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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Development of an Integrated General Model (IGM) System for Comparison of Genetic Gains from Different Bull Selection Strategies for Korean Brown Cattle (Hanwoo)
Lee, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Hee-Bal ; Kim, Si-Dong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1483~1503
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10185
To advance the effectiveness of the current Hanwoo improvement system, we developed a general simulation that compared a series of breeding schemes under realistic user circumstances. We call this system the Integrated General Model (IGM) and it allows users to control the breeding schemes and selection methods by manipulating the input parameters. The Current Hanwoo Performance and Progeny Test (CHPPT) scheme was simulated with a Modified Hanwoo Performance and Progeny Test (MHPPT) scheme using a Hanwoo Breeding Farm cow population of the Livestock Improvement Main Center (LOMC) of the National Agricultural Cooperatives Federation (NACF). To compare the two schemes, a new method, the Simple Hanwoo Performance Test (SHPT), which uses ultrasound technology for measuring the carcass traits of live animals, was developed. These three models, including the CHPPT, incorporated three types of selection criteria: phenotype (PH), true breeding value (TBV), and estimated breeding value (EBV). The simulation was scheduled to mimic an actual Hanwoo breeding program; thus, the simulation was run to include the years 1983-2020 for each breeding method and was replicated 10 times. The parameters for simulation were derived from the literature. Approximately 642,000 animals were simulated per replication for the CHPPT scheme; 129,000 animals were simulated for the MHPPT scheme and 112,000 animals for the SHPT scheme. Throughout the 38-year simulation, all estimated parameters of each simulated population, regardless of population size, showed results similar to the input parameters. The deviations between input and output values for the parameters in the large populations were statistically acceptable. In this study, we integrated three simulated models, including the CHPPT, in an attempt to achieve the greatest genetic gains within major economic traits including body weight at 12 months of age (BW12), body weight at 24 months of age (BW24), average daily gain from 6 to 12 months (ADG), carcass weight (CWT), carcass longissimus muscle area (CLMA), carcass marbling score (CMS), ultrasound scanned longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and ultrasound scanned marbling score (UMS).
Identification of Superior Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) Combinations Related to Economic Traits by Genotype Matrix Mapping (GMM) in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Lee, Yoon-Seok ; Oh, Dong-Yep ; Lee, Yong-Won ; Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Lee, Jea-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1504~1513
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11112
It is important to identify genetic interactions related to human diseases or animal traits. Many linear statistical models have been reported but they did not consider genetic interactions. Genotype matrix mapping (GMM) has been developed to identify genetic interactions. This study uses the GMM method to detect superior SNP combinations of the CCDC158 gene that influences average daily gain, marbling score, cold carcass weight and longissimus muscle dorsi area traits in Hanwoo. We evaluated the statistical significance of the major SNP combinations selected by implementing the permutation test of the F-measure. The effect of g.34425+102 A>T (AA), g.8778G>A (GG) and g.4102+36T>G (GT) SNP combinations produced higher performance of average daily gain, marbling score, cold carcass weight and the longissimus muscle dorsi area traits than the effect of a single SNP. GMM is a fast and reliable method for multiple SNP analysis with potential application in marker-assisted selection. GMM may prospectively be used for genetic assessment of quantitative traits after further development.
