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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
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A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in LOC534614 as an Unknown Gene Associated with Body Weight and Cold Carcass Weight in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Lee, Y.S. ; Oh, D.Y. ; Kim, J.J. ; Lee, J.H. ; Park, H.S. ; Yeo, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1543~1551
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10113
A major aim of cattle genome research is to identify candidate genes associated with meat quantity and quality through QTL analysis for application in the livestock industry. Therefore, this study focused on discovery of useful SNPs within the LOC534614 gene, containing 12273_165 SNP which is located on the same site as the QTL on chromosome 6, and evaluation of the association between SNP and body weight and cold carcass weight in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) As a result of a BLAST search of the NCBI web site, we discovered that the mRNA sequence of the LOC534614 gene was similar to that of the coiled-coil domain containing 158 (CCDC158) for dog and human. According to the direct DNA sequence from the CCDC158 gene, we identified 19 polymorphic SNPs within exons and their flanking regions. Among them, 17 polymorphic SNPs were selected for genotyping in Hanwoo (n = 476) and seventeen marker haplotypes containing 12273_165 SNP (frequency >0.1) were identified. As a result of the association between 17 polymorphic SNPs and Hanwoo (n = 476), g.8778G>A SNP in exon 6 was found to be a non-synonymous SNP, and was significantly associated with body weight and cold carcass weight (p<0.05). We discovered 19 polymorphic SNPs in the CCDC158 gene on the QTL region of BTA 6 in Hanwoo and identified that the g.8778G>A SNP was significantly associated with body weight and cold carcass weight (p<0.05), which causes an amino acid variation from valine to methionine. Furthermore, statistical analysis demonstrated that the CCDC158 gene is strongly associated with body weight and cold carcass weight in Hanwoo. In this regard, the g.8778G>A SNP in the CCDC158 gene can be useful as a positional candidate for body weight and cold carcass weight for marker-assisted selection in Hanwoo.
Genetic Diversity Measures of 8 Local Sheep Breeds in Northwest of China for Genetic Resource Conservation
Zeng, X.C. ; Chen, H.Y. ; Hui, W.Q. ; Jia, B. ; Du, Y.C. ; Tian, Y.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1552~1556
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10132
The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the use of microsatellite markers, the current genetic diversity and the relationships of 375 individuals from 8 local sheep breeds reared in typical breeding farms in the northwest of China, and moreover, to offer a contribution towards genetic conservation decisions for the studied breeds. The expected heterozygosities and allelic richness for the 8 breeds varied from 0.474 to 0.623 and from 3.8 to 5.4, respectively. All the populations showed a significant deficit in heterozygosity and a relatively low level of genetic diversity. Furthermore, the high positive FIS value (ranging from 0.255 to 0.556) indicated inbreeding to be one of the main causes for high genetic homogeneity and lack of heterozygosity in all breeds. The clustering analysis performed with the DISPAN package showed that Aletai, Kazak, Bashibai and Bayinbuluke were grouped together, and Hetian, Qira black and Duolang were grouped together, which indicated that the relationship among breeds displayed some degree of consistency with their geographical distribution, production and origin. These findings indicate that improved conservation measures must be undertaken to avoid further losses of genetic diversity and minimize inbreeding represented by these breeds.
Vitellogenin Induction and Histo-metabolic Changes Following Exposure of Cyprinus carpio to Methyl Paraben
Barse, A.V. ; Chakrabarti, T. ; Ghosh, T.K. ; Pal, A.K. ; Kumar, Neeraj ; Raman, R.P. ; Jadhao, S.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1557~1565
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10118
Methyl paraben (MP), which is used as a preservative in pharmaceutical and cosmetic (shampoo) products, foods and beverages, enters into the aquatic environment and can pose a potential fish health hazard. In this experiment, effects of MP were evaluated in adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposing them to fractions (1/
to 1/29th) of the
dose with every change of water for 28 days. Vitellogenin induction, metabolic enzymes, somatic indices and bioaccumulation were studied at weekly intervals. The
of MP in fingerlings was 120 mg/L. Compared to the control, except for increases (p<0.01) in alkaline phosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199), alanine aminotransferase (EC 188.8.131.52) and liver size, there were decreases (p<0.01) in activity of acid phosphatase (EC 184.108.40.206), aspartate aminotransferase (EC 220.127.116.11), and testiculosomatic index following exposure to any dose of MP. Vitellogenin induction was significantly higher (p<0.01) in exposed than unexposed (control) fish. The bioaccumulation of MP in testis, liver, brain, gills and muscle tissues of fish increased significantly (p<0.01) with increase of dose from 0.84 ppm to 1.68 ppm. Dose and duration of exposure (p<0.01) indicated that an exposure period of 1 to 2 weeks was sufficient to cause changes in the quantifiable parameters studied. Fish exposed to 4.2 ppm MP became lethargic after the
d. Histologically, degeneration, vacuolization and focal necrotic changes in liver and fibrosis-like changes in testicular tissue were noted.
