Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
Selecting the target year
Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Growth and Carcass Traits on BTA6 in a Hanwoo Population
Lee, Y.-M. ; Lee, Y.S. ; Han, C.-M. ; Lee, J.-H. ; Yeo, J.S. ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 287~291
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90586
The purpose of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth and carcass quality traits on BTA6 in a population of Hanwoo cattle. Three hundred and sixty one steers were produced from 39 sires that were sired by 17 grandsires in the two Hanwoo farming branches of the National Livestock Research Institute of Korea, between Spring 2000 and Fall 2002. DNA samples were collected for all of the steers, sires and grandsires, and the phenotypes for six growth and carcass quality traits were measured at 24 months of age. Twelve microsatellite markers were chosen on BTA6 and a linkage map was constructed by using seven of the twelve markers. Then, a chromosome-wide QTL scan was performed by applying an Animal Model, in which effects of QTL alleles within the grand sires were fitted as a random term. Three QTL were detected at the 5% chromosome-wise level for backfat thickness, average daily gain, and final weight. The most likely positions for the QTL were in the proximal region, i.e. 0 cM, 35 cM, and 63 cM, respectively. Also, another QTL for longissimus dorsi muscle area was detected at the 10% chromosome-wise level at 67 cM. These results were, in general, consistent with our previous report, in which candidate gene analyses showed that a SNP near ILSTS035 flanked by BM4621 (62.5 cM) and BMS2460 (81.3 cM) was associated with final weight, carcass weight, average daily gain, and longissimus dorsi muscle area in the same Hanwoo population.
Cloning and Expression of FSHb Gene and the Effect of
on the mRNA Levels of FSHR in the Local Chicken
Zhao, L.H. ; Chen, J.L. ; Xu, H. ; Liu, J.W. ; Xu, Ri Fu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 292~301
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90473
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone that is encoded by separate alpha- and betasubunit genes. It plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production in chicken. FSH signal transduction is mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR) that exclusively interacts with the beta-subunit of FSH, but characterization of prokaryotic expression of the FSHb gene and its effect on the expression of the FSHR gene in local chickens have received very little attention. In the current study, the cDNA fragment of the FSHb gene from Dagu chicken was amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and inserted into the pET-28a (+) vector to construct the pET-28a-FSHb plasmid. After expression of the plasmid in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under inducing conditions, the recombination protein,
subunit, was purified and injected into the experimental hens and the effect on the mRNA expression levels of the FSHR gene was investigated. Sequence comparison showed that the coding region of the FSHb gene in the local chicken shared 99%-100% homology to published nucleotides in chickens; only one synonymous nucleotide substitution was detected in the region. The encoded amino acids were completely identical with the reported sequence, which confirmed that the sequences of the chicken FSHb gene and the peptides of the
subunit are highly conserved. This may be due to the critical role of the normal function of the FSHb gene in hormonal specificity and regulation of reproduction. The results of gene expression revealed that a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of about 19 kDa was efficiently expressed and it was identified by Western blotting analysis. After administration of the purified
protein, significantly higher expression levels were demonstrated in uterus, ovary and oviduct samples (p<0.05). These observations suggested that the expressed
protein possesses biological activity, and has a potential role in regulation of reproductive physiology in chickens.
