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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Body Weight Traits in Ghezel Sheep
Baneh, Hasan ; Hafezian, Seyed Hasan ; Rashidi, Amir ; Gholizadeh, Mohsen ; Rahimi, Ghodrat ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 149~153
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90266
The present study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters for body weight traits in Ghezel sheep. The data set used was records of 9,221 lambs from 180 sires and 5,060 dams for birth weight (BW), 7,206 lambs from 167 sires and 4,497 dams for weaning weight (WW) and 6,112 lambs from 157 sires and 3,841 dams for 6-months weight (6 MW), which were collected from 1999 to 2007 (9-years) at Ghezel sheep Breeding Station in west Azarbaijan. Variance components and corresponding genetic parameters were obtained with univariate analyses fitting animal models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methods. The most suitable model for each trait was determined based on log likelihood ratio tests. Birth year, lamb gender, type of birth, age of dam and herd were significant sources of variation on BW, WW and 6 MW (p<0.01). Direct estimate of heritability for BW, WW and 6 MW was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.37, respectively. The estimate of maternal permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance was 0.09 and 0.05 for BW and WW, respectively. The results of this study showed that genetic progress for growth traits is possible by selection.
Genetic Diversity of a Chinese Native Chicken Breed, Bian Chicken, Based on Twenty-nine Microsatellite Markers
Ding, Fu-Xiang ; Zhang, Gen-Xi ; Wang, Jin-Yu ; Li, Yuan ; Zhang, Li-Jun ; Wei, Yue ; Wang, Hui-Hua ; Zhang, Li ; Hou, Qi-Rui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 154~161
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90367
The level of genetic differentiation and genetic structure in a Chinese native chicken breed, Bian chicken, and two controlled chicken populations (Jinghai chicken and Youxi chicken in China) were analysed based on 29 microsatellite markers. A total of 166 distinct alleles were observed across the 3 breeds, and 32 of these alleles (19.3%) were unique to only 1 breed. Bian chicken carried the largest number of private alleles at 15 (46.9%), followed by the Jinghai chicken with 12 private alleles (37.5%). The average polymorphism information content (0.5168) and the average expected heterozygote frequency (0.5750) of the Bian chicken were the highest, and those of the Jinghai chicken were 0.4915 and 0.5505, respectively, which were the lowest. Among 29 microsatellite loci, there were 15 highly informative loci in Bian chicken, and the other 14 were reasonably informative loci. The highly informative loci in Jinghai chicken and Youxi chicken were 17 and 14 respectively. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at several locus-breed combinations, showing a deficit of heterozygotes in many cases. As a whole, genetic differentiation among the breeds estimated by the fixation index (Fst) were at 6.7% (p<0.001). The heterozygote deficit within population (Fis) was 22.2% (p<0.001), with the highest (0.249) in Bian chicken and lowest (0.159) in Youxi chicken. These results serve as an initial step in the plan for genetic characterization and conservation of the Chinese chicken genetic resource of Bian, as well as Jinghai and Youxi chickens.
Eggshell Pigmentation Study in Blue-shelled and White-shelled Ducks
Liu, H.C. ; Hsiao, M.C. ; Hu, Y.H. ; Lee, S.R. ; Cheng, W.T.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 162~168
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90256
This study attempted to clarify the difference in eggshell pigmentation between blue-shelled ducks (BSD) and whiteshelled ducks (WSD). The eggshell pigmentation deposition process is discussed. Ultraviolet spectro-photometer and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in the shell gland, uterus liquid and eggshell at 6, 12, 18, 20, 23.5 h post-oviposition. The biliverdin concentration in the eggshell and uterus fluid showed significant differences between BSD and WSD, but not in the shell gland. The heme oxygenase activity in the shell gland of both kinds of ducks remained mostly constant during the ovulatory cycle with no variation. The assay of exogenous biliverdin injection into the shell gland antrum in the WSD indicated that exogenous biliverdin could be deposited continuously into the eggshell until the source was exhausted. A layer-by-layer dissolution assay was used to examine the eggshell pigment deposition process. The biliverdin concentration in the first to sixth layers of the eggshell in the BSD was significantly higher than that in the white-shelled counterpart. The blue pigment concentration increased persistently from the 6th layer to the
layer. The BSD eggshells did not accumulate a large quantity of biliverdin in the most external layer. They tended to increase the deposition layer by layer. Our results demonstrated that different BSD and WSD eggshell colors were influenced by the amount of biliverdin in the uterus fluid and not determined by the amount of biliverdin in the shell gland. This implies the existence of a mechanism that controls biliverdin transportation from the shell gland into the uterus fluid, thereby playing a key role in regulating duck eggshell color.
