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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 23, Issue 6 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 5 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2010
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Development and Application of High-density SNP Arrays in Genomic Studies of Domestic Animals
Fan, Bin ; Du, Zhi-Qiang ; Gorbach, Danielle M. ; Rothschild, Max F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 833~847
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.03
In the past decade, there have been many advances in whole-genome sequencing in domestic animals, as well as the development of "next-generation" sequencing technologies and high-throughput genotyping platforms. Consequently, these advances have led to the creation of the high-density SNP array as a state-of-the-art tool for genetics and genomics analyses of domestic animals. The emergence and utilization of SNP arrays will have significant impacts not only on the scale, speed, and expense of SNP genotyping, but also on theoretical and applied studies of quantitative genetics, population genetics and molecular evolution. The most promising applications in agriculture could be genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection for the improvement of economically important traits. However, some challenges still face these applications, such as incorporating linkage disequilibrium (LD) information from HapMap projects, data storage, and especially appropriate statistical analyses on the high-dimensional, structured genomics data. More efforts are still needed to make better use of the high-density SNP arrays in both academic studies and industrial applications.
Genetic Relationship between Carcass Traits and Carcass Price of Korean Cattle
Kim, Jong-Bok ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Lee, Jeong-Koo ; Lee, Chae-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 848~854
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90555
The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the carcass price and carcass traits contributing to carcass grading and to investigate the influence of each carcass trait on the carcass price using multiple regression and path analyses. Data for carcass traits and carcass prices were collected from March 2003 to January 2009 on steers of Korean cattle raised at private farms. The analytical mixed animal model, including slaughter house-year-month combination, linear and quadratic slaughter age as fixed effects and random animal and residual effects, was used to estimate genetic parameters. The effects of carcass traits on the carcass price were evaluated by applying multiple regression analyses. Heritability estimates of carcass traits were
for carcass weight (CWT),
for back fat thickness (BFT),
for eye-muscle area (EMA) and
for marbling score (MS), and those of carcass prices were
for auction price per 1 kg of carcass weight (AP) and
for total price (CP). Genetic correlation coefficients of AP with CWT and MS were
, respectively, and those of CP with CWT and MS were
respectively. If an appropriate adjustment for temporal economic value is available, the moderate heritability estimates of AP and CP might suggest their potential use as the breeding objectives for improving the gross incomes of beef cattle farms. The large genetic correlation estimates of carcass price variables with CWT and MS implied that simultaneous selection for both CWT and MS would be also useful in enhancing income.
Expression Analysis of the Mx Gene and Its Genome Structure in Chickens
Yin, C.G. ; Du, L.X. ; Li, S.G. ; Zhao, G.P. ; Zhang, J. ; Wei, C.H. ; Xu, L.Y. ; Liu, T. ; Li, H.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 855~862
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90472
Among the known interferon-induced antiviral mechanisms, the Mx pathway is one of the most powerful pathways. The Mx protein has direct antiviral activity and inhibits a wide range of viruses by blocking an early stage of the viral replication cycle. Cloning, characterization, and expression of Mx in vivo and in vitro have been conducted. The chicken Mx gene spans 21 kb and is made up of 14 exons and 13 introns, of which the promoter region was analyzed. The real-time PCR results showed that Mx expression was increased in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) after 12- and 24-h induction with polyI: C. Induction of Mx expression by poly I: C in vivo revealed tissue-specific patterns among the chicken tissues tested. A trace expression of Mx was detected in healthy chicken liver tissues from adult chickens without inducement; the expression levels in the liver, heart, and gizzard were higher than in the muscle and kidney. This is the first report to demonstrate the expression of a glutathione-S-transferase-tagged-Mx fusion protein of 75 KDa, as well as the biological activity tested by SDS-PAGE and western blotting.