Effects of Maternal Factors on Day-old Chick Body Weight and Its Relationship with Weight at Six Weeks of Age in a Commercial Broiler Line
Jahanian, Rahman ; Goudarzi, Farshad ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90325
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal factors on body weight at hatching (day-old) and at six weeks of age in a commercial broiler line. A total of 6,765 records on body weight at day-old (BWTDO) and 115,421 records on body weight at six weeks of age (BWT6W), originated from a commercial broiler line during 14 generations, were used to estimate genetic parameters related to the effects of maternal traits on body weight of chicks immediately after hatch or six weeks thereafter. The data were analyzed using restricted maximum likelihood procedure (REML) and an animal model with DFREML software. Direct heritability (
), maternal heritability (
), and maternal environmental variance as the proportions of phenotypic variance (
) for body weight at day-old were estimated to be 0.050, 0.351, and 0.173, respectively. The respective estimated values for body weight at six weeks of age were 0.340, 0.022, and 0.030. The correlation coefficient between direct and maternal genetic effects for six-week-old body weight was found to be -0.335. Covariance components and genetic correlations were estimated using a bivariate analysis based on the best model determined by a univariate analysis. Between weights at hatching and at six week-old, the values of -0.07, 0.53 and 0.47 were found for the direct additive genetic variance, maternal additive genetic variance and permanent maternal environmental variance, respectively. The estimated correlation between direct additive genetic effect influencing weight at hatch and direct additive maternal effect affecting weight at six weeks of age was -0.21, whereas the correlation value of 0.15 was estimated between direct additive maternal effect influencing weight at hatch and direct additive genetic effect affecting weight at six-week-old. From the present findings, it can be concluded that the maternal additive genetic effect observed for weight at six weeks of age might be a factor transferred from genes influencing weight at hatch to weight at six-week-old.
Effects of Progestagen and Pmsg on Estrous Synchronization and Fertility in Kivircik Ewes during Natural Breeding Season
Koyuncu, M. ; Ozis Alticekic, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 308~311
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90393
An experiment was conducted using indigenous Kivircik ewes to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progestagen sponges, containing 30 mg of fluorogestone acetate (FGA), followed by administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on inducing synchronized oestrus in the season and fertility. Three times of PMSG administration relative to sponge withdrawal (24 h before (n = 30), at (n = 29) or 24 h after (n= 29)) and two routes of PMSG administration (intramuscular (n = 46) and subcutaneous (n = 42) were compared for estrous response, number of multiple births and fecundity rates. There were no significant differences in terms of estrous response, due to differences in the time and route of PMSG administration. Lambing percentage, proportion of multiple births and fecundity were 75.6, 51.6 and 114.6%, respectively. The administration had a significant effect on lambing (p<0.05), multiple birth and fecundity rates (p<0.01). The subcutaneous administration of PMSG resulted in a significantly higher lambing rate (p<0.05) and fecundity rate (p<0.01), compared to the intramuscular injection of the PMSG.
Decreased Complete Oxidation Capacity of Fatty Acid in the Liver of Ketotic Cowsa
Xu, Chuang ; Liu, Guo-wen ; Li, Xiao-bing ; Xia, Cheng ; Zhang, Hong-you ; Wang, Zhe ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 312~317
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90416
Complete oxidation of fatty acid in the liver of ketotic cows was investigated. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glucose concentrations were measured using biochemical techniques. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT II), 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) and oxaloacetic acid (OAA) concentrations in the liver were detected by ELISA. Serum glucose was lower in ketotic cows than controls (p<0.05). Serum BHBA and NEFA concentrations were higher in ketotic cows than controls (p<0.05). OAA, CPT II, and HAD contents in the liver of ketotic cows were lower than in controls (p<0.05). There were negative correlations between serum NEFA concentration and OAA, CPT II and HAD, but no correlation between serum BHBA concentration and capacity for complete oxidation of fatty acid. Overall, the capacity for complete fatty acid oxidation in the liver of ketotic cows might have been decreased. High serum NEFA concentrations may be unfavorable factors for the pathway of complete oxidation of fatty acid in the liver.
