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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
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Imprinted Gene mRNA Expression during Porcine Peri-implantation Development
Cha, Byung-Hyun ; Kim, Bong-Ki ; Hwang, Seongsoo ; Yang, Byoung-Chul ; Im, Gi-Sun ; Park, Mi-Rung ; Woo, Jae-Seok ; Kim, Myung-Jick ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Cho, Jae-Hyeon ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 693~699
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80423
Imprinted genes are essential for fetal development, growth regulation, and postnatal behavior. However, little is known about imprinted genes in livestock. We hypothesized that certain putatively imprinted genes affected normal peri-implantation development such as embryo elongation, initial placental development, and preparation of implantation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mRNA expression patterns of several putatively imprinted genes during the porcine peri-implantation stages from day 6 to day 21 of gestation. Imprinted genes were selected both maternally (Dlk1, IGF2, Ndn, and Sgce) and paternally (IGF2r, H19, Gnas and Xist). Here, we report that the maternally imprinted gene IGF2 was expressed from day 6 (Blastocyst stage), but Dlk1, Ndn, and Sgce were not expressed in this stage. These genes were first expressed between days 12 and day 14. All the maternally imprinted genes studied showed significantly high expression patterns from day 18 of embryo development. In contrast, paternally imprinted genes IGF2r, H19, Gnas, and Xist were first expressed from day 6 of embryo development (BL). Our data demonstrated that the expression of H19 and Gnas genes was significantly increased from day 14 of the embryo developmental stage, while IGF2r and Xist only showed high expression after day 21. This study is the first to show that the putatively imprinted genes were stage-specific during porcine embryonic development. These results demonstrate that the genes studied may exert important effects on embryo implantation and fetal development.
Effects of Protease-resistant Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria on Rumen Methanogenesis
Reina, Asa ; Tanaka, A. ; Uehara, A. ; Shinzato, I. ; Toride, Y. ; Usui, N. ; Hirakawa, K. ; Takahashi, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 700~707
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90444
Effects of protease-resistant antimicrobial substances (PRA) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum on rumen methanogenesis were examined using the in vitro continuous methane quantification system. Four different strains of lactic acid bacteria, i) Lactococcus lactis ATCC19435 (Control, non-antibacterial substances), ii) Lactococcus lactis NCIMB702054 (Nisin-Z), iii) Lactobacillus plantarum TUA1490L (PRA-1), and iv) Leuconostoc citreum JCM9698 (PRA-2) were individually cultured in GYEKP medium. An 80 ml aliquot of each supernatant was inoculated into phosphate-buffered rumen fluid. PRA-1 remarkably decreased cumulative methane production, though propionate, butyrate and ammonia N decreased. For PRA-2, there were no effects on
production and fermentation characteristics in mixed rumen cultures. The results suggested that PRA-1 reduced the number of methanogens or inhibited utilization of hydrogen in rumen fermentation.
Seasonal Changes in Energy-related Blood Metabolites and Mineral Profiles of Nguni and Crossbred Cattle on Communal Rangelands in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Dzama, K. ; Marufu, M.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 708~718
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90419
The objective of the current study was to determine seasonal changes in glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), serum inorganic phosphorous (SIP), calcium, magnesium and iron concentrations in Nguni and crossbred cattle on the sweet and sour rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Body weights, body condition scores (BCS) and serum concentrations of energy-related metabolites and mineral profiles were determined in late cool-dry, hot-dry, hot-wet, post-rainy and early cool-dry seasons in 100 cattle raised on communal rangelands from August 2007 to May 2008. Nguni cattle had lower (p<0.05) and higher (p<0.05) serum concentrations of glucose in the hot-wet and post-rainy seasons, respectively, compared to crossbreds in the same seasons. Serum cholesterol and NEFA concentrations in Nguni were lower (p<0.05) than in the crossbreds. Nguni and crossbred cattle had higher (p<0.05) serum NEFA concentrations on the sweet rangeland during the late cool-dry season than on sour rangeland. Nguni cattle had higher (p<0.05) SIP concentration in the hot-wet season than the crossbreds. Generally, both breeds had lowest SIP concentration during the hot-wet season on the sour rangeland. The lowest magnesium and highest iron concentrations were observed in the hot-wet and post-rainy seasons, respectively, compared to other seasons. Cattle on the sour rangeland had lower (p<0.05) iron concentrations than those on the sweet rangeland. It was concluded that Nguni cattle had lower cholesterol and NEFA, and higher SIP concentrations in the hot-wet season than crossbreds and energy deficits mostly occurred during the late cool-dry season on the sweet rangeland.
Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization on Oxalate Content in Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum)
Rahman, M.M. ; Ishii, Y. ; Niimi, M. ; Kawamura, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 719~723
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90541
Ingestion of forage containing a large quantity of soluble oxalate can result in calcium deficiency and even death of livestock. Fertilization is one of the most practical and effective ways to improve yield and nutritional quality of forage. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization (150, 300 and 600 kg/ha) across varying levels (150, 300 and 600 kg/ha) of potassium (K) on oxalate accumulation in napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum). Application of N at 300 kg/ha produced higher dry matter yield than at 150 or 600 kg/ha, while K fertilization had no effect on yield. In general, N fertilization did not affect the soluble and total oxalate contents, but slightly affected the insoluble oxalate content. Soluble oxalate content showed an increasing trend and insoluble oxalate content showed a decreasing trend with increasing K level, but total oxalate content remained relatively constant. There were significant interactions between N and K fertilization for the content of soluble and insoluble oxalate fractions. The greatest increase in soluble oxalate content with N level at 300 kg/ha was found at the high level (600 kg/ha) of K application. The greatest increase in insoluble oxalate content with N level at 600 kg/ha was found at the low level (150 kg/ha) of K application. These results indicated the possibility of controlling the content of soluble and insoluble oxalate fractions in forage by fertilization.
Effects of Dietary Paprika and Lipid Levels on Growth and Skin Pigmentation of Pale Chub (Zacco platypus)
Lee, Choong-Ryul ; Pham, Minh Anh ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 724~732
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90462
Two feeding experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary paprika (DP) and lipid (DL) levels on growth performance and skin pigmentation of pale chub, Zacco platypus. Six diets (designated as
) were formulated to contain 0%, 8% and 16% paprika with 8% and 17% lipid, respectively. For the growth experiment (Exp I), three replicate groups of fish (average weight 2.6
0.2 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding period, survival was above 94% and not significantly different among dietary treatments. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the
diet were lower than for fish fed the
diet. The highest total carotenoid (TC) content was observed in fish fed the
diet. For the pigmentation experiment (Exp II), each experimental diet was fed to two replicate groups of fish (average weight 9.0
0.5 g) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding period, TC content of the skin was significantly affected by DP (p<0.05). The highest TC content of the skin was observed after 6 weeks of feeding at all dietary treatments. Astaxanthin content of the skin was not affected by DP and DL (p>0.05). The capxanthin and zeaxanthin contents of skin increased significantly with increasing DP, whereas the opposite trend was observed for lutein and
-cryptoxanthin contents. The skin lightness (
values) significantly decreased whereas the values of
were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing paprika (p<0.05). The present results suggest that feeding a diet containing 8% paprika and 8% lipid for 6 weeks could improve skin pigmentation of pale chub without any adverse effects on growth performance.
Hypocholesterolemic Response to Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus in Broiler Chickens
Afrose, Sadia ; Hossain, Md. Sharoare ; Maki, Takaaki ; Tsujii, Hirotada ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 733~741
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90481
Dietary karaya saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus (R. capsulatus) are known to have hypocholesterolemic actions, as reported in our previous studies. This study examined possible synergistic hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus in broilers. A total of 150 broilers were allocated into 10 treatments: control, saponin 25 mg, saponin 50 mg, saponin 75 mg, saponin 25 mg+R. capsulatus 0.2 g, saponin 25 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g, saponin 50 mg+R. capsulatus 0.2 g, saponin 50 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g, saponin 75 mg+R. capsulatus 0.2 g and saponin 75 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g. Feed intake and feed efficiency were improved when karaya saponin and R. capsulatus were synergistically supplemented in the diet. Combinations of karaya saponin, especially supplementation of karaya saponin 50 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g were shown to have potential hypolipidemic actions in breast and thigh muscle cholesterol and triglycerides, serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as improved high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p<0.05). Compared to the control, almost all the treatments significantly increased serum, liver and fecal concentrations of bile acids (p<0.05). Supplementation of both karaya saponin (75 mg) and saponin 50 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g reduced palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) in a similar fashion (p<0.05). The ratios of PUFA:SFA or PUFA+MUFA:SFA in the thigh and breast muscle of broilers were greater in karaya saponin and R. capsulatus supplemented groups than in the control group. Thus, our study concluded that supplementation of karaya saponin synergistically with R. capsulatus in the diet of broilers is an effective way to obtain low-cholesterol, low-triglyceride and high HDL-cholesterol enriched poultry meat with a unique fatty acid balance.