Effect of Myostatin (MSTN) g+6223G>A on Production and Carcass Traits in New Zealand Romney Sheep
Han, J. ; Zhou, H. ; Forrest, R.H. ; Sedcole, J.R. ; Frampton, C.M. ; Hickford, J.G.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 863~866
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90392
Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), has been reported to act as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in certain "meaty" sheep breeds. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate allelic variation in the previously described g+6223G>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of MSTN. The sheep studied were 79 New Zealand (NZ) Romney lambs derived from a single sire heterozyous for g+6223G>A, which is in itself notable as this polymorphism has not been described previously in this breed. Allelic variation was observed to be associated with an abnormal gender ratio (p = 0.046) in the progeny. The presence of allele A was observed to have an effect (p<0.05) on birth weight, mean loin yield, proportion yield loin and total muscle yield. Allelic variation did not significantly affect mean shoulder yield, leg yield, proportion yield shoulder and proportion yield leg. This preliminary result suggests that while the A allele at MSTN g+6223 appears to improve some valuable traits in NZ Romney sheep, further research is required to understand if and how it may affect other traits.
Effect of Naked Neck Gene on Immune Competence, Serum Biochemical and Carcass Traits in Chickens under a Tropical Climate
Rajkumar, U. ; Reddy, B.L.N. ; Rajaravindra, K.S. ; Niranjan, M. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Chatterjee, R.N. ; Panda, A.K. ; Reddy, M.R. ; Sharma, R.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 867~872
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90548
A comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of naked neck (Na) gene on immune competence, serum biochemical parameters and carcass quality traits in three genotypes (NaNa, Nana and nana) of the naked neck chicken under a tropical climate (Southern India). Sixty day-old chicks (20 from each genotype) were selected randomly and reared under similar environmental conditions up to eight weeks of age. The cell mediated immune (CMI) response to phytohaemoagglutinin-P (PHA-P) was significantly higher (
) in NaNa and Nana genotypes compared to nana birds. The humoral response as measured by antibody titre to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was also significantly higher in NaNa. The total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels were significantly (
) lower whereas HDL cholesterol level was significantly higher in NaNa and Nana compared to nana genotype. The presence of Na allele significantly increased the live weight and dressing yield, and decreased the feather cover and abdominal fat. The naked neck genotypes (NaNa/Nana) performed better than the normal (nana) siblings for almost all the traits studied.
The Effect of Various Concentrations of Taurine during In vitro Fertilization on the Development of Bovine Embryos Fertilized with Spermatozoa from Three Different Bulls
Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro ; Toyama, Hitomi ; Nabenishi, Hisashi ; Morita, Tetsuo ; Ashizawa, Koji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 873~879
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90537
We investigated the effect of various concentrations of taurine during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage of bovine oocytes fertilized with three different Japanese Black bulls (Bull A, B and C). In vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with various concentrations of taurine (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mM) in the presence of 2.5 or 5.0 mM caffeine plus
/ml heparin (CH) for 6 hr or
/ml heparin (H) for
h. After IVF, the cleavage rates from the 2 to 16 cell stage determined at 3 days and the development rates up to the blastocyst stage determined at 7-8 days from the onset of IVF were assessed. Although the cleavage rates for the taurine concentration groups were not significantly increased in any of the three bulls in the CH groups, the development rates up to the blastocyst stage of the 50 mM taurine group of Bulls A and B, and of the 1 to 50 mM groups of Bull C were increased (p<0.05) compared to those of the control (0 mM taurine) groups. On the other hand, none of the bulls in the H groups showed any significant increase either in the cleavage rates or blastocyst formation rates in any taurine concentrations groups compared with those of the control groups. These results indicate that the addition of 50 mM taurine to a fertilization medium containing caffeine and heparin may stimulate embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage when fertilized with different bull semen.
