cuts of beef cattle from a feedlot. Thirty male, castrated, crossbreed zebu cattle were used in the study, with an average initial weight of
. Five animals were used as a control group and were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment; the remaining animals (n = 25) were distributed in random blocks (repetitions), with body weight as the criterion for block assignment. The animals were fed a diet containing 65% corn silage and 35% of concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis. Five diets consisted of four levels of soybean meal (SM) substituted with CMT (0, 33, 67 and 100%) on a DM basis and a diet with 100% of SM replaced with CMNT. At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered, and their gastrointestinal tracts were emptied to determine their empty body weights (EBW). No significant effects were observed (p>0.05) for the substitution of soybean meal with CMT on intake of dietary nutrients, the average daily body weight gain (ADG) or EBW gain (EBWG). In spite of greater (p<0.05) ricin intake for the diet containing CMNT (3.06 mg/kg BW) compared to the CMT diet (0.10 mg/kg BW/d), there were no effects (p>0.05) on intake of dietary nutrients, ADG or EBWG. The average intake of DM and the ADG were 10,664.63 and 1,353.04 g/d, respectively. Regarding carcass characteristics, only carcass yield in relation to body weight was linearly reduced (p<0.05) upon substitution of SM by CMT. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the substitution of SM by CMT or CMNT on the yield of carcass basic cuts. CMT prices that are higher than 85% of the SM price do not economically justify the use of CMT. For CMT prices between 20 and 80% of the SM price, the optimal level was 67% substitution, while for prices below 15% of the SM price, the optimal level was 100% substitution with CMT. It can be concluded that treated castor meal with 6% lime can totally replace soybean meal in beef cattle diets.
Effects of Mastitis on Buffalo Milk Quality
Tripaldi, C. ; Palocci, G. ; Miarelli, M. ; Catta, M. ; Orlandini, S. ; Amatiste, S. ; Di Bernardini, R. ; Catillo, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1319~1324
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90618
The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of different indicators of mammary inflammation in buffalo and to evaluate the association of the indicators with buffalo milk yield, composition, and rennet coagulation properties. This study was carried out at four buffalo farms in central Italy using a total of 50 lactating buffalo. Milk from each buffalo was tested at the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. To evaluate the relationship between mastitis markers and milk components, three classes were defined for each of the following markers: total somatic cell count (TSCC), differential somatic cell count (DSCC), and bacteriological results The regression coefficient for the reference method and the alternative method of determining TSCC was 0.81, indicating that the method routinely used to analyze buffalo milk consistently underestimated actual TSCC. The milk samples positive for udder-specific bacteria also had higher TSCC values than the samples that were negative for bacteria (
/ml). In samples that were positive for udder-specific bacteria, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) made up greater than 50% of the cells. Moreover, only 1% of the samples in the lowest TSCC class were positive for bacteria. The correlation between TSCC and PMN was stronger (0.70), and PMN values in buffalo milk increased significantly when the TSCC class changed from low (38%) to medium and high (56% and 64%). Milk yield was negatively related to TSCC. Significant changes in lactose (4.87%, 4.80% and 4.64%) and chloride content (0.650 mg/ml, 0.862 mg/ml and 0.882 mg/ml) were also observed with increasing TSCC values. Higher TSCC was associated with impaired rennet coagulation properties: the clotting time increased, while the curd firming time (
) and firmness decreased. We concluded that in buffalo as in dairy cows, TSCC is a valid indicator of udder inflammation; we also confirmed that a value of
cells/ml should be used as the threshold value for early identification of an animal affected by subclinical mastitis. In addition to its association with significantly decreased milk yield, a TSCC value above this threshold value was associated with changes in milk composition and coagulating properties.