The Effects of Different Concentrations of Glycine and Cysteine on the Freezability of Moghani Ram Spermatozoa
Khalili, B. ; Jafaroghli, M. ; Farshad, Abbas ; Paresh-Khiavi, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 318~325
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90387
Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of the amino acids glycine and cysteine on cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. After primary evaluation of collected ejaculates, the semen samples were pooled and diluted 1:4 before cooling (experiment 1) and freezing (experiment 2) with Tris-Citrate-Fructose-Yolk (TCFY) extender supplemented with different concentrations of glycine and cysteine (5, 10, 15 and 20 mM). As the control, semen was diluted and frozen in the extender without amino acids. Motility, viability and membrane integrity were assessed as the parameters for semen quality in the first experiment. In the second experiment, motility, progressive motility, viability, membranes and acrosome integrity were evaluated after the freezing-thawing process. The results of the first experiment indicated that the addition of 10 and 15 mM cysteine compared to the control (basic) extender significantly increased (p<0.01) the motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa after cooling. However, further increasing these amino acids up to 20 mM had a significant negative effect (p<0.05). Our results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between 5 mM glycine compared to 5 mM cysteine and between 20 mM glycine and 20 mM cysteine. The results of experiment 2 showed that the amino acids significantly improved post-thaw motility, progressive motility, viability, membranes and acrosome integrity of ram spermatozoa. These positive effects were observed at concentrations between 5 to 15 mM of glycine and cysteine, with the best results at 15 mM. Further increasing of amino acid concentrations significantly decreased the post-thaw characteristics of spermatozoa, but the results showed that cysteine was better than glycine and control extenders. The data indicated that addition of glycine or cysteine to the freezing extender can be recommended for cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. However, further studies are still needed to determine the effect of such addition on fertility in farm animals.
Effects of Daidzein on mRNA Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type I and II Genes in the Ovine Granulosa Cells
Chen, A Qin ; Xu, Zi Rong ; Yu, Song Dong ; Yang, Zhi Gang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 326~332
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80273
Daidzein, a natural isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, structurally resembles estradiol (E2) and possesses estrogenic activity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that daidzein may mimic the effects of E2 on ovine follicle development by regulation of the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor genes and thereby influence the reproductive system. Granulosa cells were cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium with and without supplementation of daidzein. Results showed that daidzein (10-100 ng/ml) significantly increased the proliferation of ovine granulosa cells (p<0.05), but inhibited the growth of granulosa cells at a dose of 1,000 ng/ml (p<0.01). Daidzein inhibited progesterone production in a dose dependent manner; however, it did not affect estradiol production by granulosa cells. We also investigated the effects of daidzein on BMPRII, BMPRIB and ALK-5 mRNA expression in ovine granulosa cells by quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment of granulosa cells with daidzein increased significantly expression of these genes at 10-100 ng/ml. Thus, these data suggested that a low concentration of daidzein (10-100 ng/ml) had a direct stimulatory effect on ovine granulosa cells while a high concentration was toxic.
Modeling Nutrient Supply to Ruminants: Frost-damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat
Yu, Peiqiang ; Racz, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 333~339
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80040
The objectives of this study were to use the NRC-2001 model and DVE/OEB system to model potential nutrient supply to ruminants and to compare frost damaged (also called "frozen" wheat with normal wheat. Quantitative predictions were made in terms of: i) Truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; ii) Truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; iii) Endogenous protein in the digestive tract; iv). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and v). Protein degraded balance. The overall yield losses of the frozen wheat were 24%. Results showed that using the DVE/OEB system to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (65 vs. 66 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (39 vs. 53 g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had higher endogenous protein (14 vs. 9 g/kg DM; p<0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (89 vs. 110 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was similar and both were negative (-2 vs. -1 g/kg DM). Using the NRC-2001 model to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat also had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (average 56 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (35 vs. 48, g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had similar endogenous protein (average 4 g/kg DM; p>0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (95 vs. 108 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was not significantly different and both were negative (-16 vs. -19 g/kg DM). In conclusion, both models predict lower protein value and negative protein degraded balance in the frozen wheat. The frost damage to the wheat reduced nutrient content and availability and thus reduced nutrient supply to ruminants by around 12 to 19%.