Effects of Addition of Electrolyte and Ascorbic Acid in Feed during Heat Stress in Buffaloes
Kumar, B.V. Sunil ; Singh, G. ; Meur, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 880~888
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90053
The ameliorative effect of salts and ascorbic acid polyphosphate supplementation on heat stress was studied in buffaloes. Adult buffaloes of either sex were randomly divided into 2 groups of 4 animals each. Group I served as control and Group II was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate and ascorbic acid polyphosphate. All the animals were exposed to two conditions of temperature and humidity: hot-dry and hot-humid in a psychrometric chamber for 4 h daily for 10 days. Blood was collected on day 1, 5 and 10 of treatment. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentrations of serum glutathione (GSH), cortisol, sodium, potassium, and chloride and lipid peroxidation were estimated in serum. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed in blood. The activities of catalase and SOD, serum concentration of GSH, sodium, potassium and chloride decreased while lipid peroxidation and serum cortisol increased in both groups when subjected to heat stress. Dietary supplementation resulted in further decreasing of the enzyme activities but increasing of the serum concentrations of GSH, sodium, potassium and chloride. Lipid peroxidation and serum cortisol increased in the supplemented group in both types of stress. Dietary supplementation caused an increase in lymphoproliferative response to con A. Thus, supplementation of ascorbate in addition to electrolytes relieves the animals of oxidative stress and boosts cell mediated immunity.
Chemical Composition of Selected Forages and Spices and the Effect of These Spices on In vitro Rumen Degradability of Some Forages
Khan, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan ; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 889~900
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90442
Spices can be used as novel supplements to enhance the utilization of low quality forages (LQF) and reduce nutrient wastage by ruminant animals. However, it is essential to characterize these spices alongside LQF before testing their potential use as supplements in ruminant diets. This study characterized four spices (cinnamon, cumin, clove and turmeric) alongside three forages (rice straw, wheat straw and hay) for their chemical components before evaluating their effect at four different doses (0, 10, 30 and 90 mg/g forage DM) on the in vitro rumen degradability of dry matter (DM) (IVD) and organic matter (OM) (IVOMD) of these forages at various incubation times. It appeared that some spices could provide complementary nutrients which could improve the utilization of LQF where hay had better chemical composition than the other two forages. Cumin contained more crude protein (CP), ether extract and mineral contents whereas turmeric contained more soluble sugars than the other spices. Cinnamon was least acceptable as a ruminant supplement due to its higher condensed tannin and saponin and lower CP and mineral contents. The IVD and IVOMD were highest for hay and lowest for wheat straw with all spices at all incubation times (p<0.001). Due to relatively better nutrient profiles, cumin and turmeric had greater effect on IVD and IVOMD of the forages. In contrast, cinnamon had negative effects on IVD and IVOMD. IVD and IVOMD were greater at 10 mg/g than at other levels of most spices suggesting that using certain amounts of spices can increase forage degradability. However, the choice of a spice will depend upon the forage type being offered to ruminants. Further studies will examine the effect of these spices on fermentation profile, methane production and nitrogenous loss by ruminants.
Improvement of Fermentation Quality of Rice Straw Silage by Application of a Bacterial Inoculant and Glucose
Li, Jing ; Shen, Yixin ; Cai, Yimin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 901~906
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90403
The improvement of the fermentation quality of rice straw silage by application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and glucose was investigated in this study. Sixteen rice varieties were harvested at the maturity stage and the rice straw was ensiled with LAB inoculant (
cfu/g of fresh weight) and glucose (2% of fresh weight). Inoculation with LAB improved the fermentation as reflected in reductions in pH, acetic acid (by 3.7 to 78.3%), butyric acid (by -6.0 to 100.0%) and ammonia nitrogen (by 1.0 to 71.7%) concentrations, and increases in lactic acid (by 43.9 to 282.9%) and crude protein concentrations compared with the control. Application of LAB plus glucose was more effective in improving fermentation quality than LAB alone. The variety of rice straw which contained relatively high levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) tended to obtain better fermentation quality. The results suggested that LAB application and selection of rice varieties whose straw contained high levels of WSC were effective in improvement of the fermentation quality of rice straw silage.