The Effect of Physically Effective Fiber and Soy Hull on the Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Population and Milk Production of Dairy Cows
Valizadeh, R. ; Behgar, M. ; Mirzaee, M. ; Naserian, A.A. ; Vakili, A.R. ; Ghovvati, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1325~1332
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90651
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay (AH) and soybean hull (SH) on milk production of dairy cows and the population of major cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen. Eight lactating Holstein cows, averaging
days in milk (DIM), were assigned in a
Latin square design to a
factorial arrangement of treatments: alfalfa hay particle size (fine vs. coarse) combined with soy hull (zero or substituted as 50% of AH). The cows were fed diets formulated according to NRC (2001). Physically effective factor (pef) and physically effective fiber (peNDF) contents of diets increased by increasing AH particle size and inclusion of SH in the diets (p<0.01). Dry matter intake was not significantly affected by treatments but intake of peNDF was increased marginally by increasing the PS of AH (p = 0.08) and by SH inclusion (p<0.01) in the diets. Milk production was increased by feeding diets containing SH (p = 0.04), but it was not affected by the dietary PS. Milk fat content was increased by increasing AH particle size (p = 0.03) and decreased by SH substitution for a portion of AH (p<0.01). The numbers of total bacteria and cellulolytic species were not affected by PS of AH or by SH. F. succinogenes was the most abundant species in the rumen followed by R. albus and R. flavefaciens (p<0.01). This study showed that SH cannot replace the physically effective fiber in AH having either coarse or fine particle size. In diets containing SH, increasing of diet PS using coarse AH can maintain milk fat content similar to diets without SH. Particle size and peNDF content of diets did not affect the number of total or fibrolytic bacteria in the rumen.
Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Acetic Acid, Glucose and Protein in Sheep Fed a Rice Straw-based Diet
Alam, M.K. ; Ogata, Y. ; Sako, Y. ; Al-Mamun, M. ; Sano, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1333~1339
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10077
The present study was conducted to determine plasma acetate, glucose and protein metabolism using dilution of isotopes [[1-
]Na acetate, [U-
]glucose and [1-
]leucine (Leu)] in sheep fed rice straw (Oriza japonica L.). Four sheep were assigned to either rice straw (RS-diet) or mixed hay (MH-diet) with a crossover design. Nitrogen (N) intake and N digestibility were lower (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively) for RS-diet than MH-diet, but N retention did not differ (p>0.10) between the diets. Concentrations of rumen acetate tended to be lower (p = 0.07), and propionate was higher (p = 0.02) for RS-diet than MH-diet. Concentrations of plasma lactate, non-esterified fatty acids, Leu and
-ketoisocaproic acid did not differ (p>0.10) between the diets, but plasma glucose and urea concentrations were lower (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively) for RS-diet than MH-diet. Turnover rate of plasma acetate did not differ (p = 0.39) between the diets, and plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates were numerically lower (p = 0.15 and p = 0.14, respectively) for RS-diet than MH-diet. Whole body protein synthesis and degradation did not differ (p>0.10) between the diets. Thus it can be concluded that the intermediary metabolism of acetate, glucose and protein on rice straw is comparable to mixed hay in sheep.
Effects of α-Galactosidase Supplementation on Performance and Energy Metabolism for Broilers Fed Corn-non-dehulled Soybean Meal Diets
Zhang, Bo ; Cao, Yunhe ; Chen, Yiqun ; Li, Yihang ; Qiao, Shiyan ; Ma, Yongxi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1340~1347
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10079
To study the effects of
-Gal) supplementation on performance and energy metabolism, 216 Arbor Acres male broilers were placed in 36 cages of 6 birds each and allotted to 4 diets for 42 d, with 0-21 d as starter period and 22-42 d as grower period. The 4 diets were based on corn non-dehulled soybean meal in a
factorial arrangement, with 2 levels of
-Gal (0 vs. 60 U/kg feed) and 2 levels of ME (normal metabolizable energy (NME) and low metabolizable energy (LME)). Bird performance was obtained at 21 and 42 d of age with samples of feces collected for nutrient digestibility from 19-21 d and 40-42 d. At 21 and 42 d, 1 bird from 6 cages of each treatment was killed to determine liver weight, intestinal pH and chyme viscosity. With the addition of
-Gal the 42 d body weight (BW) and 0-42 d average daily gain (ADG) were significantly improved (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) of birds fed the LME diet was significantly increased compared to those fed the NME diet during starter (p<0.01) and grower (p<0.05) periods and overall (p<0.01). There was an interaction of
on 0-21 d ADFI (p<0.01). Supplementation of
-Gal significantly improved (p<0.01) feed efficiency during the grower period and overall. Feed efficiency of birds fed the LME diet was significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to those fed the NME diet during the starter period and overall. With the addition of
-Gal apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was improved (p<0.01) by 2.1% and 1.8% during starter and grower periods, respectively. There was a main effect (p<0.05) of
-Gal on the digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) during the starter period and crude protein (CP), NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) during the grower period. With the addition of
-Gal, the relative weight of liver was reduced (p<0.01) during the two phases. The duodenal and jejunal pH were significantly decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of
at the two phases.