Effect of Quercetin on the Activity and mRNA Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Responses in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Exposed to Cadmium
Shin, H.S. ; Yoo, J.H. ; Min, T.S. ; Lee, J. ; Choi, C.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 742~749
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10006
We investigated the antioxidant efficacy of quercetin (0% Diet 1, 0.25% Diet 2, and 0.5% Diet 3) pretreatment for 30 and 60 days in response to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the olive flounder, and measured the plasma lysozyme activity to understand the immune effects of quercetin. The lysozyme activity with Diets 2 and 3 was higher than with Diet 1. Based on this result, to examine the immune ability and antioxidant role of quercetin, we exposed olive flounder fed quercetin to Cd and then measured the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). With Diets 2 and 3, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and the
concentration were lower than with Diet 1. In addition, the LPO levels were lower than with Diet 1, which protected the cell membrane. Therefore, quercetin removed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by Cd, indicating that quercetin has antioxidant ability. In addition to its antioxidant ability, quercetin has immune effects.
Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides, Achyranthes bidentata Polysaccharides, and Acantbepanax senticosus Saponin on the Performance and Immunity in Weaned Pigs
Kang, P. ; Xiao, H.L. ; Hou, Y.Q. ; Ding, B.Y. ; Liu, Y.L. ; Zhu, H.L. ; Hu, Q.Z. ; Hu, Y. ; Yin, Y.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 750~756
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90526
Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides, Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides (ABPS), and one Chinese herbal saponin, Acantbepanax senticosus saponin (ASS), on the immunity and growth performance of weaned pigs. Experiment 1 was a 14-day growth assay, in which 32 weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments: i) 0.05% talcum powder control; ii) 0.05% APS; iii) 0.05% mixture of APS and ASS in a 1:1 ratio by weight; and iv) 0.05% mixture of APS, ASS, and ABPS in a ratio of 1:1:1 by weight. Blood samples were collected on day 14 to determine plasma parameters. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency were also determined. Experiment 2 was a 21-day immunity assay, in which 16 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments: i) 0.05% talcum powder control; and ii) 0.05% mixture of APS and ASS in a 1:1 ratio by weight. On day 21, pigs were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 3 h later blood samples were collected and analyzed for lymphocyte proliferation as well as interleukin 6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol levels. In Experiment 1, feeding Chinese herbal polysaccharides and saponin increased growth performance of the pigs. The effects of the mixture of APS and ASS were especially notable, as there was a significant improvement in growth performance compared with the control (p<0.05). The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG), nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were increased in all treatments groups, with the mixture of APS and ASS increasing the level of IgG and NOS significantly (p<0.05), compared with the control. There was no difference in the NO level between the control and treatment groups (p>0.05). In Experiment 2, Chinese herbal polysaccharides and saponin showed immunostimulating effects. The level of cortisol, GH, and IGF-I were significantly increased (p>0.05), and the level of IL-6 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the APS and ASS treatment after the LPS challenge. The mixture of APS and ASS could stimulate the blood lymphocyte proliferation significantly whether the LPS was injected or not (p<0.05). These results show that Chinese herbal extracts can improve growth performance and stimulate immunity of weaned pigs. A mixture of APS and ASS, compared with APS alone, could be a new kind of immunostimulant for weaned pigs, which could result in greater positive effects on their growth performance and immunity.