Effects of Trace Mineral Source and Growth Implants on Trace Mineral Status of Growing and Finishing Feedlot Steers
Dorton, K.L. ; Wagner, J.J. ; Larson, C.K. ; Enns, R.M. ; Engle, T.E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 907~915
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90414
Three hundred and seventy-three steers (approximately 7 mo of age and
) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) source and growth implants on trace mineral status. Steers were blocked by ranch, post-weaning treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head/pen). Treatment consisted of: I) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), ii) inorganic trace minerals, and iii) organic trace minerals. Six pens of steers per treatment received a growth implant at the beginning of the experiment and were re-implanted during the finishing phase. The remaining steers received no growth implants. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 56 d then were gradually switched to a high concentrate finishing diet. Treatments during the finishing phase consisted of: i) control (no supplemental Zn); ii) inorganic Zn (30 mg of Zn/kg DM from
); and iii) organic Zn (iso-amounts of organic Zn). By the end of the growing and finishing phases, implanted steers had greater (p<0.01) plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers. During the growing phase, liver Cu concentrations (p<0.01) and plasma Zn concentrations (p<0.02) were greater in steers supplemented with TM compared to control steers. Steers supplemented with inorganic minerals had greater liver Cu concentrations than steers supplemented with organic minerals at the beginning (p<0.01) and end (p = 0.02) of the growing phase. During both the growing (p = 0.02) and finishing phases (p = 0.05), nonimplanted control steers had greater plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers supplemented with TM, whereas, implanted control steers had similar plasma Cu concentrations than implanted steers supplemented with TM. Non-implanted steers that received inorganic TM had lower plasma Cu concentrations (p = 0.03) during the growing phase and ceruloplasmin activity (p<0.04) during the finishing phase than non-implanted steers that received organic TM, whereas, implanted steers supplemented with either organic or inorganic TM had similar plasma Cu concentrations.
Effects of Different Dietary Vitamin E Levels on Growth Performance, Non-specific Immune Responses, and Disease Resistance against Vibrio anguillarum in Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus)
Galaz, German Bueno ; Kim, Sung-Sam ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 916~923
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90494
We report nutritional physiology and non-specific immune responses of vitamin E in parrot fish for the first time. This study aimed to investigate the essentiality and requirements in diets based on growth performances, non-specific immune responses and a challenge test against Vibrio angullarum. Six casein-gelatin based semi-purified diets were formulated to contain six graded levels of DL-
-tocopheryl acetate (
-TA) at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 500 mg/kg diet (designated as E0, E25, E50, E75, E100 and E500, respectively) and fed to triplicate groups of juvenile parrot fish for 12 weeks. The analyzed dietary concentrations of vitamin E were 0, 38, 53, 87, 119 and 538 mg/kg diet for E0, E25, E50, E75, E100 and E500, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the E25 were significantly higher compared to that of fish fed the other diets. Liver
-tocopherol concentration was significantly increased with an increase in dietary
-TA in a dose dependent manner. No apparent clinical signs of vitamin E deficiency and mortality were observed in fish fed the basal diet for 12 weeks. Among the immune responses assayed, phagocytic (NBT assay) and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased with increment of dietary
-TA levels. During the challenge test with V. anguillarum, E75, E100, and E500 diets resulted in higher survivals than E0, E25 and E50 diets. The findings of this study suggest that parrot fish require exogenous vitamin E and the optimum dietary level could be approximately 38 mg
-TA/kg diet for normal growth and physiology. Dietary
-TA concentration over 500 mg/kg could be required to enhance the nonspecific immune responses and improve the resistance of juvenile parrot fish against V. anguillarum.
Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance of Diets that Include Marine Fish Meal, Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) By-product Meal and Silage, and Processing Waste Water in Growing Pigs
Thuy, Nguyen Thi ; Lindberg, Jan Erik ; Ogle, Brian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 924~930
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90496
Ileal and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance of diets with four different protein sources were determined in growing pigs. The diets were based on rice bran, broken rice and maize meal and contained Tra catfish by-product (CBP), processed using three different methods, and marine fish meal (FM). The CBP diets consisted of the by-product in meal form, ensiled with molasses, and CBP waste water (WWBD). The four diets were fed to four growing pigs fitted with post-valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulas in a
Latin Square design. All experimental diets included
at 5 g/kg feed as an indigestible marker. The ileal apparent digestibility of organic matter and ether extract was higher on diet WWBD than on the other three diets (p<0.05), and the total tract apparent digestibility was higher on diet WWBD than on the FM diet (p<0.05). The ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein and amino acids was not significantly different among diets (p>0.05). No significant effects of diet were found on N-retention and N utilization. In conclusion, the catfish by-product meal, ensiled catfish by-product and processing waste water diets and the fish meal diet had similar ileal and total tract apparent digestibility, and similar N utilization in growing pigs.
Comparison of Bioavailability of Organic Selenium Sources in Finishing Pigs
Jang, Y.D. ; Choi, H.B. ; Durosoy, S. ; Schlegel, P. ; Choi, B.R. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 931~936
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90619
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of different organic selenium (Se) products in finishing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs, average body weight
, were allotted to four different treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in three replicates with four pigs per pen. Three different organic Se products, Se-enriched yeast (treatments A and B) and Se-proteinate (treatment C), were used in conjunction with a basal diet with no added Se as a control treatment. In growing period, pigs were fed the same diet but finishing pigs were fed each treatment diet containing organic Se products for 6 weeks. During the experimental period, feed intake and body weight were measured and blood samples were collected to determine the Se concentration. At the end of this experiment, 3 pigs per treatment were killed and various tissues (loin, liver, kidney, pancreas and spleen) were collected to analyze the Se concentration. The body weight, and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were similar among treatments, but the average daily gain (ADG) was increased on Se-proteinate treatment (p<0.01) and gain-to-feed ratio (G/F ratio) was improved on Se yeast B or Se-proteinate treatment (p<0.01). The tissue Se content was also increased when pigs were fed organic Se sources, and Se was retained efficiently in loin (p<0.01) and kidney (p<0.05) when Se yeast B was provided. The serum Se concentration was increased when organic Se was provided and was higher when pigs were fed Se-proteinate (p<0.01); subsequently liver Se was also higher on Se-proteinate treatment than other treatments. The Se yeast A treatment did not show any increment of Se concentration both in serum and tissues. This result demonstrated that Se retention and bioavailability in finishing pigs were varied by Se products although organic sources were provided. Consequently, each organic Se product should be evaluated before it is used as a supplement in animal feed.
Effects of Varying Dietary Zinc Levels and Environmental Temperatures on the Growth Performance, Feathering Score and Feather Mineral Concentrations of Broiler Chicks
Lai, P.W. ; Liang, Juan-Boo ; Hsia, L.C. ; Loh, T.C. ; Ho, Y.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 937~945
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90495
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary zinc (Zn), environmental temperatures and Zn
temperature interaction on growth, feathering score and mineral composition of broilers. A total of 256 d-old Avian male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to a
factorial arrangement with four corn-soybean meal basal diets (containing 44 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with 0, 40, 60 mg/kg Zn (Diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 0.8% Ca for these three diets) and non-Zn supplementation, 1.6% Ca (Diet 4) and two temperature conditions (low: 26, 24,
vs. high: 30, 28,
). All birds were given feathering coverage scores for back, breast, wing, under-wing and tail. The wing and tail were further evaluated for the occurrence and severity of defect feathers. Feathers were then pooled for mineral composition analysis. The results showed that in high temperature conditions, broilers fed Zn-unsupplemented, 0.8% Ca ration (Diet 1) had significantly (p<0.05) lower ADFI and ADG (wk 1-6) than birds under low temperature conditions. However, when the birds were fed 40 and 60 mg/kg Zn supplementation (Diets 2 and 3), the ADFI and ADG in both temperature conditions were not significantly different. In low temperature conditions, the ADFI, ADG (p<0.05), all feather coverage (p<0.01) and tail defect scores (p<0.001) of birds fed Diet 4 (excess Ca) were significantly poorer than those fed Diet 1. More Ca (p<0.05) was retained in the feathers of broilers fed Diet 4 under high temperature conditions. Broilers fed the Zn-unsupplemented ration (Diet 1) had significantly higher feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) concentrations than those fed the 60 mg/kg Zn-supplemented ration (Diet 3). A reduction of feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations were observed in Diet 4 broilers as compared to those fed Diet 1. Under high temperature conditions, broilers had lower iron (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations in feathers. Broilers kept in high temperature conditions had a higher Zn requirement and 40 mg/kg Zn supplementation was sufficient for the birds to achieve optimum growth. Supplemental Zn ameliorated the adverse effect of high temperature on growth and occurrence of tail feather defects. Excess Ca disrupted Zn metabolism to exert a detrimental effect on growth performance and normal feathering and this was elucidated in the birds kept in low temperature conditions.