Variation in Milk Fatty Acid Composition with Body Condition in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan ; Mushtaq, Anila ; Khan, Sarzamin ; Habib, Ghulam ; Swati, Zahoor Ahmad ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 340~346
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90479
Buffaloes usually maintain higher body condition and do not produce milk at the cost of their own body reserves under tropical conditions. The mobilization of body reserves for fulfilling the demands of lactation has been extensively studied in dairy cows while limited work is available on this aspect in dairy buffaloes. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine variations in milk fatty acid profiles with body condition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. A total of 24 Nili-Ravi buffaloes within 60 days after parturition, were selected from a private dairy farm in the district of Peshawar. All animals consumed the same diet during the experimental period. A total of 576 raw milk samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The study continued up to 6 months during 2008. Body condition score (BCS), milk yield and composition were recorded once a week. Means for milk fatty acid profile were compared for various levels of BCS. The mean milk yield and fat content were 9.28 kg/d and 5.36%, respectively. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) were 64.22 g/100 g and the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were 35.79 g/100 g. Of the SFA the highest amount was recorded for
, followed by
. The total sum of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (HCFA,
) was 43.33 g/100 g. The concentrations of UFA were greater for moderate BCS followed by poor and highest BCS while SFA showed the opposite trend. The correlation analysis showed that milk yield was negatively affected by BCS and milk fat positively affected, though non-significantly. The present study suggests that Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes produce similar milk to dairy cows regarding availability of cardioprotective fatty acids, with the highest concentration of
. Two HCFA (
) were associated with higher body condition. Buffaloes with moderate body condition yielded milk containing healthier fatty acids.
Changes in Nutritive Value and Digestion Kinetics of Canola Seed Due to Microwave Irradiation
Ebrahimi, S.R. ; Nikkhah, A. ; Sadeghi, A.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 347~354
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80574
This study aimed to evaluate effects of 800 W microwave irradiation for 2, 4 and 6 min on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability, and in vitro CP digestibility of canola seed (CS). Nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CS were suspended in the rumen of three bulls from 0 to 48 h. Protein subfractions of untreated and microwave irradiated CS before and after incubation in the rumen were monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Microwave irradiation had no effect on chemical composition of CS (p>0.05). There was a linear decrease (p<0.001) in the phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of CS as irradiation time increased. Microwave irradiation for 2, 4 and 6 min decreased the phytic acid content of CS by 8.2, 27.6 and 48.6%, respectively. The total glucosinolate contents of CS microwave irradiated for 2, 4 and 6 min decreased by 41.5, 54.7 and 59.0% respectively, compared to untreated samples. The washout fractions of DM and CP and degradation rate of the b fraction of CP decreased linearly (p<0.001) as irradiation time increased. Microwave irradiation for 2, 4 and 6 min decreased effective degradability (ED) of CP at a ruminal outflow rate of 0.05
by 4.7, 12.3 and 21.0%, respectively. Microwave irradiation increased linearly (p<0.001) in vitro CP digestibility of ruminally undegraded CS collected after 16 h incubation. Electrophoresis results showed that napin subunits of untreated CS disappeared completely within the zero incubation period, whereas cruciferin subunits were degraded in the middle of the incubation period (16 h incubation period). In 4 and 6 min microwave irradiated CS, napin subunits were degraded after 4 and 16 h incubation periods, respectively, and cruciferin subunits were not degraded untile 24 h of incubation. In conclusion, it seems that microwave irradiation not only protected CP of CS from ruminal degradation, but also increased in vitro digestibility of CP. Moreover, microwave irradiation was effective in reducing glucosinolate and phytic acid contents of CS.
