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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
Selecting the target year
An Integrated Genomic Resource Based on Korean Cattle (Hanwoo) Transcripts
Lim, Da-Jeong ; Cho, Yong-Min ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Sung, Sam-Sun ; Nam, Jung-Rye ; Yoon, Du-Hak ; Shin, Youn-Hee ; Park, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Hee-Bal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1399~1404
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90250
We have created a Bovine Genome Database, an integrated genomic resource for Bos taurus, by merging bovine data from various databases and our own data. We produced 55,213 Korean cattle (Hanwoo) ESTs from cDNA libraries from three tissues. We concentrated on genomic information based on Hanwoo transcripts and provided user-friendly search interfaces within the Bovine Genome Database. The genome browser supported alignment results for the various types of data: Hanwoo EST, consensus sequence, human gene, and predicted bovine genes. The database also provides transcript data information, gene annotation, genomic location, sequence and tissue distribution. Users can also explore bovine disease genes based on comparative mapping of homologous genes and can conduct searches centered on genes within user-selected quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions. The Bovine Genome Database can be accessed at http://bgd.nabc.go.kr.
Association of CAST Gene Polymorphisms with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Chinese Commercial Cattle Herds
Li, Jiao ; Zhang, Lu-Pei ; Gan, Qian-Fu ; Li, Jun-Ya ; Gao, Hui-Jiang ; Yuan, Zheng-Rong ; Gao, Xue ; Chen, Jin-Bao ; Xu, Shang-Zhong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1405~1411
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90602
Calpastatin (CAST), an endogenous inhibitor of the calpains, plays an important role in post-mortem tenderization of meat. The objectives of this study were to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine CAST gene and association with carcass and meat quality traits. A total of 212 cattle from commercial herds were tested in this study including 2 pure introduced breeds, 4 cross populations, and 3 pure Chinese native breeds. Five SNPs were identified at position 2959 (A/G), 2870 (G/A), 3088 (C/T), 3029 (G/A) and 2857 (C/T) in the CAST gene (GenBank Accession No. AF159246). Allele frequencies of SNP2959 and SNP2870 were 0.701 (A) and 0.462 (A), respectively. A general linear model was used to evaluate the associations between the two markers and 7 traits. The results showed that both SNP2959 and SNP2870 were significantly (p<0.01) associated with the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), while they had no significant association with the other 6 traits in the whole population. However, in Chinese native pure breeds, only SNP2870 had significant association with WBSF (p<0.05). The simultaneous analysis of two-marker genotype effects indicated animals containing the A/G haplotype (A for SNP2959 and G for SNP2870) tended to have lower shear force than those containing the G/A haplotype, and, especially, animals homozygous for the A/G haplotype had approximately 2 kg lower shear force than those homozygous for the G/A haplotype (p<0.01). These results suggested that both markers may be effective for the marker-assisted selection of meat quality traits in Chinese commercial herds, especially SNP2870 which can be used for Chinese native cattle.
The Effect of Xylene and Formaldehyde Inhalation on Testicular Tissue in Rats
Gules, O. ; Eren, U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1412~1420
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90519
In this study, changes in testicular tissues of rats subjected to xylene and formaldehyde inhalation were evaluated. Three experimental groups were included in the study. Each group of rats was exposed to formaldehyde (6 ppm), technical xylene (300 ppm) or a combination of these two agents (150 ppm+3 ppm) for 8 weeks (8 h/d). Control groups were maintained for a period of eight weeks under the same conditions. Staining methods (triple staining, strep ABC method) were applied to examine histometric changes and relaxin like factor (RLF) expression in the testicular tissue. Immunostaining for RLF showed that density of staining for RLF decreased in rats exposed to formaldehyde. Formaldehyde or a combination of formaldehyde and xylene led to a decrease in seminiferous epithelial height. In conclusion, exposure of rats to formaldehyde and xylene-formaldehyde combinations adversely affects Leydig cells (RLF) and seminiferous epithelium of testicular tissue.