Effects of Supplementary Blood Meal on Carnosine Content in the Breast Meat and Laying Performance of Old Hens
Namgung, N. ; Shin, D.H. ; Park, S.W. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 946~951
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10032
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of blood meal (BM) as a source of histidine, and magnesium oxide (MgO) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase, on carnosine (L-Car) content in the chicken breast muscle (CBM), laying performance, and egg quality of spent old hens. Four hundred eighty laying hens (Hy-Line
Brown), 95wk old, were allotted randomly into five replicates of six dietary treatments: T1; 100% basal diet, T2; 100% basal diet+MgO, T3; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM, T4; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM+MgO, T5; 95% basal diet+5% BM, T6; 95% basal diet+5% BM+MgO. Magnesium oxide was added at 0.3% of diets. The layers were fed experimental diets for 5wk. There were no significant differences in the weekly L-Car content in CBM among all treatments during the total experimental period, but some of the contrast comparisions showed higher L-Car in CBM of T6. The L-Car contents linearly decreased (p<0.01 or p<0.05) as the layers got older except in T4 (p>0.05). There were significant differences in egg weight (p<0.01) and soft and broken egg ratio (p<0.05). The control (T1) was highest in egg weight and T6 was lowest in soft and broken egg ratio. Among the parameters of egg quality, there were significant differences in eggshell strength (p<0.01) and egg yolk color (p<0.05). Magnesium oxide supplementation increased the eggshell strength and BM tended to decrease egg yolk color. Eggshell color, eggshell thickness, and Haugh unit were not influenced by BM and MgO. In conclusion, BM and MgO did not significantly influence the L-Car in CBM of spent layers. The L-Car content rapidly decreased as the layers became senescent. Eggshell strength was increased by MgO supplementation.
Growth, Behavior, and Carcass Traits of Fattening Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Steers Managed in Different Group Sizes
Lia, S.G. ; Yang, Y.X. ; Rhee, Y.J. ; Jang, W.J. ; Ha, J.J. ; Lee, S.K. ; Song, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 952~959
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90276
This study was conducted to evaluate growth, behavior and carcass traits of fattening Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers managed in different group sizes. A total of 48 animals, 6 months of age, were allocated to one of three group sizes and the experiment was conducted from 12 to 30 months of age. Groups were balanced for weight and the group sizes consisted of 4, 8, or 12 steers which were named 4sG, 8sG and 12sG, respectively. When animals were 12 months of age, initial fasted body weight (BW,
) was measured. All animals were housed at a constant space allowance of
per animal, and a feeder and drinker were provided per 4 animals. The whole fattening stage was divided into three phases: phase I (from 12 to 18 month of age), phase II (from 19 to 24 month of age), and phase III (from 25 to 30 month of age). Steers managed in 12sG showed low (p<0.05) growth rate and feed conversion rate (FCR) in phase I and phase II when compared to other treatment groups. However, this difference was not observed for the whole fattening phase (p>0.05). Steers managed in 4sG had a thick (p<0.05) ultrasound back fat thickness at 15 and 18 months of age. However, group size had no effect on meat yield and quality traits of area and marbling score. Animals managed in 8sG yielded a better meat grade of "A" than the "B" grade in other treatment group sizes. Lean color, fat color, firmness and maturity scores did not differ among group sizes. Hanwoo steers housed under 12sG spent less time on eating concentrate, relevant higher eating rate, less frequency of allogrooming, and more time on walking (p<0.05). It could be concluded that a large group size retarded growth rate and back fat thickness in the fattening stage, which was mainly focused on 15 and 18 months of age.