Effects of Supplemental Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST) and Cooling with Misters and Fans on Renal Function in Relation to Regulation of Body Fluids in Different Stages of Lactation in Crossbred Holstein Cattle
Boonsanit, D. ; Chanpongsang, S. ; Chaiyabutr, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 355~365
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90269
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) and cooling with misters and fans on renal function in relation to regulation of body fluids in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle. Ten, 87.5% crossbred Holstein cattle were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, housing in a normal shaded barn (NS) and in a shaded barn with a mister-fans cooling system (MF). The experiment in each group was divided into 3 phases, early- (Day 75 postpartum), mid- (Day 135 postpartum), and late stage of lactation (Day 195 postpartum). The pre-treatment study was conducted on the starting day of each stage of lactation and the treatment study was performed after the end of the pre-treatment, during which the animal was injected with 500 mg of rbST (POSILAC) every 14 days for three times. During the study, ambient temperature at the hottest period daily in the MF barn was significantly lower, while relative humidity was higher than that of the NS barn. The temperature humidity index (THI) in both barns ranged from 79-85 throughout the periods of study. Cows in the MF barn showed a lower rectal temperature and respiration rate as compared with cows in the NS barn. The effect of rbST administration increased both rectal temperature and respiration rates of cows housed in either the NS or MF barn. Milk yield significantly increased in cows treated with rbST in all stages of lactation. Increases in mammary blood flow, accompanied by increases of total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF), blood volume (BV) and plasma volume (PV), were observed in both groups of cows receiving rbST in all stages of lactation. No alterations of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were observed in cows receiving rbST, but decreases in urinary excretion and fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions appeared to correlate with reduction in the rate of urine flow and osmolar clearance during rbST administration. These results suggest that the effect of rbST supplementation to cows housed either in NS or MF barns on body fluid volume expansion is attributable to changes in the rate of electrolyte excretion by the kidney. The increased availability of renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, potassium and chloride ions during rbST treatment was a major factor in retaining body water through its colligative properties in exerting formation of an osmotic force mechanism.
Effects of Volatile Fatty Acids on IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, Insulin and Glucagon in Plasma, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Different Tissues of Growing Sheep Nourished by Total Intragastric Infusions
Zhao, Guang-Yong ; Sun, Ya-Bo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 366~371
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90355
Small-tail-Han male sheep (body weight 21-26 kg), aged four months, were used to study the effects of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I), IGFBP-3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3), GH (growth hormone), insulin and glucagon in plasma, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in different tissues. The sheep were randomly divided into four groups with 3 sheep in each group. The sheep were sustained by total intragastric infusions and four levels of mixed VFA (the molar proportion of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid was 65:25:10), which supplied 333, 378, 423 and 468 KJ energy/kg
/d, were infused into the rumen as experimental Treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. The experiment lasted 12 days, of which the first 8 days were for pretreatment and the last 4 days for collection of samples. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken and then the sheep were slaughtered and tissue samples from the rumen ventral sac, rumen dorsal sac, liver, duodenum and Longissimus dorsi muscle were obtained. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin and glucagon in plasma and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in different tissues were analysed. Results showed that the concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin or glucagon in plasma and the content of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in the rumen dorsal sac, rumen ventral sac, liver or Longissimus dorsi muscle were increased with VFA infusion level (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in duodenum IGF-I between Treatments I and II and in rumen dorsal sac IGFBP-3 between Treatments II and III (p>0.05). It was concluded that IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin and glucagon in plasma and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in rumen dorsal sac, rumen ventral sac, liver and Longissimus dorsi muscle were increased significantly with increasing level of ruminal infusion of mixed VFA.
Effects of Propylene Glycol on Milk Production, Serum Metabolites and Reproductive Performance during the Transition Period of Dairy Cows
Lien, T.F. ; Chang, L.B. ; Horng, Y.M. ; Wu, Chean-Ping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 372~378
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.60620
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral drench of propylene glycol (PG) on milk production, serum metabolites and reproductive performance during the transition period of animals. Twenty-four 2-3 multiparous Holstein cows (average body weight 565 kg, body condition score about 3.6, at the
month of gestation) were selected, blocked, and then randomly assigned into a PG and a control group. The control and the PG group cows were orally drenched with water or 50 ml sugarcane molasses mixed with 500 ml PG from 7 days pre-partum to 30 days post-partum, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the oral drench PG had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI). The milk yield of the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05), whereas milk fat content, milk protein and somatic cell counts (SCC) were not significantly different between groups. Concentration of plasma glucose in the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Conversely, the concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the PG group were lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). Concentrations of insulin and ketone bodies were not significantly difference between groups. Body condition score (BCS) in the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In reproductive performance there was no difference between groups. The experimental results indicate that supplementation of PG during the transition period of dairy cows can supply energy rapidly, resulting in reduced catabolism of body tissue and increased milk yield.
