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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Growth Traits in a Japanese Native Chicken Cross
Rikimaru, K. ; Sasaki, O. ; Koizumi, N. ; Komatsu, M. ; Suzuki, K. ; Takahashi, Hideaki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1329~1334
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11004
The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to Akita Prefecture, Japan. An
resource population produced by crossing low- and high-growth lines of the Hinai-dori breed was analyzed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits. Highly significant QTLs for body weight at 10 and 14 weeks of age and average daily gain between 4 and 10 weeks and between 10 and 14 weeks of age were accordingly mapped in a common region between ADL0198 and ABR0287 on chromosome 1 and between MCW0240 and ABR0622 on chromosome 4, respectively. A significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks of age and a significant QTL for average daily gain between 0 and 4 weeks of age were mapped for the first time to the same region flanking ABR0204 and ABR0284 on chromosome 1. These QTLs are good candidates for application in the development of marker-assisted selection strategies for increasing growth efficiencies in the Hinai-dori breed and native breeds of chickens in Asia.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Wool Traits in Angora Rabbit
Niranjan, S.K. ; Sharma, S.R. ; Gowane, G.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1335~1340
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10456
Different genetic parameters for weaning weight and wool traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) in Angora rabbits. Total wool yield of first (I), second (II) and third (III) clips were taken as a separate trait under study. The records from more than 2,700 animals were analysed through fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. A log likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate model for each trait. Direct heritability estimates for the wool traits were found to be moderate to high across different models. Heritability estimates obtained from the best model were 0.24, 0.22, 0.20 and 0.21 for weaning weight, clip I, II and III; respectively. Maternal effects especially due to permanent environment had higher importance at clip I and found to be declining in subsequent clips. The estimates of repeatability of doe effect on wool traits were 0.44, 0.26 and 0.18 for clip I, II and III; respectively. Weaning weight had moderately high genetic correlations with clip I (0.57) and II (0.45), but very low (0.11) with clip III. Results indicated that genetic improvement for wool yield in Angora rabbit is possible through direct selection. Further, weaning weight could be considered as desirable trait for earliest indirect selection for wool yield in view of its high genetic correlation with wool traits.
Association of the KAP 8.1 Gene Polymorphisms with Fibre Traits in Inner Mongolian Cashmere Goats
Liu, Haiying ; Yue, Chun-Wang ; Zhang, Wei ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Yang, Guiqin ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1341~1347
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11120
The objective of this study was to investigate polymorphisms of keratin-associated protein 8.1 (KAP8.1) gene and its effect on fibre traits of Chinese Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Five hundred and forty animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the complete coding sequence of the hircine KAP8.1 gene by means of PCR-SSCP. The results identified six genotypes, AA, BB, CC, AB, AC and BC, coded for by three different alleles A, B and C. Two SNPs in the coding region were confirmed by sequencing, which were T113G and G116C respectively. The relationships between the genotypes and cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length were analyzed. There were significant differences between the associations of the different genotypes with cashmere weight (p<0.01), cashmere length (p<0.05) and hair length (p<0.01). Cashmere fibre diameter was the only trait that was not associated with the genotypes. The animals of genotype AB and BB had the higher cashmere weight compared with the genotype AA. By further analysis, it appeared that the KAP8.1 genotype effects on fibre traits may be due to a mutation at the 113 locus. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine KAP8.1 gene might be a potential molecular marker for cashmere weight in Cashmere goats.