Sensory, Physicochemical and Microbiological Changes in Water-cooked Salted Duck during Storage at 4℃
Li, Yanliang ; Yao, Dongrui ; Wang, Daoying ; Xu, Weimin ; Zhu, Yongzhi ; Jin, Bangquan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 960~964
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90550
Water-cooked salted ducks were tray-packaged and stored under refrigeration (
) in order to evaluate the quality changes during storage. pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), sensory and microbiological analysis were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9 and 10 days of storage. pH value and TVB-N (mg N/100 g) varied from
, respectively. Sensory results indicated that ducks were unacceptable at the 10th day of storage. The predominant spoilage bacteria at the end of the shelf-life were Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and minor components were Enterobacteriaceae, members of Micrococci, yeasts and moulds. Pseudomonads were also detected. Both total bacteria and the various spoilage ones, overall, increased from the initial sampling to the final day.
Effects of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy on the Body Weight, Muscle Fiber Number, Carcass Traits, and Pork Quality Traits of Offspring
Choe, J.H. ; Choi, Y.M. ; Ryu, Y.C. ; Lee, S.H. ; Kim, B.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 965~971
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.90545
The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of different maternal nutrition treatments during pregnancy on body weight, muscle fiber number, carcass traits, and pork quality traits of offspring. A total of 18 crossbred sows (Landrace
Duroc) were randomly assigned to one of three nutritional treatment groups; control, high energy, and high protein. The control group was fed a standard diet, the high energy group was fed a diet that contained 30% increased metabolizable energy, and the high protein group was fed a diet that contained 30% increased limiting amino acids compared to the control. The sows in each group were fed equal quantities of each diet (1.9 kg/d) for the entire gestational period. A total of 36 piglets from each sow were used to evaluate changes in body weight, muscle fiber number in the longissimus dorsi muscle at birth, carcass traits, and pork quality traits. Birth weight of offspring born to sows in the high energy diet group was significantly higher compared to the high protein diet group (p<0.05). However, body weight of offspring after birth was not significantly different between the groups. Muscle fiber number for the longissimus dorsi muscle at birth was not significantly different between the groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in carcass traits or pork quality traits between offspring born to sows in the control group and those born to sows that received high energy or high protein diets during pregnancy. Based on these results, it appears that maternal nutrition treatment during pregnancy, regardless of whether it is with high energy or high protein diets, does not have a significant effect on body weight, muscle fiber number at birth, carcass traits, or pork quality traits.
Nutrient Synchrony: Is it a Suitable Strategy to Improve Nitrogen Utilization and Animal Performance?
Yang, Ji-Young ; Seo, J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Seo, S. ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 23, issue 7, 2010, Pages 972~979
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.r.04
The objective of this paper was to review recent studies on nutrient synchrony and the effects of synchronization of energy and N supply in the rumen on nitrogen utilization and animal performance. Theoretically, synchronization of energy and N supply in the rumen should allow more efficient use of nutrients by rumen microbes, increase microbial protein and fermentation end products, and thus increase available nutrients in the small intestine. Efficient use of nutrients possibly improves animal performance and reduces nutrient excretion to the environment. However, a number of studies showed contradictory results in microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen retention and animal production performance. Since there are additional challenges to nutrient synchrony that must be addressed, further research is required to apply the nutrient synchrony concept directly to the field situation.