Endocrine Profiles of Oestrous Cycle in Buffalo: A Meta-analysis
Mondal, S. ; Suresh, K.P. ; Nandi, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 169~174
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90193
A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the results of studies which have described the profiles of hormones during the oestrous cycle in buffalo using a fixed effect model and a random effect model. Plasma progesterone concentrations were lowest (0.30
0.06 ng/ml) during the peri-oestrous phase and increased (p = 0.067) through the early luteal phase to a maximum concentration (1.94
0.03 ng/ml) during the mid-luteal phase. Circulating plasma inhibin and estradiol concentrations were lowest (0.31
0.01 and 11.04
0.13 ng/ml) during the mid-luteal phase, increased through the late luteal phase to maximum concentrations (0.44
0.02 and 22.48
0.32 ng/ml) during the peri-oestrous phase. Plasma FSH concentrations were lowest during the early luteal phase and increased through the mid-luteal phase to a maximum concentration during the peri-oestrous phase. Peripheral prolactin concentrations were lowest during the late luteal phase and increased to a maximum concentration during the peri-oestrous phase which then declined (p = 0.716) during the early luteal phase. Peripheral plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from 2.68
0.14 ng/ml during the early luteal phase to 1.43
0.27 ng/ml during the mid-luteal phase (p<0.001) which then increased to 2.06
0.17 ng/ml during the late luteal phase. Plasma
concentrations decreased from the late luteal phase to the peri-oestrous phase (p<0.001) which then increased during the early luteal phase.
concentrations increased from the late luteal phase to the peri-oestrous phase which then decreased during the early luteal phase.
Effect of Corticosterone Administration on Small Intestinal Weight and Expression of Small Intestinal Nutrient Transporter mRNA of Broiler Chickens
Hu, X.F. ; Guo, Yuming ; Huang, B.Y. ; Zhang, L.B. ; Bun, S. ; Liu, D. ; Long, F.Y. ; Li, J.H. ; Yang, X. ; Jiao, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 175~181
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90281
The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the weight of small intestine and the expression of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were investigated. One hundred and eight sevenday-old birds were randomly divided into two equal groups comprising a control group (CTRL) and an experimental group (CORT). CTRL birds were fed a basal diet and the CORT birds were fed a basal diet containing 30 mg corticosterone/kg from d 8 to 21. At 21 d of age, average daily feed intake (ADFI), serum corticosterone level, small intestinal absolute wet weight and relative weight, and relative abundance of SGLT1, CaBP-D28k, PepT1 mRNA in the duodenum and L-FABP mRNA in the jejunum were determined. The results showed that serum corticosterone level, liver weight and small intestinal relative weight (small intestinal wet weight/body weight) of CORT chickens were about 30.15%, 26.72% and 42.20% higher, respectively, than in the CTRL group (p<0.05). CORT birds had relative mRNA abundance of CaBP-D28k and PepT1 in the duodenum, and L-FABP in the jejunum which was 1.77, 1.37 and 1.94 fold higher, respectively, than in the CTRL group (p<0.05); the relative abundance of SGLT1 was 1.67 fold higher than in the CTRL group (p = 0.097). ADFI, small intestinal wet weight and length in CORT-treated broiler chickens was about 29.11%, 31.12% and 12.35% lower, respectively, than in the CTRL group (p<0.05). In conclusion, corticosterone administration lowered the wet weight but increased the relative weight of the small intestine and the expression of intestinal nutrient transporter mRNA of broiler chickens.
Puberty Related Changes in Hormonal Levels, Productive Performance, Carcass Traits, and Their Interactions in Slovakian White Gilts
Kolesarova, A. ; Sirotkin, A.V. ; Roychoudhury, S. ; Capcarova, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 182~187
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90279
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the levels of hormones (progesterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3) in blood plasma, growth, carcass traits and their interactions of sexually immature (n = 18) and sexually mature (n = 17) gilts. To calculate average daily weight gain (ADG), gilts were individually weighed at the beginning of the trial and at slaughter (110
10 days old). Blood concentrations of progesterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were determined by RIA. The right hot carcass sides were dissected and the individual basic parts from carcasses were weighed to record the carcass traits. IGFBP-3, ADG and carcass traits were not affected by pubertal maturation. Compared to sexually immature gilts, mature gilts had higher blood concentrations of progesterone and IGF-I. High correlations were noted between levels of some hormonal substances, productive performance and carcass traits of sexually immature and mature gilts.