Effect of the Addition of β-Hydroxybutyrate to Chemically Defined Maturation Medium on the Nuclear Maturation, Sperm Penetration and Embryonic Development of Porcine Oocytes In vitro
Endo, R. ; Ishii, A. ; Nakanishi, A. ; Nabenishi, H. ; Ashizawa, K. ; Tsuzuki, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1421~1426
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10073
We investigated the effects of various concentrations of
-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), a ketone body, added to chemically-defined maturation medium with or without energy substrates (glucose, pyruvate and lactate) on nuclear maturation rates up to the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (M-II stage). In addition, we also assessed the influence of BHB on glutathione content, sperm penetration rate and embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage of oocytes matured under the presence of these energy substrates. Nuclear maturation rates up to the M-II stage of oocytes matured with BHB in each concentration group did not show a significant increase compared with the control (0 mM) groups in both the presence and absence of energy substrates. Although glutathione contents were not significantly different in each BHB concentration group, the sperm penetration rate in the 1 mM BHB group was significantly higher (p<0.05) and the embryonic development rate of oocytes up to the blastocyst stage was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the respective values of the control groups. These results suggest that BHB added to a chemically-defined maturation medium may stimulate sperm penetration while inhibiting embryonic development of porcine oocytes.
Effects of a Stair-step Growth Pattern on Improvements in Meat Quality and Growth in Hanwoo Steers
Li, Z.H. ; Lee, H.G. ; Xu, C.X. ; Hong, Z.S. ; Jin, Y.C. ; Yin, J.L. ; Zhang, Q.K. ; Piao, D.C. ; Yang, U.M. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1427~1435
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90539
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of a stair-stepped feed intake pattern on growth, feed efficiency, and meat quality of Hanwoo steers. Twenty-seven 11-month-old Hanwoo steers were randomly divided into three groups. The control group was fed according to the Korean steer feeding program, and the other two groups were fed according to an alternated feeding schedule of 3-2-4-2 months. During the first three months of the experiment, treatment group 1 (T1) and treatment group 2 (T2) were fed 20% and 30% less than the control group, respectively. For the following two months, the T1 group was fed 20% more than the control group while the T2 group was fed 20% less than the control group. In the third step, T1 and T2 groups were fed 20% and 10% less, respectively, than the control group for four months. In the last two months, T1 and T2 groups were fed 20% more than the control group. After the stair-step feeding trial, steers were fed concentrated feed ad libitum for five months. The altered feed intake pattern did not affect daily body weight gain. However, daily feed intake tended to decrease and growth efficiency tended to increase in the two treatment groups compared to the control group. Altered feed intake also affected blood metabolite levels. The serum glucose and BUN level of the T1 group increased in the first re-fed period compared to the T2 and control groups. The serum cholesterol level of the T2 group decreased in the first restricted-re-fed growth period compared to the T1 and control groups. The serum NEFA levels of the two treatment groups increased from the first restricted period compared to the controls. The serum insulin level of the T2 group increased in the last period compared to the T1 and control groups. Regarding meat yield index, the control group was significantly higher than the T2 group (p<0.05). Regarding meat yield grade, the carcass back fat thickness of the T2 group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). In marbling score, the T1 group was the highest (4.9), followed by the control group (4.1) and the T2 group (4.0). These results indicate that using a stair-stepped growth pattern (T1) can contribute to improvements in growth efficiency and muscle marbling.
Effects of Feeding Licury (Syagrus coronate) Cake to Growing Goats
Borja, M.S. ; Oliveira, R.L. ; Ribeiro, C.V.D.M. ; Bagaldo, A.R. ; Carvalho, G.G.P. ; Silva, T.M. ; Lima, L.S. ; Barbosa, L.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1436~1444
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90574
The objectives of this study were to determine the highest inclusion of licury (Syagrus coronate) cake in the diet of growing Boer goats without adverse effects on intake and digestibility and to determine its effects on ingestive behavior and physiological responses. Twenty entire, one year old 3/4 Boer goats, 18.1 kg (DS = 2.2) average body weight (BW), were allocated to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each animal was confined in a
pen with a suspended floor and given ad libitum access to clean, fresh water. Diets were formulated to meet NRC (2007) requirements and the ingredients were: 50% of Tifton-85 (Cynodon sp.) hay, corn meal, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin premix, and licury cake. The treatments were: i) no addition of licury cake to the diet, ii) 15% (DM basis) addition of licury cake, iii) 30% licury cake and, iv) 45% licury cake. The experiment lasted for 17 days; the first 10 days were used to adapt the animals to the diets and facilities. The inclusion of licury cake increased the fiber concentration of the diets; however, there was no effect on either dry matter (DM) or organic matter (OM) intake. There was a linear increase (p<0.05) in the EE content of the diet as the addition of licury cake increased; however, EE intake did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. The digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) decreased with increasing inclusion of licury cake, as did NFC intake. The efficiency of ingestion of DM and NDF presented a negative quadratic effect with the inclusion of licury cake. Results from this study indicate that licury cake can be fed to goats at up to 45% of the diet without adverse effects on either intake or digestibility.