-Gal addition reduced (p<0.01) chyme viscosity of the ileum during the starter and grower periods. Overall,
-Gal showed a major effect on nutrient efficiency, improved ADG and feed efficiency, whereas LME decreased feed efficiency. The incorporation of
-Gal into a LME diet could at least partially offset ME deficiency of non-dehulled soybean meal.
Effect of Using Organic Acids to Substitute Antibiotic Growth Promoters on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broilers
Hassan, H.M.A. ; Mohamed, M.A. ; Youssef, Amani W. ; Hassan, Eman R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1348~1353
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10085
A grower broiler experiment (from 14 to 35 days of age) was conducted to study the effect of using two commercial mixtures of organic acids (Galliacid
) to substitute antibiotic growth promoter (Eneramycin
) on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora. 400 (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used. A basal corn-soybean meal diet were formulated and served as a control treatment. The control diet was supplemented with either 0.06% Galliacid, 0.1% Biacid or 0.02% Eneramycin. Birds fed the Galliacid-supplemented diet had 16% (p<0.001) more gain than the control, while those fed the Biacid- or Enramycinsupplemented diets recorded 3 and 5.5% more gain, respectively. Organic acids mixtures and Enramycin supplementation significantly (p<0.001) improved feed conversion ratio. These results indicated that birds fed either organic acid mixtures or Enramycinsupplemented diets utilized feed more efficiently than those fed the control diet. Galliacid significantly (p<0.01) increased dressing percentage and bursa weight (% body weight). No significant differences were detected on liver, spleen and thymus (% body weight) among treatments. Galliacid or Biacid significantly (p<0.001) decreased intestinal Escherichia coli and Salmonella compared to the control and Enramycin-supplemented diets. Dietary Enramycin significantly (p<0.001) decreased Escherichia coli, but had no effect on Salmonella counts. In conclusion, organic acid mixtures are more efficient than antibiotic growth promoter (Enramycin) in improving broiler performance and decreasing intestinal Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., and could be successfully used to substitute antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets. However, not all of the organic acid mixtures gave the same effect either on performance or intestinal bacterial counts.
Effects of Various Feeding Methods for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance and Growth of Their Progeny
Piao, L.G. ; Ju, W.S. ; Long, H.F. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1354~1363
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10064
This study compared the effect of four different feeding methods for gestating gilts on reproductive performance and growth of their progeny. A total of 40 F1 primiparous sows (Yorkshire
Landrace) were allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). For treatments, gestating period of sows was divided into three trimesters (0-35 d, 36-90 d and 91-110 d) and different amounts of feed were provided to each treatment group by Flat, Down-Up-Down (DUD), Up-Down-Up (UDU) and Down-Up-Up (DUU) feeding methods. The experimental diet was formulated to meet or exceed the standards of NRC (1998). Body weight gain of gestating gilts from d 0 to 110 was affected by feeding method (p<0.05). When gilts were fed constant feed ration (Flat feeding), less body weight loss was observed during lactation (-0.9 kg, p<0.05) and desirable backfat thickness (average 19.5 mm) was acquired at 110 days of gestation. Feed intake of lactating sows tended to be greater (4.22, 3.60, 3.97 and 4.13 kg/d, p>0.05) as sows in Flat feeding treatment had lower backfat thickness during gestation compared with other treatments (p<0.05). When gestating gilts were fed higher amount of feed during mid-trimester, the number of stillborn (1.4 piglet per litter, p<0.05) and mummies (0.8 piglet per litter, p = 0.25) were increased compared to other treatments. Feeding methods for gestating gilts had no effect on litter weight and gain of litter weight during the nursing period. Flat feeding method resulted in decreased plasma glucose concentration at 7 d postpartum (p<0.05), and increased LH concentration at 21 d postpartum (p<0.01) compared to other treatments. These results suggested that higher feed intake of gestating gilts resulted in detrimental effects on body condition and reproductive performance of sows. When gestating gilts consumed constant feed during gestation (2 kg/d), better reproductive performance and less body weight loss in lactation were observed because sows consumed more feed during the whole lactation period. Consequently, Flat feeding will be a desirable feeding strategy for gestating gilts to maximize reproductive performance, and better body condition of sows without any negative influence on the growth of their progeny.