Concentrations of Progesterone and Estradiol in Peripheral Plasma during the Estrous Cycle and after Ovariectomy in Huanghuai Goats of High or Poor Prolificacy
Pang, X.S. ; Wang, Z.Y. ; Zhu, T.G. ; Yin, D.Z. ; Zhang, Y.L. ; Meng, L. ; Wang, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 188~196
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90211
The objective of this study was to characterize the litter sizes in Huanghuai goats with high prolificacy (HP, five or more kids born per litter on at least one occasion), and to compare their peripheral blood concentrations of progesterone and estradiol with those of goats with poor prolificacy (PP, up to three kids born per litter on any occasion). The circulating concentrations of progesterone and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay from daily blood samples taken during natural estrus cycles and at 1-5 days after ovariectomy. Estrus was synchronized using two doses of a prostaglandin analog. Litter size for the HP goats increased up to a parity of five and decreased thereafter. The percentage of goats with litter sizes of
4 from parities 3 to 6 ranged from 44.5% to 58.3%. Although small differences in litter size were obtained for goats of parities three, four and six relative to five, parity five does had the highest mean litter size. Progesterone concentrations began to rise earlier and were higher in the HP than in the PP goats on most days of the luteal phase, but not during the follicular phase of the cycle or after ovariectomy. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05) in the magnitude of the progesterone plateau. Mean estradiol concentrations in the HP group remained significantly higher than in the PP group (p<0.05) during the estrus cycle. There were two estradiol peaks in the HP goats during the early luteal phase, but only one in the PP group. Measurements of individual corpora lutea (CL) in vitro showed that there was a greater prevalence of small CL (<6 mm in diameter) in the HP group than in the PP group (p<0.05). After ovariectomy, the estradiol level on day 1 was significantly higher than at the nadir during the estrus cycle in both the HP (p<0.01) and PP (p<0.05) goats, while levels decreased by 12.3% and 26.2% respectively compared with the mid-luteal period in HP and PP goats (p<0.05). The overall mean estradiol concentrations in HP goats were lower than in the PP group, but no significant differences were found between groups at 1-5 days after ovariectomy.
Effects of Replacing Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) Hay with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Ruminal Fermentation and Ewe Performance
Sparkes, J.L. ; Chaves, A.V. ; Fung, Y.T.E. ; van Ekris, I. ; Bush, R.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 197~204
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90314
Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of replacing 30% (% in diet DM) of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hay with citrus pulp in Merino ewe diets: i) an in vitro study which measured ruminal fermentation; and ii) an in vivo study in which twelve Merino ewes pre- and post-lambing were fed experimental diets in a cross-over design over 120 days to evaluate effects on ewe performance (i.e. DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and wool growth). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, the control treatment consisted of lucerne (91.3% in diet DM), lupins (8.3% in diet DM) and phosphate (0.42% in diet DM), while the citrus pulp treatment consisted of lucerne (57.7% in diet DM), lupins (9.5% in diet DM), phosphate (0.48% in diet DM) and fresh citrus pulp (32.3% in diet DM). Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of SAS. In the in vitro study, gas production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield, proportion of propionic acid to total VFA and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were higher (p<0.02) in the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In contrast, in vitro ammonia production, pH and the acetate to propionate ratio were lower (p<0.03) for the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In the in vivo study, DM intake of ewes fed the citrus pulp diet was lower than their control ewe counterparts throughout both the pre- and post-lambing periods (928.9 vs. 1,115.0 g/d pre-; 1,285.0 vs. 1,620.3 g/d post-lambing, p<0.01), however ADG was similar (p = 0.12). Wool growth parameters and lamb performance did not differ (p>0.32) between treatments. In summary, the in vitro study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp improved total VFA yield, increased total gas production and improved IVDMD, while decreasing the production of ammonia, acetic acid and rumen pH. In addition, the in vivo study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp pre- and post-lambing decreased intake but did not affect ewe performance in terms of ADG and wool growth. These findings, of course, would be of significant interest to sheep producers endeavouring to control cost of feed ingredients whilst maintaining productivity.