Evaluation of Dry Matter Intake and Average Daily Gain Predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System in Crossbred Growing Bulls Kept in a Traditionally Confined Feeding System in China
Du, Jinping ; Liang, Yi ; Xin, Hangshu ; Xue, Feng ; Zhao, Jinshi ; Ren, Liping ; Meng, Qingxiang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1445~1454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10055
Two separate animal trials were conducted to evaluate the coincidence of dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) and observed actually in crossbred growing bulls kept in a traditionally confined feeding system in China. In Trial 1, 45 growing Simmental
Mongolia crossbred F1 bulls were assigned to three treatments (T1-3) with 15 animals in each treatment. Trial 2 was conducted with 60 Limousin
Fuzhou crossbred F2 bulls allocated to 4 treatments (t1-4). All of the animals were confined in individual stalls. DMI and ADG for each bull were measured as a mean of each treatment. All of the data about animals, environment, management and feeds required by the CNCPS model were collected, and model predictions were generated for animals on each treatment. Subsequently, model-predicted DMI and ADG were compared with the actually recorded results. In the three treatments in Trial 1, 93.3, 80.0 and 73.3% of points fell within the range from -0.4 to 0.4 kg/d for DMI mean bias; similarly, in the four treatments in Trial 2, about 86.7, 73.3, 73.3 and 80.0% of points fell within the same range. These results indicate that the CNCPS model can accurately predict DMI of crossbred bulls in the traditionally confined feeding system in China. There were no significant differences between predicted and observed ADG for T1 (p = 0.06) and T2 (p = 0.09) in Trial 1, and for t1 (p = 0.07), t2 (p = 0.14) and t4 (p = 0.83) in Trial 2. However, significant differences between predicted and observed ADG values were observed for T3 in Trial 1 (p<0.01) and for t3 in Trial 2 (p = 0.04). By regression analysis, a statistically different value of intercept from zero for the regression equation of DMI (p<0.01) or an identical value of ADG (p = 0.06) were obtained, whereas the slopes were significantly different (p<0.01) from unity for both DMI and ADG. Additionally, small root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained for the unbiased estimator of the two variances (DMI and ADG). Thus, the present results indicated that the CNCPS model can give acceptable estimates of DMI and ADG of crossbred growing bulls kept in a traditionally confined feeding system in China.
Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers
Seo, Ja-Kyeom ; Yang, Ji-Young ; Kim, Hyun-J. ; Upadhaya, Santi Devi ; Cho, W.M. ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1455~1461
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10247
Three rumen-cannulated Holstein steers were fed three diets, each with a different synchrony index (SI) (LS: 0.77, MS: 0.81, and HS: 0.83), in order to examine the effect of diet on rumen fermentation, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Synchrony index was calculated based on the carbohydrate and crude protein fractions of each ingredient and their degradation rates. Feeding the steers diets with different SIs did not influence dry matter, crude protein, NDF, or ADF digestibility. The concentrations of total and individual VFA in the rumens of steers that were fed the two higher-SI diets were higher than in those fed the low-SI diet (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two higher-SI diets. One hour after feeding, steers on the LS diet had lower ruminal pHs than did those fed the MS or HS diets (p<0.05), and animals on the LS diet generally showed higher ruminal
-N levels than did animals on the other diets, with the 4-h post-feeding difference being significant (p<0.05). Steers receiving the LS diet excreted more nitrogen (N) in their urine than did those on the two higher-SI diets (p<0.05), and the total N excretion of those on the LS diet was also higher (p<0.05). Microbial N levels calculated from the concentration of urinary purine derivatives were generally higher when the SI was higher, with the highest microbial protein synthesis being produced by steers on the HS diet (p<0.05). In conclusion, in the current study, ingestion of a synchronous diet by Holstein steers improved microbial protein synthesis and VFA production and decreased total N output.