Feeding Effect of an Anabolic Steroid, Nandrolone, on the Male Rat Testis
Lee, Dong-Mok ; Min, Tae-Sun ; Choi, In-Ho ; Cheon, Yong-Pil ; Chun, Tae-Hoon ; Park, Chang-Sik ; Lee, Ki-Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1566~1577
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10278
Nandrolone, 19-nortestosterone, is a synthetic androgenic-anabolic steroid promoting muscle growth. Nandrolone is also present in pig meat and sera at non-negligible levels. A number of scientific reports have suggested a positive relationship between incidence of infertility and increased meat consumption in humans. The present study was designed to determine out the effect of feeding nandrolone on the testis of the male reproductive tract. Mixtures of food and nandrolone at different concentrations (0.005 ppm and 0.5 ppm) were supplied to pubertal male rats for 6 weeks. Body weight was recorded every week during the entire experimental period. At the end of the treatment, the testis, epididymis, and epididymal fat were collected and weighted. Sperm numbers in the caudal epididymis were counted. Differential gene or protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the testes among experimental groups was determined by semi-quantitative real-time PCR or western blotting analysis, respectively. Histological changes of the testis induced by nandrolone treatment were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to detect changes in the localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the testes among experimental animals. There were no significant changes on body, testis, epididymis, and epididymal fat weights among experimental groups. A significant increase of caudal sperm number was found in the 0.5 ppm nandrolone-treated group. Histological examination of the testes noted a high frequency of germ cell sloughing in seminiferous tubules of 0.5 ppm nandrolone-treated rats. Even though transcript levels of
-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) I,
-hydroxylase were influenced by nandrolone treatments, protein levels of all molecules examined in the present study were not significantly affected. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no visible changes in the localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the testes among experimental groups. The current study showed that oral intake of nandrolone in male rats for 6 weeks did not cause significant damage to the testis. It is considered that a feeding effect of nandrolone on male fertility would not be remarkable.
Effects of Persimmon (Diospros kaki L.) Vinegar as a Dietary Supplement on Feed Intake, Digestibility, and Ruminal Fermentation Indices in Sheep
Shin, J.H. ; Ko, Y.D. ; Kim, B.W. ; Kim, S.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1578~1586
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10139
This study estimated the effect of fermented persimmon (Diospros kaki L.) extract (FPE) supplement on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and rumen fermentation characteristics in sheep. Five male sheep (Corriedale
Polwarth) with average body weight of
were housed in metabolism crates and assigned to a 5
5 Latin square design with five consecutive 20-d periods which consisted of 14-d adaptation and 6-d data collection. The sheep were fed ad libitum a diet containing concentrate and rice straw (3:7). The five treatments were FPE supplemented at 0 (Control), 5, 10, 20, and 30 g/kg of concentrate. Intakes of dry matter (DM, p<0.01), organic matter (OM, p<0.01), neutral detergent fiber (NDF, p<0.05), acid detergent fiber (ADF, p<0.05), and nitrogen-free extract (NFE, p<0.01) increased quadratically with increasing intake of FPE supplement and maximized (p<0.05) at 10 g/kg FPE. The digestibilities of DM (p<0.05), OM (p<0.05), crude protein (p<0.01), and NFE (p<0.01) increased quadratically with increasing amount of FPE supplement, and sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets had greater (p<0.05) DM, OM, and NFE digestibilites than the Control treatment. By increasing FPE supplement concentration, N intake (p<0.01) and fecal N (p<0.05) increased linearly, whereas retained N (p<0.05) and retained N ratio (p<0.05) increased quadratically. The retained N was maximized (p<0.05) in sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets. The mean rumen pH was not affected by FPE supplement, but there was a quadratic increase (p<0.05) of mean rumen ammonia N concentration and a linear increase (p<0.01) in mean rumen total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and acetate concentrations. The mean concentration of rumen propionate in sheep fed all FPE supplemented diets was greater (p<0.05) than the Control, but the mean ratios of rumen acetate to propionate in sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets were lower (p<0.05) than that of Control sheep. In conclusion, FPE supplemented at 5-10 g/kg of concentrate improved feed intake, the digestibilites of OM and NFE, N metabolism, and rumen fermentation indices of sheep.