Effects of Chromium on Energy Metabolism in Lambs Fed with Different Dietary Protein Levels
Yan, Xiaogang ; Zhang, Fangyu ; Li, Dong ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 205~212
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90327
The effects of chromium (Cr), dietary crude protein (CP) level, and potential interactions of these two factors were investigated in term of energy metabolism in lambs. Forty-eight 9-week-old weaned lambs (Dorper
Small-tail Han sheep, male, mean initial body weight = 22.96 kg
2.60 kg) were used in a 2
3 factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0
/kg or 800
/kg from chromium yeast) and protein levels (low protein: 157 g/d to 171 g/d for each animal, or high protein: 189 g/d to 209 g/d for each animal). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding trial. The lambs were then sacrificed and tissue samples were frozen for further analysis. Chromium at 400
/kg decreased fasting insulin level and the ratio of plasma insulin to glucagon, but these differences were not statistically significant; in contrast, chromium at 800
/kg increased the ratio significantly (p<0.05). Protein at the high level increased plasma tumor necrosis factor
) level (p = 0.060). Liver glycogen content was increased significantly by Cr (p<0.05), which also increased liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and adipose hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. At 400
/kg, Cr increased muscle hexokinase (HK) activity. High protein significantly increased G-6-Pase activities in both the liver (p<0.05) and the kidney (p<0.05), but significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.05). For HSL activity in adipose tissue, a Cr
CP interaction (p<0.05) was observed. Overall, Cr improved energy metabolism, primarily by promoting the glycolytic rate and lipolytic processes, and these regulations were implemented mainly through the modulation by Cr of the insulin signal transduction system. High protein improved gluconeogenesis in both liver and kidney. The interaction of Cr
CP indicated that 400
/kg Cr could reduce energy consumption in situations where energy was being conserved, but could improve energy utilization when metabolic rate was increased.
Protein Status of Indigenous Nguni and Crossbred Cattle in the Semi-arid Communal Rangelands in South Africa
Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Dzama, K. ; Marufu, M.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 213~225
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90200
The objective of the current study was to determine factors influencing concentrations of protein-related blood metabolites in indigenous Nguni and crossbred cattle in the semi-arid communal rangelands in South Africa. The body condition scores (BCS), packed cell volume (PCV) and serum concentrations of protein-related metabolites were determined seasonally in 100 cattle raised on communal rangelands from August 2007 to May 2008. Nguni cattle had lower (p<0.05) albumin-globulin ratio, albumin, urea and creatinine, and higher (p<0.05) globulin concentrations than the local crossbreds. Local crossbreds had higher (p<0.05) alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations and lower (p<0.05) aspartate aminotransferase concentrations in the postrainy season than Nguni cattle. The creatinine concentrations of Nguni and crossbred cattle were lowest in the sour rangeland during the hot-wet season. The albumin concentrations of Nguni and crossbred cattle were higher (p<0.05) whilst PCV, albumin-globulin ratio and creatine kinase concentration were lower (p<0.05) in the sour rangeland than in the sweet rangeland. Total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations of Nguni and crossbred cattle were lower (p<0.05) in the hot-wet and late cool-dry seasons than in other seasons across rangeland types. Urea concentrations in both breeds were highest in the sweet rangeland in the hot-dry season compared to other seasons. It was concluded that Nguni cattle had lower concentrations of protein metabolites than local crossbreds and protein deficiencies were most prominent in the sweet rangeland during the cool-dry seasons.