Effect of Dietary Copper Sources (Cupric Sulfate and Cupric Methionate) and Concentrations on Performance and Fecal Characteristics in Growing Pigs
Huang, Y. ; Zhou, T.X. ; Lee, J.H. ; Jang, H.D. ; Park, J.C. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 757~761
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.80437
This study was conducted to assess the effects of organic and inorganic copper on performance in growing pigs. A total of 100 pigs, average age 63 d and initial body weight 21.46
1.13 kg, were assigned to five treatment groups. Dietary treatments included i) CON (basal diet, 0 ppm Cu), ii) T1 (basal diet with 67 ppm Cu as cupric sulfate,
), iii) T2 (basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as
), iv) T3 (basal diet with 67 ppm Cu as cupric methionate, CuMet) and v) T4 (basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as CuMet). Throughout the entire experimental period, ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake) and G/F (gain: feed) ratios showed no significant differences. The dry matter digestibility was improved in the T1, T2, T3, and T4 treatments (p<0.05), as compared with CON. Nitrogen digestibility was improved in the T3 treatment group as compared with CON (p<0.05). As compared with the T1 treatment group, fecal pH values were improved in the CON, T3, and T4 treatment groups (p<0.05). Fecal Cu concentrations were significantly lower in the CON, T3, and T4 treatment groups than in T1 and T2 (p<0.05). The incidence of diarrhea was reduced when the pigs were fed on the T2, T3, and T4 diets as compared with CON. In conclusion, diets supplemented with 67 or 134 ppm Cu as CuMet may prove effective in improving nutrient digestibility and fecal pH value in growing pigs, and fecal Cu concentrations may be reduced by CuMet supplementation.
Effect of Additive on the Chemical Composition of Tra Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) By-product Silages and Their Nutritive Value for Pigs
Thuy, Nguyen Thi ; Lindberg, Jan Erik ; Ogle, Brian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 762~771
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90161
Two experiments were conducted to determine i) the fermentation characteristics of catfish by-product (C) ensiled with rice bran (RB) or sugarcane molasses (M) in different ratios, and ii) the digestibility of the silages in growing pigs. In the ensiling experiment, there were three ratios of C, ensiled with RB or M, of 8:2, 7:3 and 6:4 (wet basis for C and air-dry basis for RB and M). The six treatments were CRB8:2, CRB7:3, CRB6:4, CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4, with 3 replications per treatment and seven sampling times. The pH of CRB7:3 and CRB6:4 decreased (p<0.05) from the first week and stayed stable until 8 weeks of ensiling, but the pH did not decrease in CRB8:2. The pH of CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4 decreased rapidly from the first week until week 8. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) contents were slightly lower when catfish by-product was ensiled with RB than with M. Ammonia content in all treatments increased (p<0.05) during ensiling. Lactic acid content in silages with molasses increased from the first week, with the highest value at week 4. However, the lactic acid content in CRB8:2 did not increase with time and had the lowest value of all treatments. Acetic acid proportions of total volatile fatty acids were low at day 0, with the highest value at day 7, decreasing slowly until 8 weeks. The butyric acid proportion was highest at day 0 and decreased up to week 8. The proportion of propionic acid increased during ensiling. The digestibility experiment had a 4
4 Latin-square design and included 4 castrated crossbreed (Yorkshire
Landrace) male pigs fed four diets. The basal diet (BD) included rice bran, broken rice and maize meal, and the other three diets included fish meal (FMD) or catfish by-product ensiled with rice bran (CRBD) or sugarcane molasses (CMD). The silages chosen were those which gave the best results in the ensiling experiment for each additive. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of DM and organic matter (OM) was not significantly different among treatments. The CTTAD of CP was not different among the silage diets, but was lower in BD (p<0.01). The CTTAD of ether extract (EE) was higher in the catfish by-product silage diets than in FMD and BD. There was no significant difference in the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and EE between the fish meal and the by-product silages. In conclusion, catfish by-product can be successfully preserved by ensiling. Moreover, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and EE in ensiled catfish by-product was comparable with that of fish meal.