Evaluation of Chemical Composition and In vitro Digestibility of Appennine Pasture Plants Using Yak (Bos grunniens) Rumen Fluid or Faecal Extract as Inoculum Source
Tufarelli, V. ; Cazzato, E. ; Ficco, A. ; Laudadio, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1587~1593
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10151
Pastures of the Apennines of Central Italy contribute to feed resources of high altitude (above 1,300 m sea level) grazing systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of faecal extract from the yak (Bos grunnienes) as an alternative microbial inoculum to rumen fluid for estimation of digestibility of several forage species. Forage samples produced at high altitude were tested in this study: four legumes (Lathyrus sativus L., Lotus corniculatus L., Onobrychis viciaefolia L. and Trifolium pratense L.), three forbs (Achillea millefolium L., Potentilla reptans L. and Teucrium flavum L.) and one grass (Brachipodyum pinnatum L.) were incubated with yak rumen fluid or faecal extract. A large variability in chemical composition was observed among the species collected. Rumen liquor and faecal samples were collected from adult healthy yak. The
incubator was used to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of forages using rumen liquor as control and faecal extract as alternative microbial inoculum sources. Filter bags containing samples of browse species were added to the four digestion vessels along with their respective inoculum and then incubated for 48 h and dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral and detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was determined. There was a significant relationship between estimates, indicating that faecal liquor has the potential to be used instead of rumen fluid for estimation of in vitro digestibility of plants. It is concluded that the
incubator results are appropriate for the determination of in vitro digestibility of nutrients using faecal liquor to define the potential for adaptation of yak to new pastures.
Effects of Dietary Addition of Bentonite on Manure Gas Emission, Health, Production, and Meat Characteristics of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Steers
Lee, Sang-Moo ; Kim, Young-Il ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1594~1600
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10005
A study was conducted to determine the dietary effects of a clay mineral (sodium bentonite, NaB) on manure gas emission, health, production, and meat characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Two diets fed to steers included a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treatment diet (control diet+1.0% clay mineral/concentrate mix). Dietary NaB addition considerably reduced concentrations of gases (
) in the manure of Hanwoo steers. Growing steers fed NaB had similar blood profiles with the exception of lower (p<0.05) concentrations of blood alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Dietary NaB addition tended to increase (p = 0.10) live weight by 30 kg at slaughtering and did not affect carcass yield and quality traits. Dietary NaB addition increased concentrations of P (p<0.01), Mg (p<0.01), Na (p<0.01), Zn (p<0.005), K (p = 0.08), Fe (p = 0.08) and Cu (p = 0.07) in the longissimus muscle compared to the control but did not affect (p>0.05) fatty acid composition. The study demonstrated that the dietary addition of a clay mineral could be effective in improving mineral bioavailability to Hanwoo steers, which could be one of the reasons for their improved performance.
Effects of Treating Whole-plant or Chopped Rice Straw Silage with Different Levels of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Silage Fermentation and Nutritive Value for Lactating Holsteins
Zhang, Y.G. ; Xin, H.S. ; Hua, J.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1601~1607
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10082
Two experiments were carried out to investigate i) the effects of four levels of lactic acid bacteria inoculants (LAB; 0,
cfu/g fresh forage) and two physical forms of rice straw (whole and chopped rice straw) on silage fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw (RS) silage for lactating Holsteins and ii) the effects of the replacement of corn silage (CS) with different inclusion levels (0, 25 and 50%) of LAB treated RS on lactating performance of Holstein dairy cows. Rice straw packed with stretch film was ensiled for 45 d. The results showed that the higher level of LAB inoculants in the silage quadratically decreased pH,
-N and acetic acid concentrations and increased the contents of lactic acid and total organic acids. The CP content and DM losses in the silage declined linearly as the level of LAB addition was increased. Compared with whole-plant rice straw silage (WRS), chopped rice straw silage (CRS) dramatically reduced pH by 0.83. The concentrations of
-N were similar in WRS and CRS and both were less than 50 g/kg of total N. Chopping rice straw before ensiling significantly enhanced the lactic acid concentration and total organic acids content whereas the concentration of acetic acid declined. The CP, NDF and ADF content of CRS was 13.4, 5.9 and 10.2% lower than in WRS, respectively. Except for butyric acid concentration, significant interaction effects of inoculation level and physical form of RS were found on all fermentation end-products. Our findings indicated that milk yield and composition were not affected by different level of RS inclusion. However, because of the lower cost of WRS, cows consuming a ration in which WRS was partially substituted for CS had 3.48 Yuan (75% CS+25% WRS) and 4.56 Yuan (50% CS+50% WRS) more economic benefit over those fed a CS-based ration. It was concluded that the chopping process and LAB addition could improve the silage quality, and that substitution of corn silage with RS silage lowered the cost of the dairy cow ration without impairing lactation performance.