Reproductive Performance, Milk Composition, Blood Metabolites and Hormone Profiles of Lactating Sows Fed Diets with Different Cereal and Fat Sources
Park, M.S. ; Shinde, P.L. ; Yang, Y.X. ; Kim, J.S. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Yun, K. ; Kim, Y.W. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Yang, B.K. ; Lee, J.K. ; Chae, Byung-Jo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 226~233
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90406
Different dietary cereal sources and fat types in the lactation diet were evaluated to investigate their effects on reproductive performance, milk composition, blood metabolites and hormones in multiparous sows. Twenty-four sows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments according to a 2
2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates comprising 1 sow. Two cereal (corn or wheat) and two fat (tallow or soybean oil) sources were used to prepare iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets. Sows fed corn-based diets lost less body weight (p = 0.003) and backfat thickness (p = 0.034), consumed more feed (p = 0.032) and had shorter wean-to-estrus interval (p = 0.016) than sows fed wheat-based diets. Fewer piglets and lower body weight of piglets (p<0.05) at weaning were noted in sows fed wheat-based diets than in sows fed corn-based diets. However, no significant effects (p>0.05) of dietary fat source and its interaction with dietary cereal source on sow body condition and reproductive performance were observed during lactation. Feeding of a corn-based diet improved (p<0.05) sow milk total solid, protein and fat, increased blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.032) and triglyceride (p = 0.018), and decreased blood creatinine (p = 0.011) concentration at weaning when compared with sows fed wheatbased diets. Sows fed corn-based diets had higher concentration of insulin (p = 0.048) and LH (p<0.05) at weaning than sows fed wheatbased diets. The results indicate that feeding corn-based diets to lactating sows improved sow body condition and reproductive performance compared with wheat-based diets regardless of fat sources.
Effects of Different Oil Sources and Vitamin E in Breeder Diet on Egg Quality, Hatchability and Development of the Neonatal Offspring
An, S.Y. ; Guo, Yuming ; Ma, S.D. ; Yuan, J.M. ; Liu, G.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 234~239
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90140
Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation in the diet of breeder hens on the egg quality and hatchability, lipid peroxides of the egg yolk, and development of the newly-hatched offspring chicks were investigated. A total of 800 Avian 48, 28 wk-old broiler breeders were assigned randomly to 4 groups with 4 replicates of 45 females and 5 males. Each group was fed one of the following four diets with different oil sources and levels of VE: corn oil (CO), fish oil (FO), CO+VE and FO+VE. The results showed that: i) Addition of FO in the breeder diet reduced the whole egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk color score and neonatal offspring chick body weight without affecting the hatchability as compared to the CO treatment. ii) Addition of VE efficiently reduced the lipid peroxides of egg yolk from hens fed diets containing FO. iii) VE in the breeder diet significantly promoted the development of liver and heart of the chick offspring.
Influence of Energy Restriction and Pre-incubation Holding Period of Eggs on Fertility and Hatchability in Aged Broiler Breeders
Shyam Sunder, G. ; Vijaya Kumar, Ch. ; Panda, A.K. ; Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 240~245
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90435
The effects of controlled energy restriction and duration of pre-incubation egg holding on fertility, hatchability and hatch losses were evaluated in aged broiler breeders (64 wk). The energy (ME) required for maintenance, activity, growth and anticipated egg production was calculated and offered to a control group (283-471 kcal/kg) from 21-64 weeks of age. In three other groups, ME was quantitatively reduced either by 20% (SER; severe energy restriction) or 10% (MER; moderate energy restriction) and increased by10% (EEF; excess energy feeding) over the control group (CER; controlled energy restriction). Each diet was offered to 130 pullets in individual cages, and the quantity of ME increased with age. At the end of 64 weeks, fertile eggs were collected from each dietary group for 11 consecutive days and grouped under 4 holding periods based on the length of storage (2, 5, 8 or 11 d). The influence of energy regimes, egg holding intervals and their interaction was evaluated on fertility, hatch losses and hatchability. Broiler breeders maintained on SER regime (231-419 kcal/d) produced maximum number of eggs (993) followed by MER (819), CER (624) and EEF (438) during the 11-day period. The percent fertility and hatchability was significantly (p
0.05) higher in SER and MER groups compared to CER and EEF. However, energy regimes did not influence the loss in egg weight during pre-incubation storage, shell weight, shell thickness or hatch losses as dead germs and dead in shell. The improvement in hatchability in SER and MER groups appeared to be closely related to higher fertility and lower embryonic mortality. Holding of eggs for 11 days showed a linear loss in egg weight with the length of storage, but did not influence the fertility and hatch losses. The percent hatchability on eggs set was maximum when storage period was restricted to 5 days. The interaction between energy regimes and egg holding periods exhibited better hatchability results with SER regime when eggs were held for 5 days. Response to MER was not different from SER. It was obvious that energy restriction during production period had a positive influence on egg number, fertility and hatchability in aged breeders. At 64 weeks of age, holding of fertile eggs for 5 days prior to incubation was adequate for optimum hatchability in breeders.