Study on Suitable Semen Additives Incorporation into the Extender Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
Bhakat, M. ; Mohanty, T.K. ; Raina, V.S. ; Gupta, A.K. ; Pankaj, P.K. ; Mahapatra, R.K. ; Sarkar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1348~1357
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10243
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Pentoxifylline (PTX) and
-tocopherol (Vit E) on semen quality parameters of Karan Fries bulls. The fortification of extender by various semen additives improves motility as well as fertility of spermatozoa. Split samples of 24 ejaculates of four Karan Fries bulls were extended in extender with or without various additives such as BHT, PTX and Vit E, and performance was evaluated at an interval of 0, 24, 48 and 72 h at refrigerated temperature (4-
). Results of the present study revealed that addition of BHT, PTX and Vit E in extender improved sperm cell function, such as motility, viability, HOST, and acrosome integrity, as compared to the control during liquid storage up to 48 h of preservation at refrigerated temperature. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference between any of the additives up to 48 h of preservation. Overall, the results showed a significant (p<0.05) deterioration in motility after each storage interval. The results showed a significant deterioration in the acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity up to 48 h; subsequently, there was not much degradation of both the semen quality parameters. There was a significant increase in spermatozoal tail and total abnormality after each storage interval at refrigerator temperature (4 to
); however, the head and mid-piece abnormalities were almost unaffected. Tail and total abnormality were least in extender fortified with BHT, PTX and Vit E at different hours of incubation as compared to the control. The addition of 1.5 mM BHT, 3.6 mM PTX and 1 mg/ml Vit E in the semen extender has more beneficial effect in terms of semen quality and preservability of spermatozoa.
Detection of the SRY Transcript and Protein in Bovine Ejaculated Spermatozoa
Li, Chunjin ; Sun, Yongfeng ; Yi, Kangle ; Li, Chengjiao ; Zhu, Xiaoling ; Chen, Lu ; Zhou, Xu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1358~1364
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11062
The sex-determining region on the Y (SRY) gene is important in mammalian sex determination and differentiation. We report a study of the abundance of SRY gene products in bovine ejaculate. RT-PCR experiments using RNA extracted from bovine spermatozoa with SRY-specific primers yielded a 456 bp product, but the amount of SRY mRNA in sperm was lower than that in the testes (p<0.01). A protein of approximately 27 KDa was detected by western blotting. The SRY transcript was detected in the midpiece of approximately half the spermatozoa by in situ hybridization, and the SRY protein was detected in the heads of half the spermatozoa by immunofluorescence, indicating that SRY mRNA and protein may only be present in Y-bearing spermatozoa. These results suggest that the SRY transcript and protein are present in bovine ejaculated Y-sperm. The roles of the SRY gene in spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and the sperm-oocyte interaction merit further investigation.
Behavioral Characteristics of Bos indicus Cattle after a Superovulatory Treatment Compared to Cows Synchronized for Estrus
Jimenez, A. ; Bautista, F. ; Galina, C.S. ; Romero, J.J. ; Rubio, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1365~1371
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11032
The intensity and duration of sexual behavior in Bos indicus was assessed through the continuous observation of sexual receptivity. Two groups of cows were formed: only synchronized (n = 50) and other group further superovulated (n = 20). An intravaginal implant that released progesterone over 9 d was used. After removing the implant, 25 mg of
was administered. In the superovulated group, the administration of 280 mg (Follicle stimulant hormone) FSH-P1 per cow with a decreasing dosage over 4 d was utilized. In both groups, behavioral observations began at the moment of implant removal. Sexual behavior was analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the mean of hours in estrus, effective mountings and number of mounts/hour during estrus. A nonparametric survival analysis was performed using the time in two ways: i) when an event happened it was placed in a 24 h timeframe and, ii) the time of observation in continuous form (96 h) assessing the difference between curves by the log rank test Chi-square. The only significant difference was the number of mounts/h during receptivity (p<0.05). In the superovulated group three periods of sexual activity during the day were identified, with these events being of greater frequency and duration than the synchronized group (p = 0.02); besides, the superovulated group began estrus before the synchronized group (p = 0.0035) when using the total period. In a simulation study, when the number of observations went from two (06:00-18:00) to three periods (06:00, 12:00 and 18:00) cows detected accurately (<6 h after the onset) increased more than 20%. The results show that superovulated cows presented greater intensity and duration of sexual activity in contrast with only synchronized animals.