Genetic and Economic Analysis for the Relationship between Udder Health and Milk Production Traits in Friesian Cows
El-Awady, H.G. ; Oudah, E.Z.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1514~1524
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10328
A total of 4,752 monthly lactation records of Friesian cows during the period from 2000 to 2005 were used to estimate genetic parameters and to determine the effect of udder health on milk production traits. Three milk production traits were studied: 305-day milk yield (305-dMY), 305-day fat yield (305-dFY) and 305-day protein yield (305-dPY). Four udder health traits were studied: somatic cell count (SCC), mastitis (MAST), udder health status (UDHS) with 10 categories and udder quarter infection (UDQI) with 7 categories. Mixed model least square analysis was used to estimate the fixed effects of month and year of calving and parity (P) on different studied traits. Sire and dam within sire were included in the model as random effects. Data were analyzed using Multi-trait Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology (MTDFREML) to estimate genetic parameters. Unadjusted means of 305-dMY, 305-dFY, 305-dPY and SCC were 3,936, 121, 90 kg and 453,000 cells/ml, respectively. Increasing SCC from 300,000 to 2,000,000 cells/ml increased UDQI from 5.51 to 23.2%. Losses in monthly and lactationally milk yields per cow ranged from 17 to 93 and from 135 to 991 kg, respectively. The corresponding losses in monthly and lactationally milk yields return per cow at the same level of SCC ranged from 29.8 to 163 and from 236 to 1,734 Egyptian pounds, respectively. Heritability estimates of 305-dMY, 305-dFY, 305-dPY, SCC, MAST, UDHS, UDQI were 0.31
0.03, and 0.09
0.01, respectively. All milk production traits showed slightly unfavorable negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with SCC, MAST, UDHS and UDQI. There were positive and high genetic correlations between SCC and each of MAST (0.85
0.7), UDHS (0.87
0.10) and UDQI (0.77
0.06) and between MAST and each of UDHS (0.91
0.11) and UDQI (0.83
0.07). It could be concluded that the economic losses from mastitis and high SCC are considerable. The high genetic correlation between SCC and clinical mastitis (CM) suggest that the selection for lower SCC would help to reduce or eliminate the undesirable correlated responses of clinical mastitis associated with selection for increasing milk yield. Additionally, it is recommended also that if direct information on under health traits is not available, measures of SCC can be inclusion in a selection criteria to improve the income from dairy cows.
A Restricted Partition Method to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for a Carcass Trait in Hanwoo
Lee, Ji-Hong ; Kim, Dong-Chul ; Kim, Jong-Joo ; Lee, Jea-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1525~1528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11154
The purpose of this study was to detect SNPs that were responsible for a carcass trait in Hanwoo populations. A non-parametric model applying a restricted partition method (RPM) was used, which exploited a partitioning algorithm considering statistical criteria for multiple comparison testing. Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from the Hanwoo Improvement Center, National Agricultural Cooperation Federation, Korea, in which the pedigree structure comprised 229 steers from 16 paternal half-sib proven sires that were born in Namwon or Daegwanryong livestock testing station between spring of 2002 and fall of 2003. A carcass trait, longissimus dorsi muscle area for each steer was measured after slaughter at approximately 722 days. Three SNPs (19_1, 18_4 and 28_2) near the microsatellite marker ILSTS035 on BTA6, around which the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for meat quality were previously detected, were used in this study. The RPM analyses resulted in two significant interaction effects between SNPs (19_1 and 18_4) and (19_1 and 28_2) at
= 0.05 level. However, under a general linear (parametric) model no interaction effect between any pair of the three SNPs was detected, while only one main effect for SNP19_1 was found for the trait. Also, under another non-parametric model using a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method, only one interaction effect of the two SNPs (19_1 and 28_2) explained the trait significantly better than the parametric model with the main effect of SNP19_1. Our results suggest that RPM is a good alternative to model choices that can find associations of the interaction effects of multiple SNPs for quantitative traits in livestock species.
Validation of Gene Silencing Using RNA Interference in Buffalo Granulosa Cells
Monga, Rachna ; Datta, Tirtha Kumar ; Singh, Dheer ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1529~1540
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11092
Silencing of a specific gene using RNAi (RNA interference) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, information on RNAi for analysis of gene function in farm animals is relatively nil. In the present study, we have validated the interfering effects of siRNA (small interfering RNA) using both quantitative and qualitative gene silencing in buffalo granulosa cells. Qualitative gene knockdown was validated using a fluorescent vector, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and fluorescently labeled siRNA (Cy3) duplex. While quantitatively, siRNA targeted against the luciferase and CYP19 mRNA was used to validate the technique. CYP19 gene, a candidate fertility gene, was selected as a model to demonstrate the technique optimization. However, to sustain the expression of CYP19 gene in culture conditions using serum is difficult because granulosa cells have the tendency to luteinize in presence of serum. Therefore, serum free culture conditions were optimized for transfection and were found to be more suitable for the maintenance of CYP19 gene transcripts in comparison to culture conditions with serum. Decline in fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was observed following co-transfection with plasmid generating siRNA targeted against EGFP gene. Quantitative decrease in luminescence was seen when co-transfected with siRNA against the luciferase gene. A significant suppressive effect on the mRNA levels of CYP19 gene at 100 nM siRNA concentration was observed. Also, measurement of estradiol levels using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) showed a significant decline in comparison to control. In conclusion, the present study validated gene silencing using RNAi in cultured buffalo granulosa cells which can be used as an effective tool for functional analysis of target genes.