Effects of Spent Mushroom Substrates Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Hanwoo Steers
Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Lee, Won-Man ; Choi, Chang-Weon ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Lee, Sang-Cheol ; Seol, Yong-Joo ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ; Choi, Nag-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1608~1613
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10200
This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementation of spent mushroom substrates (SMS) on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in Hanwoo steers. The experiment was conducted as a duplicated Latin square design with six Hanwoo steers (
), each permanently fitted with a ruminal cannula. There were three treatments; i) control (concentrates 4.8 kg +rice straw 1.2 kg/d), ii) Pleurotus eryngiia (PE) treatment (concentrates 4.8 kg+rice straw 0.73 kg+Pleurotus eryngiia 1.20 kg/d) and iii) Pleurotus osteratus (PO) treatment (concentrates 4.8 kg+rice straw 0.73 kg+Pleurotus osteratus 1.20 kg/d). There were no major effects of different dietary treatments on rumen parameters such as pH, ammonia-N, individual and total VFA production. Parameters of N utilization, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein and albumin levels, were not significantly different among the treatments, except for creatinine. Thus, the present results indicated that protein utilization was mostly unaffected by SMS treatments such as PE and PO, even though creatinine concentration was lower in PE compared with control and PO treatments (p<0.05). The present results indicate that Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus osteratus could be used as a forage source to replace 40% of rice straw without any negative effects on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in Hanwoo steers.
The Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Sardine Fish Silage on Broiler Performance, Meat Quality and Sensory Characteristics under Closed and Open-sided Housing Systems
Al-Marzooqi, W. ; Al-Farsi, M.A. ; Kadim, I.T. ; Mahgoub, O. ; Goddard, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1614~1625
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10119
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of fish silage prepared from Indian oil sardines, Sardinella longiceps, as partial replacement of soybean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. The main objective of Experiment 1, an ileal digestibility assay, was to assess the nutritional value of fish silage compared with soybean meal for feeding broiler chickens. The two test ingredients, soybean meal and dried fish silage, were incorporated into semi-synthetic diets, as the only component containing protein. The ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids of fish silage were considerably higher than those of soybean meal (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids from soybean meal was related to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors. Fish silage had higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids than soybean meal. The objective of Experiment 2, a growth study, was to evaluate the effect of feeding fish silage on performance and meat quality characteristics of broiler chickens raised under closed and open-sided housing systems. Four diets containing various levels of fish silage (0, 10, 20 and 30%) were evaluated. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of Experiment 2, 96 birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate meat quality characteristics. Housing type had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain (p<0.01). Birds in the open-sided house consumed 4.7% less amount of feed and gained 10.6% less than their counterparts in a closed house. Birds in both houses fed diets containing 10 and 20% fish silage gained more than birds fed 30% fish silage. The current study produced evidence that fish silage can replace up to 20% of soybean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or the sensory quality of broiler meat.