Antioxidants Supplementation on Acid Base Balance during Heat Stress in Goats
Sivakumar, A.V.N. ; Singh, G. ; Varshney, V.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1462~1468
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90471
The effects of vitamin C and vitamin E with selenium on acid-base balance and some stress hormones were evaluated during heat stress in goats. Goats, 1.5 years of age, were divided into control, heat stress and antioxidant treatment groups 1, 2 and 3. Except for the control, all groups were exposed to a temperature of
with a relative humidity of 30% for 5 h/d for 21 days in a psychrometric chamber. Rectal temperature and respiratory rates were recorded daily post exposure. Blood samples were collected on every 3rd day for estimation of plasma vitamins C and E, total antioxidant activity and hormones, and separate blood samples were taken to estimate acid-base status. The rectal temperature and respiratory rates were increased (p<0.05) in the heat stress group only. Except for pH and
, which were increased significantly (p<0.05) other parameters of acid-base balance such as
, BEb, BEcef, PCV and Hb were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the heat stress group. An improvement in acid-base status was noted in the antioxidant supplemented groups. Prolactin and cortisol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher and free T3 and T4 levels were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the heat stress group. Levels of prolactin and cortisol were decreased and free T3 and T4 were increased in antioxidant treatment groups. Different levels of antioxidant supplementation resulted in similar protection against heat stress.
Effects of Feeding Methods of Total Mixed Ration on Behavior Patterns of Growing Hanwoo Steers
Lee, Sang-Moo ; Kim, Young-Il ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1469~1475
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10100
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of methods of feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) on behavior patterns of growing Hanwoo steers. A total of 15 growing steers (13 months old) were assigned to the control (fed roughage and concentrate mix separately), TMR1 (fed restricted TMR), and TMR2 (fed TMR ad libitum) groups. Individual behaviors of steers were observed for 48 hours. Compared with the control, feeding restricted TMR (TMR1) resulted in short eating time, long ruminating time, short chewing time, high frequencies of defecation, urination, and drinking of water, great numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, high eating and chewing efficiencies (p<0.05). Compared with feeding restricted TMR (TMR1), feeding TMR ad libitum (TMR2) resulted in 1.2 kg more daily feed DM intake, long eating and chewing times, short resting time, great frequencies of defecation, urination and drinking of water, more numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, low eating and high ruminating efficiencies (p<0.05) and similar chewing efficiency (p>0.05). Considering all these results, the wet TMR feeding system induced generally more desirable eating and ruminating behaviors of growing Hanwoo steers, but made the barn floor wetter due to more defecation and urination.
Effects of Chito-oligosaccharide Supplementation on Egg Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Egg Quality and Blood Profiles in Laying Hens
Meng, Q.W. ; Yan, L. ; Ao, X. ; Jang, H.D. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1476~1481
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10025
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with chito-oligosccharide (COS) on egg production, nutrient digestibility, egg quality and blood profiles in laying hens. A total of 240 Hy-line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the following 5 dietary treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) ANT, basal diet+44 mg/kg avilamycin; iii) COS0.2, basal diet+200 mg/kg COS; iv) COS0.4, basal diet+400 mg/kg COS; v) ANTCOS, basal diet+200 mg/kg COS+22 mg/kg avilamycin. The experiment lasted for 6 wk. No change in egg weight (p>0.05) was observed during the trial period. Egg production in ANTCOS treatment was improved (p<0.05) when compared to CON during weeks 4-6. The birds in the COS0.2, COS0.4 and ANTCOS groups had higher (p<0.05) Haugh unit than those fed CON and ANT diets at the end of the
wk. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen in CON group was lower (p<0.05) than in other treatments. The white blood cell (WBC) concentration of birds in the COS0.4 and ANTCOS group was higher (p<0.05) than that of birds in other groups at the end of the
wk. In addition, the differences of WBC counts between the beginning and end of the experiment in COS0.4 and ANTCOS groups were higher (p<0.05) than in CON and ANT groups. At the end of the experiment, the birds fed ANTCOS diet showed higher (p<0.05) total blood protein concentration than those fed CON or ANT diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of COS appeared to increase egg production and quality by increasing nutrient digestibility. Additionally, COS improved WBC and total protein concentration.