Effect of MEM Vitamins Supplementation of In vitro Maturation Medium and In vitro Culture Medium on the Development of Porcine Embryos
Kim, J.Y. ; Lee, E.J. ; Park, J.M. ; Park, H.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1541~1546
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11195
This study was carried out to examine the influence of minimum essential medium (MEM) vitamins supplementation to in vitro maturation medium and in vitro culture medium on the development of porcine embryos. Porcine embryo development was investigated following cultivation in both in vitro maturation and culture medium with the supplementation of MEM vitamins (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%) using immature oocytes collected from the ovary of prepubertal gilts. Embryo development was observed and the total cell number in each blastocyst generated under the culture conditions was quantified following supplementation of the medium. The embryonic development rate of the blastocyst and hatched blastocyst was higher, but not significantly so, when 0.4% MEM vitamins were supplemented to the in vitro maturation medium of the porcine oocyte. Interestingly, the total number of cells in the blastocyst was significantly higher in the in vitro maturation MEM vitamins supplemented group compared to either the untreated group or the group which had MEM vitamins supplemented to both in vitro maturation and in vitro culture medium simultaneously (p<0.05). Therefore, the supplementation of 0.4% MEM vitamins to the in vitro mature medium has a beneficial effect on the embryonic development of in vitro produced blastocysts derived from the immature porcine oocytes.
Substituting Bakery Waste for Barley Grains in Fattening Diets for Awassi Lambs
Hindiyeh, M.Y. ; Haddad, S.G. ; Haddad, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1547~1551
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10332
Bakery waste (BW) is much cheaper than barley (20 to 40% the price of barley). Bakery waste and barley grain have similar chemical composition; they contain 99 and 97% organic matter (OM), 1.1 and 1.8% fat, 18 and 15% neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 14.0 and 14.5% crude protein (CP), respectively (DM basis). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of substituting BW for barley grain in high concentrate fattening diets for lambs on nutrient intake, growth and carcass characteristics. Forty Awassi lambs (21.75
1 kg) weaned at the age of 65 days were assigned randomly to four experimental fattening diets differing in BW ratio in a completely randomized design. The control diet (CON) contained 20, 60, 11, 7, and 2% (DM basis) wheat straw, barley grain, soybean meal, corn grain, and minerals and vitamin mix, respectively. Bakery waste substituted barley grain by 10, 20 and 30% of the diet DM in the LBW, MBW and HBW diets, respectively. The experiment lasted for 56 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) decreased (p<0.05) in LBW diet compared to the CON diet by approximately 10%. No further reduction in DMI was observed with the higher substitution levels. Metabolizable energy intake for the CON diet (3.6 Mcal/d) was also reduced (p<0.05) compared with LBW, MBW and HBW diets (3.4, 3.4 and 3.3 Mcal/d, respectively). Final body weight for lambs fed the CON diet (34.8 kg) was higher (p<0.05) compared with lambs fed the LBW, MBW and HBW diets (30.6, 32.0 and 31.1 kg, respectively). Growth rate for lambs fed the CON diet (232 g/d) was also higher (p<0.05) compared to lambs fed the LBW, MBW and HBW diets (170, 189, and 167 g/d, respectively). Feed to gain ratio was higher (p<0.05) for lambs fed the LBW, MBW and HBW diets (7.2, 6.6 and 7.3, respectively) compared with lambs that consumed the CON diet (5.7). Body weight gain cost was reduced by approximately 8% by the MBW and HBW diets as compared with the CON diet. Dressing percentage, full gut weight, empty gut weight and liver weights were all unaffected by the BW addition to the diets and averaged 48.9%, 6.8 kg, 2.8 kg and 0.444 kg, respectively. However, fat tail weight was increased (p<0.05) with the higher levels of the BW inclusion. In conclusion, substituting BW for barley grain reduced DMI and growth performance. However, when BW substituted barley grain at the 20 and 30% of the diet DM, body weight gain cost was reduced by approximately 8%.