Effects of Dietary Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) Extract on Laying Performance and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Eggs
An, Byoung Ki ; Kwon, Hyuk Sin ; Lee, Bo Keun ; Kim, Jae Young ; You, Sun Jong ; Kim, Jin Man ; Kang, Chang Won ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 772~776
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90517
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary domestic Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) extracts (SCE) on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, or relative liver and spleen weights. The egg weights in groups fed diets containing SCE were significantly increased as compared with the control. The number of cecal total microbes in the group fed a diet containing 0.5% SCE was significantly reduced as compared with other groups. The malondialdehyde contents in stored eggs were significantly lowered by feeding SCE. The Haugh unit in the groups fed diets containing SCE tended to be increased after 2 weeks storage, but not significantly. This result indicated that dietary domestic SCE may delay lipid oxidation in eggs when added to laying hen diets.
Effect of Two Doses of Different Zinc Sources (Inorganic vs. Chelated form) on the Epithelial Proliferative Activity and the Apoptotic Index of Intestinal Mucosa of Early-weaned Pigs Orally Challenged with E. coli K88
Mazzoni, Maurizio ; Merialdi, Giuseppe ; Sarli, Giuseppe ; Trevisi, Paolo ; Bosi, Paolo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 777~785
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90352
The effect of two doses of different sources of zinc, inorganic (zinc oxide) or chelated (zinc glutamate chelate), on morphology and turn-over of the small intestine was assessed in early-weaned pigs orally challenged with enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (ETEC). Sixty pigs weaned at 21 days were assigned to one of the following 5 diets: control (C); C+Zinc oxide (ZnO), either a 200 or a 2,500 mg Zn/kg dose; or C+zinc chelate with glutamic acid (Glu-Zn), either a 200 or a 2,500 mg Zn/kg dose. On d 2, the pigs were orally inoculated with 1.5 ml of a
CFU/ml E. coli K88ac O148 suspension. Zinc supplements did not improve the performance of the pigs, but on d 5 faecal excretion of ETEC was reduced, and this was mainly due to high zinc doses (p<0.05). The villous height in the duodenum was improved by the zinc supplements (p<0.01) whatever the source and the level, whereas no effect was seen in the other two tracts of small intestine. The diet did not affect apoptosis and mitosis counts, while ETEC-susceptible pigs had more mitotic cells in the villi than non-susceptible pigs, particularly in the jejunum (p<0.01). The duodenum had fewer mitotic cells in the villi (p<0.05) and in the crypts (p<0.01) and more apoptotic cells in the villi. High dietary doses of ZnO or Zn-Glutamate improve villous height of the duodenum, but not of the jejunum and the ileum, and do not affect the epithelial proliferative activity and apoptotic index of intestinal mucosa of early-weaned pigs orally challenged with ETEC.
Effects of Fermented Garlic Powder on Production Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Profiles and Fatty Acids Composition of Egg Yolk in Laying Hens
Ao, X. ; Yoo, J.S. ; Lee, J.H. ; Jang, H.D. ; Wang, J.P. ; Zhou, T.X. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 786~791
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90543
The effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acid composition of egg yolk in laying hens were studied in a 35-d experiment. Two-hundred and forty (ISA brown) layers aged 41 weeks were randomly allocated into the following four treatments: i) CON (basal diet); ii) G1 (CON+fermented garlic powder 1.0%); iii) G2 (CON+fermented garlic powder 2.0%) and iv) G3 (CON+fermented garlic powder 3.0%). There were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments in egg production, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness throughout the whole experimental period. However, yolk height was increased significantly (p<0.05) by the addition of fermented garlic powder during the 5th week while yolk color was greater (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in CON and G1 in the 5th week. Compared with CON, Haugh unit was increased (p<0.05) in response to fermented garlic powder treatments during the 5th week. No significant effects on total protein, albumin and IgG were observed in response to any of the treatments over the experimental period (p>0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration when the dietary level of fermented garlic powder was increased from 0.0 to 3.0%. The levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in response to G2 and G3 while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 treatment groups than in CON and G1. Compared with other treatments, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and PUFA:SFA ratio were higher (p<0.05) in G3. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that addition of fermented garlic powder reduced plasma cholesterol concentration and did not cause adverse effects on production performance. Moreover, addition of 3.0% garlic powder decreased SFA but increased PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio in egg yolk.
Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs Fed 30% Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) and the Effects of Pelleting on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility
Zhu, Zhengpeng ; Hinson, Rodney B. ; Ma, Li ; Li, Defa ; Allee, Gary L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 792~798
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90513
Four experiments with 2,020 nursery pigs (Triumph-4
PIC Camborough 22) were conducted at a commercial research site to evaluate the effects of including 30% distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) in late nursery diets on pig growth performance and to compare the effects of pelleted and meal diets containing 30% DDGS on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (10.54
0.16 kg) were allotted to two diets: corn-soybean meal based control diet and a corn-soybean meal diet containing 30% DDGS. In Exp. 2, 337 pigs (16.70
0.14 kg) were used to validate Exp. 1 with similar diets. In Exp. 3, 665 pigs (11.77
0.12 kg) were allotted to diets containing 30% DDGS, but in different forms: meal or pellet. Fecal samples were collected during the final day of the trials to measure nutrient and energy apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). In Exp. 4, 706 pigs (18.40
0.18 kg) were allotted to the same diets as Exp. 3. In Exp. 1 and 2, there was no (p>0.05) effect of DDGS on ADG, ADFI or G:F. In Exp. 3, pelleting improved (p<0.01) ADG (578 vs. 541 g/d) and G:F (714 vs. 674 g/kg), with no difference (p>0.05) in ADFI. The ATTD of most nutrients and energy were improved by pelleting (p<0.05). In Exp. 4, ADG (717 vs. 675 g/d) and G:F (680 vs. 648 g/kg) were improved by pelleting (p<0.01), with no difference (p>0.05) in ADFI. In conclusion, 10-23 kg pigs in late nursery phase can be fed up to 30% DDGS without having a detrimental effect on pig performance, and pelleting the diet will increase nutrient and energy availability.
Carotenoid Accumulation and Their Antioxidant Activity in Spent Laying Hens as Affected by Polarity and Feeding Period
Lee, C.-Y. ; Lee, B.-D. ; Na, J.-C. ; An, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 799~805
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90296
Since the consumption of spent laying hens as roasted skewered meat increases, the effects of various carotenoids on pigmentation and antioxidant activity were tested with 62-wk-old 250 ISA brown laying hens to improve the quality of chicken meat. In a 6-wk feeding trial, 4 carotenoids with different polarity (
-8-apo-carotenoic acid ethyl ester (ACAEE)>astaxanthin>canthaxanthin>
-carotene) at 100 mg carotenoid/kg feed were used. The more polar the carotenoids, the higher were the levels in blood. After 5-wk adaptation, the concentrations of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and ACAEE in blood were -4
. Canthaxanthin decreased significantly (p<0.05) the level of total blood cholesterol. Decreases in blood triglyceride by all carotenoids used were significant. ACAEE and astaxanthin tended to increase skin yellowness of thigh, breast, and wing proportionally to feeding period. In the case of polar carotenoids (ACAEE and astaxanthin), the longer the period of feeding, the higher the accumulation in skin was observed. Only astaxanthin was effective against the production of lipid peroxides in skin. Conclusively, out of the commercially available carotenoids we tested, astaxanthin is recommended for pigmentation of skin and inhibition of lipid oxidation.
Knocking-in of the Human Thrombopoietin Gene on Beta-casein Locus in Bovine Fibroblasts
Chang, Mira ; Lee, Jeong-Woong ; Koo, Deog-Bon ; Shin, Sang Tae ; Han, Yong-Mahn ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 806~813
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90501
Animal bioreactors have been regarded as alternative tools for the production of limited human therapeutic proteins. The mammary glands of cattle are optimal tissues to produce therapeutic proteins that cannot be produced in large amounts in traditional systems based on microorganisms and eukaryotic cells. In this study, two knock-in vectors, pBCTPOKI-6 and pBCTPOKI-10, which target the hTPO gene on the bovine beta-casein locus, were designed to develop cloned transgenic cattle. The pBCTPOKI-6 and pBCTPOKI-10 vectors expressed hTPO protein in culture medium at a concentration of 774 pg/ml and 1,867 pg/ml, respectively. Successfully, two targeted cell clones were obtained from the bovine fibroblasts transfected with the pBCTPOKI-6 vector. Cloned embryos reconstructed with the targeted nuclei showed a lower in vitro developmental competence than those with the wild-type nuclei. After transfer of the cloned embryos into recipients, 7 pregnancies were detected at 40 to 60 days of gestation, but failed to develop to term. The results are the first trial for targeting of a human gene on the bovine milk protein gene locus, providing the potential for a large-scale production of therapeutic proteins in the animal bioreactor system.