Replacement of Normal Maize with Quality Protein Maize on Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
Panda, A.K. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Rao, S.V. Rama ; Lavanya, G. ; Reddy, E. Pradeep Kumar ; Sunder, G. Shyam ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1626~1631
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10036
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary replacement of normal maize (NM) with quality protein maize (QPM) on performance, immune response and carcass characteristics of broiler (Krishibro) chickens. Six experimental diets were prepared separately for starter and finisher phases. Diet 1 was a control diet formulated with NM and soybean meal. In diets 2-5, the NM was replaced with QPM at 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively. Diet 6 was the same as the control diet, but supplemented with synthetic lysine similar to the industry standard. Each test diet was fed to 8 replicates, each of 5 chicks, reared in stainless steel battery brooders. The AME content of QPM (3382 kcal/kg) was similar to that of NM (3,352 kcal/kg), but protein (9.91 vs. 8.94%), lysine (0.40 vs. 0.26%) and tryptophan (0.09 vs. 0.07%) contents of QPM were higher than NM. Dietary replacement of NM with 50% QPM significantly (p<0.05) improved body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, humoral immune response, relative bursa weight, and breast muscle yield and lowered abdominal fat content. No further improvement in these parameters was recorded by increasing the level of replacement of NM with QPM to either 75% or 100%. Further, the improvement noticed in the 50% QPM group was similar to the group fed the NM diet with lysine supplementation, and thus dietary replacement of NM with QPM at 50% did not need extra synthetic lysine supplementation. It is concluded that dietary replacement of NM with QPM at the 50% level resulted in optimum performance, higher breast muscle yield and higher immune response in broiler chickens.
Effects of Non-starch Polysaccharide-degrading Enzymes on Nutrient Digestibility, Growth Performance and Blood Profiles of Growing Pigs Fed a Diet Based on Corn and Soybean Meal
Ao, X. ; Meng, Q.W. ; Yan, L. ; Kim, H.J. ; Hong, S.M. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1632~1638
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10123
Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to investigate the effects of two distinct multienzyme preparations on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood profiles. In Exp. 1, a total of 96 pigs (
) were utilized in a 42-day performance and digestibility trial using four dietary treatments: CON (control diet), ENDO (control+0.10% Endopower), NSPase1 (control+0.10% NSPase) and NSPase2 (control+0.20% NSPase). Endopower was a commercial multienzyme preparation which contained
-galactosidase, galactomannase, xylanase and
-glucanase. NSPase mainly contained
-1,4-mannosidase. There were six replication pens per treatment with four pigs per pen. Pigs fed NSPase1 diet had a higher ADG (p<0.05) and G:F (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. There were no significant differences in growth performance among the multienzyme treatments (p>0.05). Compared with CON, apparent digestibility of DM was increased (p<0.05) by ENDO treatment. N digestibility was improved (p<0.05) in response to multienzyme treatments during the experimental period. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher (p<0.05) in ENDO treatment than in CON and NSPase1 treatments at the end of the experiment, while the glucose level improved (p<0.05) due to ENDO and NSPase2 treatments. In Exp. 2, four ileal-cannulated, growing barrows (
) were housed in individual metabolism crates and randomly assigned to 1of 4 treatments (same as Exp. 1) within a
Latin square design. Enzyme supplementations improved the majority of apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities (p<0.05). It is concluded that the supplementation of NSPase1 improved growth performance as well as N digestibility and partially improved apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed a diet based on corn and soybean meal.
Effects of Dietary Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Meat Quality and Lipid Metabolism in Arbor Acres Broilers
Zhang, Yong ; Ma, Qiugang ; Bai, Xiumei ; Zhao, Lihong ; Wang, Qiang ; Ji, Cheng ; Liu, Laiting ; Yin, Haicheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1639~1644
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10168
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid metabolism in broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments (0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg dietary ALC supplementation, respectively). Compared with the control treatment, addition of ALC resulted in lower (linear effect, p<0.05) ADG and AFI. Abdominal fat percentage decreased (linear effect, p<0.05) as dietary ALC was increased, but there was no effect on dressing percentage, breast muscle percentage or thigh muscle percentage. Breast muscle pH value 24 h post-mortem increased (linear effect, p<0.05), but there were no significant differences among treatments. However, thigh muscle pH value increased (linear effect, p<0.05) as dietary ALC was increased. Breast and thigh muscle
values increased (linear effect, p<0.05), and breast and thigh muscle
values decreased (linear effect, p<0.05) with increased ALC in the diet. In addition, breast and thigh muscle shear force value decreased (linear effect, p<0.05) as dietary ALC was increased. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein lipase decreased (linear effect, p<0.05) and free fatty acid and lipase in serum increased (linear effect, p<0.05) with increased ALC in diets.