Effect of the Transformed Lactobacillus with Phytase Gene on Pig Production Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Gut Microbes and Serum Biochemical Indexes
Yin, Q.Q. ; Chang, J. ; Zuo, R.Y. ; Chen, L.Y. ; Chen, Q.X. ; Wei, X.Y. ; Guan, Q.F. ; Sun, J.W. ; Zheng, Q.H. ; Yang, X. ; Ren, G.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 246~252
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90372
In order to improve the availability of phytase and probiotics together, a phytase gene from Aspergillus ficuum has been expressed in Lactobacillus. In this study, the transformed Lactobacillus with phytase gene was fed to pigs to determine its effect on pig production, feed conversion and gut microbes. Forty eight, 60-day-old, castrated pigs (Duroc
Pietrain) were assigned to 6 groups, 8 pigs for each group. Group 1 was the control, group 2 was added with chlortetracycline (500 mg/kg), group 3 was added with the transformed Lactobacillus (500 mg/kg) with 20% (w/w) of calcium monohydrogen phosphate (CMP,
) removed, group 4 was added with the natural Lactobacillus (500 mg/kg) with 20% (w/w) of CMP removed, group 5 was added with the transformed Lactobacillus (500 mg/kg) with 40% (w/w) of CMP removed, group 6 was added with phytase (500 mg/kg) with 40% (w/w) of CMP removed. The results showed: i) the average daily gain (ADG) was improved in groups 2, 3 and 4 (p<0.05); ii) the diarrhea rates in the groups added with Lactobacillus were lower than in the other groups (p<0.05), in which the transformed Lactobacillus had more effect on reducing digestive disease; iii) the transformed Lactobacillus was most effective in improving the digestibilities of crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), compared with the other groups (p<0.05); iv) Lactobacillus could increase lactic acid bacterium number and ammonia concentrations, and decrease pH values and E. coli number in pig feces (p<0.05); v) the phytase activity in the feces of pigs fed with the transformed Lactobacillus was 133.32 U/g, which was higher than in group 4 (9.58 U/g, p<0.05), and was almost the same as group 6 (135.94 U/g); vi) the transformed Lactobacillus could increase serum concentrations of IgA, triglyceride, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity (p<0.05), and had no significant effect on other serum indexes (p>0.05).
Nutritional Constraints and Possibilities for Pig Production on Smallholders Farms in Central Vietnam
Tu, Pham Khanh ; Hoang, Nghia Duyet ; Le Duc, Ngoan ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 253~262
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90317
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional situation of pigs kept in three ecological zones of central Vietnam: Upland, Lowland and Coastal Area. An interview-based questionnaire was made and surveys were conducted in 27 villages and data were collected from 1,200 participating households. The current study showed that amounts of feed and crude protein content in the diets for fattening pigs and sows are deficient for all three regions. Amounts of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 20-50 kg BW was deficient by 0.54 kg (29%) in Lowland, 0.53 kg (28.6%) in the Coastal area and 0.42 kg (22.4%) in Upland. The deficiency in CP in the diets of growing pigs in this period (20-50 kg) was largest at 20.7 g/d (62.1%) in Lowland, following by 22.1 g/d (66.4%) in Coastal and 23.2 g/d (69.7%) in Upland. Amount of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 50-90 kg BW had a deficiency of 1.26 (48.9%), 1.25 (51.2%) and 1.14 (51.5%) kg/d in Lowland, Coastal and Upland, respectively. The deficiencies in crude protein in the growing diet during this period in Lowland, Coastal and Upland regions were 27 g/d (68.3%), 29 g/d (71.9%) and 30 g/d (74.6%), respectively. The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of pregnant sows in the Lowland area was 0.3 kg (15%), 0.33 kg (16%) in the Coastal area and 0.47 kg (23.5%) in the Upland area. Crude protein content in the diet of pregnant sows raised in Lowland was 8 g/d (32.0%) deficient, in the Coastal region the deficiency was 11 g/d (42.7%) and in Upland this deficiency was 15 g/d (61.2%). The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of lactating sows raised in Lowland was 1.47 kg (31.1%), in the Coastal area this was 1.69 kg (39.2%) and in Upland it was most deficient at 2.46 kg (57.1%). The lack of crude protein content in the diets of sows raised in Lowland was 45 g/d (63.4%), in the Coastal region it was 46 g/d (65%), and in Upland it was 55 g/d (78.9%). The low input of feed in these areas is especially due to low quality and to the insufficient intake of nutrients by the pig. As a result, production and income of farmers are low.