Effects of Dietary Betaine on the Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 and -3 in Laying Hens
Choe, H.S. ; Li, H.L. ; Park, J.H. ; Kang, C.W. ; Ryu, Kyeong Seon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 379~384
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.70653
The principal objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary betaine on IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1 secretion and IGF-I mRNA gene expression in the serum and liver of laying hens. A total of 72 ISA-Brown laying hens were fed with four different levels of betaine (0, 300, 600, 1,200 ppm) based on a corn-soybean meal diet containing 2,800 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy (ME) and 16% crude protein (CP) for four weeks. The results indicated significantly higher serum and liver IGF-I concentrations in the laying hens fed with 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine (p<0.05) compared to controls. IGF-I gene expression in liver showed a statistically correlated increase in 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine-fed groups as compared to the controls (p<0.05). Serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were elevated significantly in the groups fed 600 ppm of betaine. However, the secretion of IGFBP-1 in the liver of laying hens fed on 600 and 1,200 ppm of betaine was significantly lower than in the controls (p<0.05). The results of this experiment showed that dietary betaine supplementation plays a pivotal role in changes of the IGFs system in laying hens.
Effect of Dietary Lysine Supplement on the Performance of Mong Cai Sows and Their Piglets
Tu, Pham Khanh ; Le Duc, Ngoan ; Hendriks, W.H. ; van der Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 385~395
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90318
The objective of this study was to determine optimal lysine requirement of lactating Mong Cai sows and their piglets. An experiment was conducted using 30 Mong Cai sows in a factorial randomized design with 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 1.0 and 1.15%) for one-week pre-partum and 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.75, 0.90, 1.05 and 1.2%) for lactation diets. Mong Cai sows were about 1 to 2 years old and had an initial body weight of 120 kg (sd = 2.5) after farrowing. Sows were restrictively fed 1.7 kg feed during gestation and were fed ad libitum during lactation. Diets of sows contained about 12% CP during pregnancy and about 14% CP for the lactation period. DE concentration of the diets ranged between 12.5-13.0 MJ of DE. Water was supplied at up to 8 liters per sow per day in a basin. Studied traits were related to both sows and their progeny. Sows were weighed at 107 days of gestation, after farrowing and at weaning. Sow back-fat depth was measured at 110 days of gestation, after farrowing, at 21 days of lactation and at weaning. Number of piglets born, at 24 h after birth, at 21 days of age and at weaning were recorded. Piglets were weighte at birth, at 21 days and at weaning. Supplying lysine one week pre-partum had no effect on the number of piglets born nor litter weight at birth (p = 0.776 and p = 0.224). A positive effect of increasing dietary lysine level during lactation from 0.60 to 1.20% was observed with regard to less sow weight loss, and increased piglet weight at 21 days and at weaning. The level of lysine that resulted in the lowest sow backfat loss and the highest weaned piglet weight was 1.05%; this may be the optimum level of lysine for the diet of lactating Mong Cai sows. At this lysine level, the number of weaned piglets was also highest.