The Effects of Propolis on Biochemical Parameters and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Broilers Exposed to Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress
Seven, Ismail ; Aksu, Taylan ; Seven, Pinar Tatli ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1482~1489
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10009
This study aimed to determine the effects of vitamin C and propolis-supplemented feeds on some blood parameters, lipid peroxidation, and activities of some antioxidant enzymes in broilers exposed to oxidative stress. 360 three-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four treatment groups each containing 90 animals, including six replicate groups for each treatment. The experimental groups were designated for a 3-42 days period as follows: no supplement to basal ration (Control-Group I); supplement of 500 ppm vitamin C and 200 ppm lead (as lead acetate) to basal ration (Group II); supplement of 1 g/kg propolis and 200 ppm lead (as lead acetate) to basal ration (Group III); and supplement of 200 ppm lead (as lead acetate) to basal ration (Group IV). The highest TG level (86.83 mg/dl) was observed in the lead supplemented group; however, the lowest aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) level (90.71 IU/L) was observed in the control group (p<0.05). The addition of lead increased the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p<0.01) compared to other treatments. However, the addition of vitamin C and propolis decreased the plasma MDA level close to control levels. The highest erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed in the lead addition group (p<0.01) while no significant differences were observed for SOD activities of the control, vitamin C +lead, and propolis+lead groups. The plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) activity of the control (
/ml) was significantly lower than the lead administered group (
/ml) (p<0.01); while this parameter was determined to be similar to other groups. No significant differences were observed between groups for liver GSH activity, but heart GSH activity of the control was significantly higher in comparison to other treatments (p<0.05). To obtain similar antioxidant effects, it is recommend that using propolis (1 g/kg) and vitamin C (500 mg/kg) supplementation in broiler diets may overcome the adverse effects of oxidative stress originating from dietary lead.
Effects of Sodium Polyacrylate and Phytase-Supplemented Diet on Performance and Phosphorus Retention in Chicks
Yamazaki, M. ; Murakami, H. ; Ohtsu, H. ; Abe, H. ; Takemasa, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1490~1495
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90642
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of addition of sodium polyacrylate (SPA) to a phytasesupplemented diet on the performance and phosphorus (P) retention of chicks. In experiment 1, chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments which were fed from 7 to 21 days of age: i) basal diet (low nonphytate phosphorus (0.23% NPP)); ii) basal with 250 U/kg diet of phytase; iii) as (ii) with 2.5 g/kg diet of SPA; and iv) as (ii) with 5.0 g/kg diet of SPA. In experiment 2, three replicates, each with three chicks, were fed from 7 to 28 days of age the basal diet (0.23% NPP) with supplementation of phytase (0, 300, 600, 900 U/kg diet) and SPA (0, 2.5 g/kg diet) in a
factorial arrangement. In Experiment 1, feed efficiency was improved and excreted P was 10% less with phytase supplementation. However, the addition of SPA did not affect performance or P excretion. Dietary SPA supplementation to the diets showed significantly higher amounts of P retention, and highest values were observed in chicks fed 2.5 g/kg of the SPA-supplemented diet. In Experiment 2, feed efficiency was improved with phytase supplementation, and the addition of SPA showed significant improvement in feed efficiency. Excreted P was significantly lower in chicks fed SPA-supplemented diets, and the retained P coefficient improved with SPA supplementation. In conclusion, the increased transit time of digesta with suitable supplementation levels of SPA may allow phytase activity to be more effective in the degradation of phytate, and improve P retention.