Comparison of Rectal and Infrared Thermometry for Obtaining Body Temperature of Gnotobiotic Piglets in Conventional Portable Germ Free Facility
Chung, Tae-Ho ; Jung, Woo-Sung ; Nam, Eui-Hwa ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Park, Seol-Hee ; Hwang, Cheol-Yong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1364~1368
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90507
Gnotobiotic piglets (n = 10) were hand-reared in conventional germ-free facilities. Piglet body temperatures were measured with rectal and non-contact infrared thermometry (NIFT) on the lower eyelid, auricular center and margin, parietal regions, axilla, central abdomen and dorsum, and the perianal region. Body temperature measurements at central abdomen, cranial dorsum, and perianal regions had NIFT values which had a significant linear relationship (p<0.0001) with rectal thermometry. The predicted equations of between-subject formulas were calculated as follows: rectal temperature, 28.07489+0.30372
central abdominal surface temperature; rectal temperature, 34.02799+0.15197
central dorsum surface temperature; and rectal temperature, 33.87937+0.15676
perianal temperature. These results suggested that NIFT could serve as a valid alternative to rectal thermometry in a portable germ-free facility without disturbing experimental animals. The development of a NIFT body temperature evaluation that does not require animal restraint is clinically advantageous, particularly in gnotobiotic piglets, and would be significantly less stressful for experimental procedures in germ-free facilities.
Comparison of Milk-clotting Activity of Proteinase Produced by Bacillus Subtilis var, natto and Rhizopus oligosporus with Commercial Rennet
Chen, Ming Tsao ; Lu, Ying Yu ; Weng, Tien Man ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1369~1379
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80694
This study investigated purification and milk-clotting activity of the enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis var, natto and Rhizopus oligosporus compared with that of commercial rennet. The clotting time, viscosity, tension and microstructure of the curd and electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins were determined. The milk-clotting activity/proteolytic activity ratios (MCA/PA ratio) of B. subtilis, R. oligosporus and commercial rennet were also compared. The results revealed that the curd formed by the commercial rennet had the highest viscosity and curd tension and the shortest clotting time among the three enzymes. However, curd produced by Rhizopus enzymes was ranked as second. From the MCA/PA ratio and electrophoretogram analyses it could be concluded that the enzyme produced by B. subtilis had the highest proteolytic activity, while the commercial rennet had the highest milk-clotting activity. Observations of microstructures of SEM showed that the three-dimensional network for curd formed by commercial rennet was denser, firmer and more smooth. The milk-clotting activity, specific activity, purification ratio and recovery of the purified enzymes produced by both the tested organisms were also determined with ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration.
Effect of Cooking Methods and Fat Levels on the Physico-chemical, Processing, Sensory and Microbial Quality of Buffalo Meat Patties
Mohammad, Nisar P.U. ; Chatli, M.K. ; Sharma, D.K. ; Sahoo, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1380~1385
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90305
Buffalo meat patties with two fat levels, F1 (15% added fat) and F2 (5% added fat and 3% tapioca starch), were cooked in a pre-heated hot air oven (HO) at
for 15 min, in a microwave oven (MO) for 70 sec and by pressure cooking (PC) at 15 psi pressure for 10 min. and compared for physico-chemical, processing, sensory and microbiological quality attributes. F2 had significantly (p<0.05) higher value for the moisture and moisture protein ratio than F1. However, MO and PC patties had significantly (p<0.05) higher moisture content than HO-cooked buffalo meat patties irrespective of fat content. Highest fat percentage was in MO patties while the minimum was in PC patties. Moisture and fat retention and cooking yield were highest in MO patties irrespective of added fat content in the formulation. Cooking yield and dimensional parameters were better maintained in F2 than F1. Sensory scores viz. appearance and color, flavour, juiciness and texture for HO patties were better than other cooking methods. Sensory panelists rated overall acceptability of HO patties very good to excellent, whereas PC and MO patties were rated as good to very good irrespective of fat content. Microbiological quality was comparable in both groups irrespective of cooking methods used.
Soy Oligosaccharides and Soluble Non-starch Polysaccharides: A Review of Digestion, Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Effects in Pigs and Poultry
Choct, M. ; Dersjant-Li, Y. ; McLeish, J. ; Peisker, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1386~1398
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90222
Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.