Effect of Experience, Education, Record Keeping, Labor and Decision Making on Monthly Milk Yield and Revenue of Dairy Farms Supported by a Private Organization in Central Thailand
Yeamkong, S. ; Koonawootrittriron, S. ; Elzo, M.A. ; Suwanasopee, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 814~824
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90477
The objective of this research was to assess the effect of experience, education, record keeping, labor, and decision making on monthly milk yield per farm (MYF), monthly milk yield per cow (MYC), monthly milk revenue per farm (MRF), and monthly revenue per cow (MRC) of dairy farms supported by a private organization in Central Thailand. The dataset contained 34,082 monthly milk yield and revenue records collected from January 2004 to December 2008 on 497 farms, and information on individual farmer experience and education, record keeping, and decision making obtained with a questionnaire. Farmer experience categories were i) no experience, ii) one year, iii) two to five years, iv) six to ten years, v) eleven to fifteen years, vi) sixteen to twenty years, and vii) more than twenty years. Farmer education categories were i) no education or primary school, ii) high school, and iii) bachelor or higher degree. Record keeping categories were: i) no records and ii) kept records. Labor categories were: i) family, ii) hired people, and iii) family and hired people. Decision making categories were: i) decisions made by farmers themselves, ii) decisions made with help from government officials, and iii) decisions made with help from organization staff. The mixed linear model contained the fixed effects of year-season, farm location-farm size subclass, experience, education, record keeping, labor, and decision making on sire selection, and the random effects of farm and residual. Results showed that longer experience increased (p<0.05) monthly milk yield (MYF and MYC) and revenue (MRF and MRC). Farms that hired people produced the highest (p<0.05) monthly milk yield (MYF and MYC) and revenue (MRF and MRC), followed by farms that used family, and the lowest values were for farms that used both family and hired people. Better educated farmers produced more MYC and MRC (p<0.05) than lower educated farmers. Farms that kept records had higher MYF and MRF (p<0.05) than those without records. Although differences among farms were non-significant, farms that received help from the organization staff had higher monthly milk yield (MYF and MYC) and revenue (MRF and MRC) than those that decided by themselves or with help from government officials. These findings suggested that dairy farmers needed systematic training and continuous support to improve farm milk production and revenues in a sustainable manner.
Bio-fermentation Technology to Improve Efficiency of Swine Nutrition
Kim, Sung Woo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 6, 2010, Pages 825~832
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.02
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as "Any technological application that uses biological systems, dead organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" Biotechnology has made tremendous contributions to improve production efficiency of agriculture during the last century. This article reviews successful examples of application of bio-fermentation in improving swine nutrition efficiency mainly based on the authors'z own research experience. Production of feed grade supplemental amino acids by bio-fermentation allowed nutritionists to formulate accurate feed for optimal lean growth and reduced nitrogen excretion. Recent issues with high feed grain prices caused potential feed quality problems. Bio-fermentation allowed nutritionists to use exogenous supplemental enzymes such as phytase and NSPases in swine diets, thereby improving nutrient utilization and reducing nutrient excretion to the environment. Yeast metabolites are also produced by bio-fermentation and have been repeatedly shown to improve milk production of sows during early lactation even though actual mechanisms are still to be investigated. Bio-fermentation technology also allowed nutritionists to prepare vegetable protein sources with large protein molecules and anti-nutritional factors suitable for feeding newly weaned piglets, as selected microorganisms significantly reduce specific anti-nutritional factors and size of peptides. Preparations of vegetable protein sources suitable for newly weaned pigs will greatly contribute to swine nutrition by providing efficient alternatives to the use of animal protein sources that are often expensive and somewhat against societal preference. Considering the few examples listed above, biotechnology has closely influenced improvement of production efficiency in the swine industry. As we have limited resources to produce meat to satisfy ever-increasing global demands, extensive adaptation of biotechnology to enhance production efficiency should be continued. However, at the same time, wise and careful application of bio-technology should be considered to ensure production of safe food and to meet the expectations of our society.