Relation of Calcium Activity in Milk and Milk Production of Holstein Cows in Hot Season
Tanaka, Masahito ; Suzuki, Tomoyuki ; Kotb, Saber ; Kamiya, Yuko ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1372~1376
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11002
The content of Ca in milk exceeds the typical saturation level of Ca salts, which is necessary for neonate growth. This calcium is distributed between the casein micelles in the colloidal and aqueous phases. Information on the properties of calcium activity in the aqueous phase is limited compared with that on the properties of bound or sequestrated calcium. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in calcium activity in fresh milk using an ion-selective electrode and to assess the relationship between calcium activity and milk production in hot season. Milk samples collected from 10 cows at the National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region in June to October (Min-Max: 7.2-
, 24.3-100% RH) were analyzed on total calcium concentrations and calcium activity. We observed that the rectal temperature of the cows increased according to elevation of ambient temperature but that the pH of the collected milk (
SEM)) was not significantly influenced by rectal and ambient temperature. Total calcium concentrations and calcium activity in fresh milk decreased in July (Min-Max: 21.1-
, 48.9-100.0% RH) compared with the values after August (Min-Max: 18.1-
, 26.5-96.2% RH) (p<0.05); however, there was no significant correlation between the two parameters. The ratio of calcium activity to total calcium concentration decreased after August compared with the values in June and July (p<0.05). The calcium activity in fresh milk was positively correlated with milk yield (r = 0.45, p<0.01) and negatively correlated with milk lactose content (r = -0.53, p<0.01). These results suggest that the calcium activity in milk could be affected by ambient temperature and might be associated with milking production in hot season.
The Nutritive Value of Live Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Its Effect on Milk Yield, Milk Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Dairy Cows
Yalcin, Sakine ; Yalcin, Suzan ; Can, Plnar ; Gurdal, Arif O. ; Bagci, Cemalettin ; Eltan, Onder ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1377~1385
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11060
This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value of live yeast culture (RumiSacc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and to investigate its effects on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters in lactating cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of three cows and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a cross-over experiment. Daily 50 g RumiSacc was top dressed at the p.m. feeding for the treatment group. RumiSacc supplied a high protein and energy with high organic matter digestibility values (83.35%) determined by in vitro enzymatic analysis. Yeast culture supplementation significantly increased milk yield, tended to increase fat yield, protein yield and lactose yield of milk. Methylated fatty acid level of 18:3 (n-3) in milk fat was increased by yeast culture supplementation. The concentrations of methionine, phenyalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and taurine were significantly increased with dietary inclusion of yeast culture. Live yeast culture supplementation did not affect other performance characteristics, milk quality characteristics and blood parameters. As a conclusion live yeast culture (RumiSacc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) had high nutritive value and positive effects on milk production and some milk quality characteristics in lactating cows under field conditions.
Influence of Dietary Phytoadditive as Polyherbal Combination on Performance of Does and Respective Litters in Cross Bred Dairy Goats
Mirzaei, F. ; Prasad, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1386~1392
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11025
The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a polyherbal supplement on cross bred does, starting from the last month of pregnancy to weaning, on milk yield, kid birth weight and growth rate. Thirty does were divided into three treatments of ten each in individual pens: low level supplementation (LS), high level supplementation (HS) and non-supplemented treatment (NS) as control. Low supplemented goats were given 125 mg/kg BW/d of polyherbal combination; high supplemented goats were given 250 mg/kg BW/d. The study was carried out in 2008. Fifty-nine kids were born from all the experimental animals. There was no difference on milk yield between supplemented groups and control (p>0.05), although polyherbal supplementation had positive effect on litter birth weight and growth rate compared to control. Weaning weights were higher (p<0.001) in LS and HS compared to NS does. In both supplemented treatments compared to control, mortalities and morbidities were also lower in kids born. It is concluded that pre-partum to weaning supplementation increases kids growth rates and weaning weights, as well as reduces kid mortalities, but it doesn't have significant effect on milk production.
Relationships between Methionine Supply, Nitrogen Retention and Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in Growing Sheep Nourished by Total Intragastric Infusions
Li, Chong ; Zhao, Guangyong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1393~1398
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11044
Four 4-month old Charolais
Dorset male sheep (initial liveweight
), fitted with rumen and abomasal fistulas and nourished by total intragastric infusions, were used to study the relationships between methionine (Met) supply, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Four graded levels of Met, i.e. 0 g/16 g N, 1.76 g/16 g N, 3.52 g/16 g N and 7.04 g/16 g N, were infused into abomasums as experimental treatments. The sheep and treatments were allocated in a
incomplete Latin square design (Yudon square design). The experiment lasted 3 periods and each period was 10 days. Quadratic correlations were found between Met level (x, g/16 g N) and N retention (y, g/d): y =
= 0.66, n = 12, p = 0.008, and between methionine level (x, g/16 g N) and plasma IGF-I concentration (y, ng/ml): y =
= 0.51, n = 12, p = 0.009. No significant correlation was found between plasma IGF-I (x, ng/ml) and N retention (y, g/d) (p>0.05). It was concluded that Met level had a significant influence on N retention and plasma IGF-I concentration whereas IGF-I might not be an important mediator in the regulation of N metabolism by Met in growing sheep nourished by total intragastric infusions.