Effects of Diet Complexity and Fermented Soy Protein on Growth Performance and Apparent Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Weanling Pigs
Ao, X. ; Kim, H.J. ; Meng, Q.W. ; Yan, L. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1496~1502
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10109
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet complexity and fermented soy protein on growth performance and amino acid digestibility. In Exp. 1, a total of 120 crossbred weanling pigs (
BW) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicate pens comprising 5 pigs in each replicate. Experimental diets consisted of simple (soybean meal as protein source) and complex (soybean meal, rice protein concentrate, potato protein concentrate and fish meal as protein sources) diets; each diet contained 0 or 5% fermented soy protein (FSP), respectively. Dietary treatments included: i) simple diet; ii) simple diet with 5% FSP; iii) complex diet; iv) complex diet with 5% FSP. Pigs were provided each experimental diet for 20 d (phase 1) and then fed the same common diet for 10 d (phase 2). During days 0-10, pigs fed FSP diets had greater ADG than those fed non-FSP diets (p<0.05). G/F in FSP treatments was significantly higher than that in non-FSP treatments (p<0.05) from days 0 to 10. Throughout the overall period, G/F was greater in FSP treatments compared with non-FSP treatments (p<0.05). On d 10, N digestibility was higher in pigs fed FSP diets than in those fed non-FSP diets (p<0.05). Diet complexity did not affect growth performance and nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) in this experiment. In Exp 2, 12 ileal-cannulated, weanling barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (same as Exp. 1) by using a
Latin square design. Among the essential amino acids, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Met and Val were increased in pigs fed FSP diets compared with those fed non-FSP diets (p<0.05). AID of Met, Phe and total essential amino acids were higher in pigs fed complex diets than in those fed simple diets (p<0.05). Among the non-essential amino acids, AID of Ala in FSP treatments was greater than that in non-FSP treatments (p<0.05). In addition, Asp, Cys, Glu, Pro, Ser and total non-essential amino acid digestibilities in pigs fed complex diets were higher compared with those fed simple diets (p<0.05). Interaction was observed in AID of Met, Asp and Pro. In conclusion, these results indicated that feeding of 5% FSP to nursery pigs improved feed efficiency and AID of amino acids, and diet complexity did not maximize the growth performance of pigs in the subsequent phase.
Garlic (Allium sativum) Supplementation: Influence on Egg Production, Quality, and Yolk Cholesterol Level in Layer Hens
Mahmoud, Kamel Z. ; Gharaibeh, Saad M. ; Zakaria, Hana A. ; Qatramiz, Amer M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1503~1509
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10124
Forty-eight 40-wk-old Hi-sex laying hens were individually caged in an environmentally controlled house to evaluate the effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) juice administration on egg production, egg quality, and yolk cholesterol. Garlic juice was prepared by blending pealed garlic cloves with distilled water (1:1, w/w). Hens were randomly divided into four equal groups; one served as a control and the other three groups were individually gavaged, 3.75 ml, 7.5 ml, or 15 ml garlic juice, three times a week, which respectively represented 0.25, 0.50 and 1% of body weight. Egg production was recorded on a daily basis; egg weight, albumen height, albumen and yolk pH, Haugh unit, and bacterial count of E. coli-challenged eggs were recorded at day of oviposition (day-1) and after 5 and 10 days of storage at room temperature. Yolk cholesterol content was analyzed for five successive weeks. Garlic juice increased (p<0.05) egg weight and mass with no change in egg production intensity. Garlic juice administration recorded higher (p<0.05) albumen height and improvement in Haugh unit. Also, eggs from garlic-treated hens recorded lower (p<0.05) albumen and yolk pH when compared to eggs collected from control hens. Garlic reduced (p<0.05) the
of bacterial count in egg contents linearly when challenged with E. coli. Egg-yolk cholesterol content was not influenced by garlic juice administration. It is concluded that garlic juice improved performance characteristics and may increase egg shelf life as indicated by egg quality improvement and lower bacterial count of E. coli-challenged eggs. The levels of garlic juice used in this study were insufficient to influence egg yolk cholesterol.
Influence of Lighting Schedule and Nutrient Density in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality
Li, Wen-Bin ; Guo, Yan-Li ; Chen, Ji-Lan ; Wang, Rong ; He, Yao ; Su, Dong-Ge ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1510~1518
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10087
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lighting schedule and nutrient density on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 576 day old Arbor Acre male chickens was used with a
factorial arrangement. The four lighting schedules were continuous (23 L:1 D, CL), 20 L:4 D (12 L:2 D:8 L:2 D), 16 L:8 D (12 L:3 D:2 L:3 D: 2 L:2 D) and 12 L:12 D (9 L:3 D:1 L:3 D:1 L:3 D:1 L:3 D) and provided by incandescent bulbs. The two nutrient densities were high (H, starter diet: 13.39 MJ/kg apparent metabolisable energy (AME), 23.00% crude protein (CP); finisher diet: 13.39 MJ AME/kg, 19.70% CP) and low energy and protein level (L, starter diet: 12.03 MJ AME/kg, 20.80% CP; finisher diet: 12.14 MJ AME/kg, 18.30% CP). Houses with dark curtains and solid sidewalls were used. Chickens were randomly allocated to the 8 treatments with each treatment comprising 6 replicates of 12 chickens. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Lighting schedules showed no difference (p>0.05) in growth performance at the end of the experiment. 12 L:12 D significantly reduced (p<0.05) the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to 23 L:1 D treatment. Intermittent lighting (IL) schedules produced higher protein content (p<0.001) in breast meat. Birds on high density diets had higher body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) (p<0.001), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.001) throughout the experiment with the exception of 36 to 42 d. High nutrient density increased (p<0.05) abdominal fat, decreased (p<0.05) the moisture loss of meat, and reduced percentage of wings and legs. There was a significant lighting schedule
diet interaction (p<0.001) on FCR for days 8 to 14 and 15 to 21. Results indicated that IL can give similar growth performance in comparison with CL, meanwhile with positive effects on meat quality by increasing protein content and decreasing the concentration of MDA. High nutrient density resulted in greater growth performance.