Effect of Triticale Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Ruminal Bacterial Populations as Revealed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Wu, R.B. ; Munns, K. ; Li, J.Q. ; John, S.J. ; Wierenga, K. ; Sharma, R. ; Mcallister, T.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1552~1559
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10388
Real time PCR was used in this study to determine the effect of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (TDDGS) as a replacement for grain or barley silage in finishing diets on the presence of six classical ruminal bacterial species (Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Selenomonas ruminantium, Streptococcus bovis, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola and Fibrobacter succinogenes) within the rumen contents of feedlot cattle. This study was divided into a step-wise adaptation experiment (112 days) that examined the effects of adaptation to diets containing increasing levels of TDDGS up to 30% (n = 4), a short-term experiment comparing animals (n = 16) fed control, 20%, 25% or 30% TDDGS diets over 28 days, and a rapid transition experiment (56 days) where animals (n = 4) were rapidly switched from a diet containing 30% TDDGS to a barley-based diet with no TDDGS. It was found that feeding TDDGS as replacement for barley grain (control vs. 20% TDDGS) decreased 16S rRNA copy numbers of starch-fermenting S. ruminantium and S. bovis (p<0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), but did not alter 16S rRNA copy numbers of the other rumen bacteria. Furthermore, feeding TDDGS as a replacement barley silage (20% vs. 25% and 30% TDDGS) increased 16S rRNA copy numbers of S. ruminantium, M. elsdenii and F. succinogenes (p<0.001; p = 0.03 and p<0.001, respectively), but decreased (p<0.001) the 16S rRNA copy number of P. ruminicola. Upon removal of 30% TDDGS and return to the control diet, 16S rRNA copy numbers of S. ruminantium, M. elsdenii and F. succinogenes decreased (p = 0.01; p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively), but S. dextrinosolvens and S. bovis increased (p = 0.04 and p = 0.009, respectively). The results suggest that replacement of TDDGS for grain reduces 16S rRNA copy numbers of starch-fermenting bacteria, whereas substitution for barley silage increases 16S rRNA copy numbers of bacteria involved in fibre digestion and the metabolism of lactic acid. This outcome supports the contention that the fibre in TDDGS is highly fermentable.
Yield, Nutrient Characteristics, Ruminal Solubility and Degradability of Spent Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Substrates for Ruminants
Kim, Y.I. ; Cho, W.M. ; Hong, S.K. ; Oh, Y.K. ; Kwak, W.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1560~1568
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11076
This study was conducted to evaluate the yield, nutrient characteristics, ruminal solubility, degradability and disappearance of spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates for ruminants. The annual yield of spent Agaricus bisporus substrates was measured to be about 210,000 tons (M/T) in South Korea. The surface soil-removed spent substrates had nutritional characteristics of high crude ash (375 g/kg) and Ca (32 g/kg), medium protein (134 g/kg CP), and high fiber (384 g/kg NDF on a DM basis). Compared with initial mushroom substrates, spent mushroom substrates had twice higher (p<0.0001) CP content and 22.0% lower (p<0.0001) NDF content on an organic matter basis. Compared with raw rice straw, spent rice straw had much higher (p<0.05) predicted ruminal degradabilities and disappearances of DM and CP and a little lower (p<0.05) predicted degradability and disappearance of NDF. In conclusion, the general feed-nutritional value of spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates appeared to improve after cultivation of mushrooms.
Changes in Metabolites Concentration in Nguni and Crossbred Calves on Natural Pasture
Mapekula, M. ; Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1569~1576
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11050
Accurate assessment of the nutritional status of Nguni cattle is becoming increasingly important in determining their mechanism for adaptation to challenging environments. Changes in body weights and concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), phosphorus (SIP), calcium and magnesium were determined in Nguni and crossbred calves raised on natural pasture from birth until weaning. At an early age, TP concentration in crossbreds was higher (p<0.05) than that of Nguni calves. However, TP levels increased with age in Nguni calves so that Nguni's had higher (p<0.05) TP levels than crossbreds at weaning. Nguni calves had higher (p<0.05) glucose concentrations than crossbreds in all the ages except in the third month. Serum NEFA levels in Nguni calves were higher (p<0.05) than in crossbreds at all ages except for the second month. Calcium levels decreased (p<0.05) with age in both genotypes. The blood TP concentrations tended to decrease (p<0.05) as body weight increased up to 80 kg, thereafter blood TP concentration increased (p<0.05) as body weight increased. Calcium concentrations in crossbred calves decreased (p<0.05) quadratically as the body weight increased. There was, however, a linear increase (p<0.05) in calcium concentrations in Nguni calves. The higher NEFA and TP concentrations at weaning and the TP increase in Nguni calves beyond 80 kg suggest that Nguni's utilise fibrous feeds better than crossbreds.