Meat Quality of Lambs Fed on Palm Kernel Meal, a By-product of Biodiesel Production
Ribeiro, R.D.X. ; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes ; Macome, F.M. ; Bagaldo, A.R. ; Silva, M.C.A. ; Ribeiro, C.V.D.M. ; Carvalho, G.G.P. ; Lanna, D.P.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1399~1406
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11110
This study aimed to establish the optimum level of palm kernel meal in the diet of Santa Ines lambs based on the sensorial characteristics and fatty acid profile of the meat. We used 32 lambs with a starting age of 4 to 6 months and mean weight of
, kept in individual stalls. The animals were fed with Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0, 6.5, 13.0 or 19.5% of palm kernel meal based on the dry mass of the complete diet. These levels formed the treatments. Confinement lasted 80 days and on the last day the animals were fasted and slaughtered. After slaughter, carcasses were weighed and sectioned longitudinally, along the median line, into two antimeres. Half-carcasses were then sliced between the 12th and 13th ribs to collect the loin (longissimus dorsi), which was used to determine the sensorial characteristics and fatty acid profile of the meat. For sensorial evaluation, samples of meat were given to 54 judges who evaluated the tenderness, juiciness, appearance, aroma and flavor of the meat using a hedonic scale. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. The addition of palm kernel meal to the diet had no effect on the sensorial characteristics of meat juiciness, appearance, aroma or flavor. However, tenderness showed a quadratic relationship with the addition of the meal to the diet. The concentration of fatty acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 increased with the addition of palm kernel meal, as did the sum of medium-chain fatty acids and the atherogenicity index. Up to of 19.5% of the diet of Santa Ines lambs can be made up of palm kernel meal without causing significant changes in sensorial characteristics. However, the fatty acid profile of the meat was altered.
Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Slower-growing and Fast-growing Chickens Raised with and without Outdoor Access
Mikulski, Dariusz ; Celej, Joanna ; Jankowski, Jan ; Majewska, Teresa ; Mikulska, Marzena ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1407~1416
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11038
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype (slower-growing vs. fast-growing) and production system (access to outdoors vs. indoor) on the growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality (chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties) of chickens. The experiment was performed on 1,040 day-old hybrid male chickens of two genotypes. Slower-growing chickens (Hubbard JA957, certified) and fast-growing chickens (Hubbard F15) were fed identical diets until 65 days of age. Both genotypes (each represented by 520 birds) were divided into two subgroups and were raised in pens on litter with outdoor access or in indoor confinement without outdoor access (four replications per subgroup, each of 65 birds). Until day 21, the birds stayed in the indoor facility, in deep-litter pens. The birds could forage on pasture 12 h daily, commencing at three weeks of age. Stocking density was 0.13
floor space per bird in pens on litter, and 0.8
per bird in grassy yards. Compared with fast-growing, slower-growing chickens were significantly lighter (by 17%), had a lower breast and thigh muscle yield and a higher abdominal fat content, but they were characterized by higher survival rates at 65 days, a higher protein content and a lower fat content of breast meat. Outdoor access had no negative effects on the growth performance, muscle yield, the fatty acid profile and oxidative status of meat lipids. The meat of free-range chickens was darker in color, it had a higher protein content and a better water-holding capacity, but it was less juicy than the meat of birds raised indoors.