Serum Lipids Can Convert Bovine Myogenic Satellite Cells to Adipocytes
Beloor, Jagadish ; Kang, Hye-Kyeong ; Moon, Yang-Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1519~1526
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10062
Serum lipid (SL) is a commercially available cholesterol-rich, proteinaceous compound extracted from bovine serum. Here we investigated the adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of SL on bovine myogenic satellite cells. Exposure of satellite cells to SL could generate lipid droplets on day 2, and further exposure to SL increased cytoplasmic lipid accumulation giving adipocyte morphology. The expression analysis of PPAR gamma and GPDH adipocyte markers along with Oil-red-O staining results confirmed the transdifferentiation potential of SL. When cells were treated at different concentrations (5, 10, 20,
/ml) of SL, the results indicated that even levels as low as
SL /ml could induce transdifferentiation, and maximum induction was obtained at
SL/ml. After treatment with SL at different concentrations the expression levels of PPAR gamma varied significantly (p<0.05), whereas the expression of other adipogenic transcription factors showed no difference, indicating that SL acts through PPAR gamma. The combined effect of SL and troglitazone proved to be the best combination for induction of transdifferentiation compared to the individual effect of SL or troglitazone. Thus, overall results clearly show that SL induces transdifferentiation of bovine myogenic satellite cells to adipocytes.
Trace Mineral Nutrition in Poultry and Swine
Richards, James D. ; Zhao, Junmei ; Harrell, Robert J. ; Atwell, Cindy A. ; Dibner, Julia J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1527~1534
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.07
Trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese are essential cofactors for hundreds of cellular enzymes and transcription factors in all animal species, and thus participate in a wide variety of biochemical processes. Immune development and response, tissue and bone development and integrity, protection against oxidative stress, and cellular growth and division are just a few examples. Deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to deficits in any of these processes, as well as reductions in growth performance. As such, most animal diets are supplemented with inorganic and/or organic forms of trace minerals. Inorganic trace minerals (ITM) such as sulfates and oxides form the bulk of trace mineral supplementation, but these forms of minerals are well known to be prone to dietary antagonisms. Feeding high-quality chelated trace minerals or other classes of organic trace minerals (OTM) can provide the animal with more bioavailable forms of the minerals. Interestingly, many, if not most, published experiments show little or no difference in the bioavailability of OTMs versus ITMs. In some cases, it appears that there truly is no difference. However, real differences in bioavailability can be masked if source comparisons are not made on the linear portion of the dose-response curve. When highly bioavailable chelated minerals are fed, they will better supply the biochemical systems of the cells of the animal, leading to a wide variety of benefits in both poultry and swine. Indeed, the use of certain chelated trace minerals has been shown to enhance mineral uptake, and improve the immune response, oxidative stress management, and tissue and bone development and strength. Furthermore, the higher bioavailability of these trace minerals allows the producer to achieve similar or improved performance, at reduced levels of trace mineral inclusion.
Porcine Xenotransplantation to Primates
Min, T.S. ; Han, H.J. ; Park, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1535~1542
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10299
Xenotransplantation is a hot topic currently, since the demand for diverse organs is increasing in patients. Among many species, pigs are suitable animals for xenotranplantation as they share many anatomical and physiological characteristics with humans. This review article provides an overview of porcine xenotransplantation and the rejection of pig xenotransplants in primates, and use of genetically modified and cloned pigs in xenotransplantation. It also highlights major target organs in porcine xenotransplantation and virus infection in xenotransplantation.