Effects of Strain on Performance, and Age at Slaughter and Duration of Post-chilling Aging on Meat Quality Traits of Broiler
Abdullah, Abdullah Y. ; Muwalla, Marwan M. ; Maharmeh, Haitham O. ; Matarneh, Sulaiman K. ; Ishmais, Majdi A. Abu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1645~1656
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10045
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of strain on broiler performance, and age at slaughter and postchilling (PC) aging time on meat quality traits. A total of 500 one-day-old chicks (250 Hubbard classic and 250 Lohman) were reared under commercial conditions. Half of the broiler birds from each strain were slaughtered at 32 days and the other half at 42 days old. At each processing day, 168 carcasses were randomly selected (84 Hubbard and 84 Lohman) and divided into groups of 28 carcasses within each strain, and aged for 0, 4 and 24 h after chilling. Average weekly body weight was comparable between strains. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) for the Hubbard strain during the second and third week of age. Initial carcass pH was significantly (p<0.05) affected by age where younger birds (32-d-old) had lower pH values than older (41-d-old) birds. Breast temperature was higher (p<0.001) for Lohman than Hubbard at 0, 2 and 4 h of PC. Younger birds had a lower breast temperature (p<0.001) at all measured times of PC. Thaw loss, cook loss and water holding capacity were not significantly affected by strain, age or aging time. Lohman strain had more tender meat (p<0.05) than Hubbard strain, and tenderness was improved with the increase of broiler age and aging time. Meats from Hubbard were lighter and less red than those from Lohman strain where younger birds had darker color. In conclusion, strain, age at slaughter and PC aging duration are critical to breast meat quality characteristics, and 4 h of aging are required before deboning in order to obtain more tender fillets.
Direct-fed Microbials for Ruminant Animals
Seo, Ja-Kyeom ; Kim, Seon-Woo ; Kim, Myung-Hoo ; Upadhaya, Santi D. ; Kam, Dong-Keun ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1657~1667
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.08
Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are dietary supplements that inhibit gastrointestinal infection and provide optimally regulated microbial environments in the digestive tract. As the use of antibiotics in ruminant feeds has been banned, DFM have been emphasized as antimicrobial replacements. Microorganisms that are used in DFM for ruminants may be classified as lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB), lactic acid utilizing bacteria (LUB), or other microorganisms including species of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Propionibacterium, strains of Megasphaera elsdenii and Prevotella bryantii and yeast products containing Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. LAB may have beneficial effects in the intestinal tract and rumen. Both LAB and LUB potentially moderate rumen conditions and improve feed efficiency. Yeast DFM may reduce harmful oxygen, prevent excess lactate production, increase feed digestibility, and improve fermentation in the rumen. DFM may also compete with and inhibit the growth of pathogens, stimulate immune function, and modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract. LAB may regulate the incidence of diarrhea, and improve weight gain and feed efficiency. LUB improved weight gain in calves. DFM has been reported to improve dry matter intake, milk yield, fat corrected milk yield and milk fat content in mature animals. However, contradictory reports about the effects of DFM, dosages, feeding times and frequencies, strains of DFM, and effects on different animal conditions are available. Cultivation and preparation of ready-to-use strict anaerobes as DFM may be cost-prohibitive, and dosing methods, such as drenching, that are required for anaerobic DFM are unlikely to be acceptable as general on-farm practice. Aero-tolerant rumen microorganisms are limited to only few species, although the potential isolation and utilization of aero-tolerant ruminal strains as DFM has been reported. Spore forming bacteria are characterized by convenience of preparation and effectiveness of DFM delivery to target organs and therefore have been proposed as DFM strains. Recent studies have supported the positive effects of DFM on ruminant performance.
The Endocrine Regulation of Chicken Growth
Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1668~1676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10329
The somatotropic axis plays a key role in proliferation and differentiation of avian organs during both pre- and posthatching periods. This review discusses the complexity of regulation of the endocrine system for chicken development and growth by growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP). In addition, the thyrotropic axis, including thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid hormones (
), is also involved in the GH-secreting pattern. In mammals, IGFI and -II are always sequestered in a 150 kDa non-covalent ternary complex. This complex consists of one molecule each of IGF-I or IGF-II, IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5 and an acid labile subunit (ALS). Chick ALS is identified in different strains for the first time, and further investigation of the expression of ALS on developmental stage and ALS effect on IGF bioavailability may be addressed in the future.