Effects of Dietary Protein and Threonine Supply on In vitro Liver Threonine Dehydrogenase Activity and Threonine Efficiency in Rat and Chicken
Lee, C.W. ; Oh, Y.J. ; Son, Y.S. ; An, W.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1417~1424
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11030
This study was conducted to assess the relation between threonine (Thr) oxidation rate and threonine efficiency on rat and chicken fed with graded levels of protein and threonine. The increase in threonine content from 0.28 to 0.72% in a diet containing 12.0% crude protein (CP) caused a gradual increase in threonine dehydrogenase (TDG) activity in rat liver. Similar, but more pronounced results were observed after 18.0% CP in the diet. Both protein levels in combination with the highest level of threonine supplementation increased liver TDG activity significantly, indicating enhanced threonine catabolism. Parameters of efficiency of threonine utilization calculated from parallel nitrogen balance studies decreased significantly and indicated threonine oversupply after a maximum of threonine supplementation. At the lower levels of threonine addition the efficiency of threonine utilization was not significantly changed. In the chicken liver up to 0.60% true digestible threonine (dThr) in the 18.5% CP diet produced no effect on the TDG activity. However, TDG activity in the liver was elevated by the diet containing 22.5% CP (0.60% dThr) and the efficiency of threonine utilization decreased, indicating the end of threonine limiting range. In conclusion, the in vitro TDG activity in the liver of rat and growing chicken has an indicator function for the dietary supply of threonine.
The Effects of Raw and Physical Processed Common Vetch Seed (Vicia sativa) on Laying Performance, Egg Quality, Metabolic Parameters and Liver Histopatology of Laying Hens
Kaya, Hatice ; Celebi, S. ; Macit, M. ; Geyikoglu, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1425~1434
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11041
This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the processing method of common vetch seed (CVS) (Vicia sativa) on laying performance, egg quality, metabolic parameters and liver histopatology during the peak production period in hens. Lohman layers, 46 wk of age in 6 replicate cages each containing 4 hens, were allocated randomly to one of four dietary treatments. Diets were control (C) diet containing no common vetch and experimental diets containing 25% raw common vetch (RCV), 25% soaked in water for 72 h with exchange of water every 24 h (SCV) and 25% soaked&boiled at
for 30 minute common vetch (SBCV). Inclusion of RCV into the diet deteriorated all laying performance variables. SCV did not alleviate the adverse effect of raw common vetch on feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion, final weight and weight change. SCV partially alleviated egg production (p<0.001). SBCV diminished the adverse effect on feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion, final weight and weight change compared to raw vicia sativa (p<0.001). No significant difference was detected between SBCV and the control group in terms of egg production, feed conversion, final weight and weight change. Regardless of the processing method, all the common vetch groups had lower shell strength compared to the control group. Haugh units did differ between all groups (p<0.001). Inclusion of RCV and SCV into the basal diet decreased triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein and serum glucose concentrations (p<0.001). Hovewer, inclusion of SBCV into the basal diet increased these parameters. Liver samples were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated by light microscopy. A biopsy of native liver tissue was used as a control. No histopathologic finding was present in the control group. Raw V. sativa compared with the control caused lipid accumulations in hepatocytes, severe congestion of hepatic blood vessels, inflammation, increased numbers of Kupffer cells and sinusoidal dilatations. Whereas, the livers from groups given treated V. sativa showed only different degrees of sinusoidal dilatations. Findings from the present study point out the risk of increased hepatic damage due to use of raw Vicia sativa. Increasing treatment of V. sativa lead to a decrease of liver damages. Inclusion of raw and soaked vetch seeds in rations affected adversely all parameters examined in laying hens. But alleviation was observed when soaked and boiled vetch seeds (SBCV) were fed. The results of these experiments indicated that soaked&boiled Vicia sativa seeds may safely be used at a 25% level in rations of laying hens.
Effects of Creep Feed with Varied Energy Density Diets on Litter Performance
Yan, L. ; Jang, H.D. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1435~1439
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11116
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of creep feed with different energy densities on litter performance. A total of 30 sows (Landrace
Yorkshire) and their litters were randomly assigned with 1, 2, or 3+parities into 1 of 3 treatments (10 sows). Dietary treatments were: i) CON (no creep feed), ii) LE (creep feed (DE 4,000 kcal/kg) from 5 d of age until weaning (21 d)), and iii) HE (creep feed (DE 5,000 kcal/kg) from 5 d of age until weaning). Each piglet was weighed at d 5, 10, 15, 21 (weaning), and d 7 postweaning to determine ADG. Creep feeding reduced concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol compared with those in CON group (p<0.05). Creep feeding reduced (p<0.05) the weaning-to-oestrus interval in sows. Piglets in the HE groups evidenced greater ADG (p = 0.024) and ADFI (p = 0.001) post-weaning than those in CON treatments. Creep feeding decreased (p<0.05) the suckling time of piglet in this study. In conclusion, creep feeding increased growth and feed intake of pigs after weaning. It can decrease the oestrus interval of sows. There was no difference between providing a high energy or a low energy creep fed diet to the piglets.