Effects of Feeding Solid-state Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Ecology and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens
Chiang, G. ; Lu, W.Q. ; Piao, X.S. ; Hu, J.K. ; Gong, L.M. ; Thacker, P.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 263~271
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90145
This trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A mixed liquid culture, containing approximately 5 log cfu/ml Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was prepared in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. A basal substrate (BS) containing 75% rapeseed, 24% wheat bran and 1% brown sugar was mixed with the liquid culture in a ratio of 10:3. Over the 30-day fermentation, isothiocyanates were reduced from 119.6 to 14.7 mmol/kg. A total of 168, day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were assigned to one of three dietary treatments including a corn-soybean meal based control diet as well as two experimental diets in which the control diet was supplemented with 10% of the BS containing unfermented rapeseed meal or 10% of the BS containing rapeseed meal subjected to solid state fermentation. There were 8 pens per treatment and 7 birds per pen. From days 19-21 and days 40-42, uncontaminated excreta were collected from each pen for digestibility determinations. In addition, digesta from the colon and ceca were collected to determine the number of lactobacilli, enterobacteria and total aerobes. The middle sections of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for intestinal morphology. Over the entire experimental period (d 1-42), the weight gain and feed conversion of birds fed fermented rapeseed meal were superior (p<0.05) to that of birds fed nonfermented rapeseed meal and did not differ from the soybean control. On day 42, birds fed fermented rapeseed meal had higher (p<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, energy, and calcium than birds fed non-fermented rapeseed meal. Colon and ceca digesta from broilers fed the fermented feed had higher (p<0.05) lactobacilli counts than birds fed the control and non-fermented rapeseed meal diets on day 21 and 42. Fermentation also improved (p<0.05) villus height and the villus height:crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum on day 21 and 42. The results indicate that solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal enhanced performance and improved the intestinal morphology of broilers and may allow greater quantities of rapeseed meal to be fed to broilers potentially reducing the cost of broiler production.
Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution and Expression of Porcine y
L Amino Acid Transporter-1
Zhi, Ai-min ; Zhou, Xiang-yan ; Zuo, Jian-jun ; Zou, Shi-geng ; Huang, Zhi-yi ; Wang, Xiao-lan ; Tao, Lin ; Feng, Ding-yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 272~278
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90275
In this study, we cloned, sequenced and characterized porcine y+L Amino Acid Transporter-1 (y+LAT1). By screening a translated EST database with the protein sequence of the human
LAT1 and by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full-length cDNA encoding porcine
LAT1 was isolated from porcine intestine RNA. It was 2,111 bp long, encoding a 511 amino acid trans-membrane glycoprotein composed of 12 transmembrane domains. The predicted amino acid sequence was found to be 91%, 90%, 87% and 87% identical to those of cattle, human, mouse and rat
LAT1 respectively. Real-time RT-PCR results indicated that the small intestine had the highest
LAT1 mRNA abundance and the lung had the lowest
LAT1 mRNA abundance. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged porcine
LAT1 cDNA indicated that the cellular localization of the gene product in BHK was on the plasma membrane.
Assessing Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Excreta from Grower-finisher Pigs Fed Prevalent Rations in Vietnam
Vu, T.K.V. ; Sommer, G.S. ; Vu, C.C. ; Jorgensen, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 2, 2010, Pages 279~286
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90340
Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence, there is a loss of plant nutrients from livestock farms that causes environmental pollution. This study carried out a feed and excretion experiment measuring fecal characteristic, daily fecal production, daily nitrogen and phosphorous excretion from grower-finisher pigs fed prevalent rations in Vietnam. Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five selected equations for predicting excretion from grower-finisher pigs in Danish conditions can also be used with precision in Vietnamese pig farming systems. The equations have been proven valid and can, therefore, be used as a much needed tool for assessing fecal production and nitrogen in excreta on pig farms. The study also showed that about 12% of nitrogen excreted was emitted during housing. Waste water contains more than half of the nitrogen excreted, mainly in ammonium form which has a high potential for gaseous emission.