Effect of Vitamin E on Production Performance and Egg Quality Traits in Indian Native Kadaknath Hen
Biswas, Avishek ; Mohan, J. ; Sastry, K.V.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 396~400
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90050
This experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary vitamin E (VE) on production performance and egg quality traits of Indian reared Kadaknath (KN) hens. One hundred and eighty (180), day old female KN chicks were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 30 weeks. Each treatment comprised three replicates, each containing 20 chicks. The basal diet (
) contained 15 IU VE/kg and the two experimental diets were supplemented with 150 and 300 IU VE/kg (diets
, respectively). DL-
-tocopherol acetate was used as the source of VE. All chicks were provided feed and water ad libitum. Production performance in terms of body weight, egg weight and hatchability did not differ significantly (p>0.05), whereas sexual maturity, egg production and fertility differed significantly (p<0.05) in
compared to the other two groups. Egg quality traits in terms of albumin weight, yolk weight, shell thickness, albumin index and yolk index did not differ significantly (p>0.05), whereas the Haugh unit score was significantly higher (p<0.05) in
than the control (
) and high dose treatment group (
). From this study, it can be concluded that lower levels of dietary VE may be beneficial for production performance and Haugh unit score but have no effect on egg quality traits in Indian reared KN hens.
Construction of Mammalian Cell Expression Vector for pAcGFP-bFLIP(L) Fusion Protein and Its Expression in Follicular Granulosa Cells
Yang, Run Jun ; Li, Wu Feng ; Li, Jun Ya ; Zhang, Lu Pei ; Gao, Xue ; Chen, Jin Bao ; Xu, Shang Zhong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 401~409
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90187
FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) is one of the important anti-apoptotic proteins in the Fas/FasL apoptotic path which has death effect domains, mimicking the pro-domain of procaspase-8. To reveal the intracellular signal transduction molecules involved in the process of follicular development in the bovine ovary, we cloned the c-FLIP(L) gene in bovine ovary tissue with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), deleted the termination codon in its cDNA, and directionally cloned the amplified c-FLIP(L) gene into eukaryotic expression vector pAcGFP-Nl, including AcGFP, and successfully constructed the fusion protein recombinant plasmid. After identifying by restrictive enzyme BglII/EcoRI and sequencing, pAcGFP-bFLIP(L) was then transfected into follicular granulosa cells, mediated by Lipofectamine 2000, the expression of AcGFP observed and the transcription and expression of c-FLIP(L) detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that the cattle c-FLIP(L) was successfully cloned; the pAcGFPbFLIP(L) fusion protein recombinant plasmid was successfuly constructed by introducing a BglII/EcoRI cloning site at the two ends of the c-FLIP(L) open reading frame and inserting a Kozak sequence before the start codon. AcGFP expression was detected as early as 24 h after transfection. The percentage of AcGFP positive cells reached about 65% after 24 h. A 1,483 bp transcription was amplified by RT-PCR, and a 83 kD target protein was detected by Western blot. Construction of the pAcGFP-bFLIP(L) recombinant plasmid should be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of regulation of c-FLIP(L) on bovine oocyte formation and development.
Abatement of Methane Production from Ruminants: Trends in the Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation
Kobayashi, Yasuo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 3, 2010, Pages 410~416
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.01
Methane emitted from ruminant livestock is regarded as a loss of feed energy and also a contributor to global warming. Methane is synthesized in the rumen as one of the hydrogen sink products that are unavoidable for efficient succession of anaerobic microbial fermentation. Various attempts have been made to reduce methane emission, mainly through rumen microbial manipulation, by the use of agents including chemicals, antibiotics and natural products such as oils, fatty acids and plant extracts. A newer approach is the development of vaccines against methanogenic bacteria. While ionophore antibiotics have been widely used due to their efficacy and affordable prices, the use of alternative natural materials is becoming more attractive due to health concerns regarding antibiotics. An important feature of a natural material that constitutes a possible alternative methane inhibitor is that the material does not reduce feed intake or digestibility but does enhance propionate that is the major hydrogen sink alternative to methane. Some implications of these approaches, as well as an introduction to antibiotic-alternative natural materials and novel approaches, are provided.