Dietary Vitamin E Influences the Levels of Nitric Oxide and Cytokines in Broiler Chickens
Xu, Jian-Xiong ; Chen, Xiao-Lian ; Wang, Jing ; Wang, Tian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1440~1446
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11043
The study investigated the effects of dietary Vitamin E (VE) on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, immune function and analyzed the correlation between NO free radical and cytokines (IL-2 and IL-6) in broilers. One hundred and fifty 2-week-old broilers were randomly divided into three groups. Control group and lower VE (
) group were provided with a basic diet supplemented with 12.55 mg/kg VE and 2.55 mg/kg VE for 30 days, respectively. Higher VE (
) group was supplemented with 2.55 mg/kg VE in the first 15 days and then 32.55 mg/kg VE in the next 15 days. Five broilers in each group were then sacrificed on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th days, respectively, and the content of NO free radical, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines, IL-2 and IL-6, were measured. The results showed that lower VE could decrease growth performance of broilers while higher VE could increase growth performance and eliminate differences resulted from feeding lower VE dietary in early stages (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, lower VE could increase significantly NO and MDA concentration, and increase IL-2 concentration in serum (p<0.05). Higher VE could significantly increase activities of SOD and glutathione GSH-Px (p<0.05). IL-2 is positively correlated with NO in heart (p<0.05) and IL-6 is negatively correlated with NO in liver (p<0.05) and heart (p<0.01). These results indicate that dietary VE could regulate antioxidant capacity and NO metabolism of broilers and higher VE-supplemented diet could directly decrease production of IL-2.
Influence of Energy Level and Glycine Supplementation on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Egg Quality in Laying Hens
Han, Yung-Keun ; Thacker, Philip A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1447~1455
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11123
Sixty four, 30-week-old, Lohmann Brown-Lite laying hens were randomly allocated to one of four treatments with eight replicates per treatment and two hens per replicate for a 10 week study. The control diet was a high energy (11.81 MJ/kg) diet and the moderate energy (11.39 MJ/kg) diets were formulated dropping the level of animal fat. The three moderate energy diets were fed either unsupplemented (0.0%) or supplemented with 0.05 or 0.10% glycine. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion between birds fed the unsupplemented moderate energy and high energy diets. Significant differences were detected concerning egg components and quality measurements as assessed by albumen percentage (p = 0.02), yolk weight (p = 0.02), yolk percentage (p<0.01), yolk to albumen ratio (p<0.01) and yolk color (p = 0.01) between birds fed the unsupplemented moderate and high energy diets. Glycine supplementation of the moderate energy diet linearly increased (p<0.01) egg weight and feed intake with no significant (p>0.05) effects on egg production or feed conversion. Glycine supplementation significantly increased egg content (p<0.01), albumen weight (p<0.01) and percentage (p<0.01) as well as yolk weight (p<0.01) while yolk percentage (p = 0.04), yolk to albumen ratio (p = 0.01) and egg shell percentage (p<0.01) were linearly decreased. Supplementation with glycine produced a tendency (p = 0.09) towards an increase in the percentage of large eggs (63-72.9 g) produced with a concomitant decrease in the percentage of small (below 53 g) eggs (p = 0.09). The overall results of this study indicate that glycine supplementation of laying hen rations has the potential to increase egg production and weight. These increases appeared to be mediated through increases in feed intake and the ileal digestibility of fat and energy.
Effects of Fermented Potato Pulp on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Traits and Plasma Parameters of Growing-finishing Pigs
Li, P.F. ; Xue, L.F. ; Zhang, R.F. ; Piao, Xiangshu ; Zeng, Z.K. ; Zhan, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1456~1463
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11169
A total of 629 Duroc
Large White crossbred pigs were utilized in three experiments (Exp. 1, 222 pigs weighing
BW; Exp. 2, 216 pigs weighing 5
BW; Exp. 3, 191 pigs weighing
BW) conducted to determine the effects of fermented potato pulp on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits and plasma parameters in growingfinishing pigs. Each experiment lasted 28 d. The pigs were assigned to one of two corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp. The inclusion of fermented potato pulp increased weight gain (p<0.05) in experiments 1 and 2 and increased feed intake (p<0.05) in experiment 2. Feed conversion was improved (p<0.05) in experiment 2 and showed a tendency to improve (p<0.10) in experiments 1 and 3 when pigs were fed fermented potato pulp. Fermented potato pulp increased (p<0.05) dry matter digestibility in experiments 1 and 3 and energy digestibility in experiment 2. Feeding fermented potato pulp decreased plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05) and alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05) in experiments 1 and 2, while plasma aspartate aminotransferase was decreased (p<0.05) in experiment 3. Dietary fermented potato pulp did not affect the carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Feeding fermented potato pulp reduced (p<0.05) fecal ammonia concentration in all three experiments. In conclusion, feeding growing-finishing pigs diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp improved weight gain and feed conversion without any detrimental effects on carcass traits. The improvements in pig performance appeared to be mediated by improvements in nutrient digestibility.
Effects of Supplemental Fermented Agro By-products Diet on the Growth Performances, Blood Characteristics and Carcass Traits in Fattening Pigs
Chu, Gyo-Moon ; Yang, Bo-Seok ; Kim, Hoi-Yun ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Ha, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Chung-Hui ; Lee, Sung-Dae ; Song, Young-Min ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1464~1472
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10459
Effects of a supplemental fermented agro by-products diet on growth performance, blood characteristics and carcass traits were investigated in fattening pigs. The fermented diet mainly contained 38.0% brewer's grain, 25.0% rice bran and 21.0% byproduct of king oyster mushrooms. The mixed ingredients were fermented at
for 7 days and fed to crossbred barrow pigs for 62 days. Ninety pigs were housed in 10 head per pen with three replicate pens per treatment. The pigs in the control group were fed with formula feed, while the pigs in T1 group were fed 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% fermented diet substituted with formula feed on 1 week interval. Pigs in T2 group were fed 30, 60 and 100% fermented diet substituted with formula feed on 1 week interval. The fermented diet significantly (p<0.05) decreased body weight gain and feed efficiency of pigs. The blood characteristics differed with diet types. Carcass grade was significantly better (p<0.05) in the pigs fed fermented diet than in the pigs fed control diet as well as ratio of high grade was higher in the fermented diet groups. Therefore, although a dietary of fermented diet decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, it improved the carcass grade in pigs.
Quantified Analyses of Musk Deer Farming in China: A Tool for Sustainable Musk Production and Ex situ Conservation
Meng, Xiuxiang ; Gong, Baocao ; Ma, Guang ; Xiang, Leilei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1473~1482
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11111
Adult male musk deer (Moschus spp.) secrete musk, a widely used ingredient in traditional Asian medicine and the international perfume industry. Musk deer are endangered due to historic over-utilization of musk and habitat loss. Musk deer farming, provides an important way of conserving musk deer and ensuring a sustainable musk supply. For over 50 years musk deer farming has been conducted in China with the endangered Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) the predominant farmed musk deer species. To date, few studies have examined the musk production of captive musk deer. This study analyzed musk-extraction data collected from 1997 to 2009 at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu, China. The musk-extraction ratio (MER) of captive male musk deer was 90.30% (n = 732), while the annual average musk extraction (AME) per animal was
with the range from 0.00 g to 34.20 g (n = 732). The origin of the deer had an influence on AME and MER production, with male wild-captured (WC) individuals recording higher values (AME,
, n = 272; MER, 93.75%, n = 272) than those of captive breeding (CB) males (AME:
, n = 460; MER: 88.26%, n = 460). The origin of an individual's parents, however, did not influence AME and MER. Age also influenced musk production with the MER of 1.5-year-old males being 87.5% with an average musk production of
(n = 96). The peak period for musk production was from 1.5 to 8.5 years of age. The results of our study demonstrate musk deer farming could work as an effective measure to protect musk deer and provide sustainable musk resources, however, the musk production including MER and AME could be improved through optimizing the managing and breeding system in endangered musk deer farming.