Effects of Synbiotics Containing Anaerobic Microbes and Prebiotics on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics and In situ Disappearance Rate of Fermented-TMR
Lee, Shin-Ja ; Shin, Nyeon-Hak ; Chu, Gyo-Moon ; Lee, Sung-Sill ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1577~1586
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11057
This study was carried out to estimate effects of synbiotics containing anaerobic microorganisms and prebiotics on in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ disappearance rate of fermented total mixed ration (F-TMR). For the in vitro trial, ninety vinyl bags were prepared to analyze temperature, pH, ammonia concentration, microbial growth rate and short chain fatty acid concentration. For the in situ trial, one hundred twenty nylon bags were prepared to analyze dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance rate. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (US) with prebiotics and probiotics from anaerobic mold (MS), bacteria (BS), yeast (YS) or compound (CS). It was found that temperatures at 14 and 21 days were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the YS and CS than in the others. The pH at 21 days was lower in the CS than in the US. The synbiotic treatments had significantly increased (p<0.05) ammonia concentration at 21 days. The DM disappearance at 72 h was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the MS and CS than in the others. ADF and NDF disappearance rate tended to increase at a rate similar to the DM disappearance rate. Therefore, this study suggests that synbiotics (probiotics with prebiotics) may partially help the quality of fermentation and digestibility of TMR (MS and CS) as fiber disappearance.
A Body Condition Scoring System for Bali Cattle
Soares, F.S. ; Dryden, G. McL. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1587~1594
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11070
Live weight, body length, hip and shoulder heights, heart girth, and metatarsal length were measured on 100 one to two years old Bali (Bos javanicus) bulls. Multiple regression of these measurements on live weight gave a prediction equation involving heart girth and body length (prediction
= 0.845). These measurements were also used to derive several frame scores (FS). Live weight (Lwt) divided by FS was used as an index of body condition. Lwt/(length+hip height) was normally distributed and highly correlated with other normally-distributed condition indexes. This index was used to define five body condition scores. These were used to develop a five-point body condition scoring system in which the amount of fleshing over the vertebral processes, ribs, hindquarters, tail head, hooks, at the top of the neck, and the shoulders, the development of wrinkles in the skin above the hock and the neck, and the size of the dewlap, were used to describe the different body condition scores. Animals of score 1 had prominent hooks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs, and hollow hindquarters and flat tailhead. Score 5 animals had rounded hindquarters, well-filled upper hind legs, small mounds of soft tissue were apparent on the tailhead, their hooks, necks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs were well covered, and the dewlap was prominent.
Dried Sugarcane Press Residue as a Potential Feed Ingredient Source of Nutrients for Poultry
Suresh, B.N. ; Reddy, B.S.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1595~1600
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11054
Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a byproduct from the sugar industry was evaluated for it's nutrient and energetic quality in broilers and layers. The composition of SPR included (% DM): CP-11.76 (methionine-2.21, cystine-1.05, lysine-4.85, threonine-5.48% of CP), EE-7.87 (palmitic acid-30.3, stearic acid-4.1, oleic aicd-17.2, linoleic acid-38.0, linolenic acid-5.4% of EE), CF-10.08, TA-21.08 (Ca-3.87, P-1.10, Mg-0.95%, Fe-3500, Mn-284, Zn-113, Cu-61.5, Co-5.0 ppm and AIA-4.93%) and NFE-48.35% indicating that SPR is a valuable source of both organic and inorganic nutrients for poultry. The metabolic trials revealed the average ME of SPR as 749, 842 and 1,270 kcal/kg, respectively in broilers and 844, 936 and 1,031 kcal/kg in layers, at 10, 20 and 30% inclusion levels, respectively. Further, the fortification of SPR incorporated diets with biotechnological products viz., lipid utilizing agents (lipase and lecithin) or NSP degrading enzymes and their combination did not improve the ME content of such diets.
Effects of Varying Creep Feed Duration on Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Performance and Behavior of Piglet and Sow
Yan, L. ; Jang, H.D. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1601~1606
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11181
32 sows (Landrace
Yorkshire) and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of varying creep feed duration on pre-weaning, post-weaning performance of piglets and sows. Sows were randomly assigned with 1, 2 or 3+ parities into 1 of 4 treatments. Creep feeding was initiated at day 5, 10 and 15 from birth for treatment 1 (TRT1), 2 (TRT2) and (TRT3), respectively, with a control group provided no creep feed. In this study, TRT1 and TRT2 diets had reduced (p<0.05) the post-weaning diarrhea scores in piglets and the weaning-to-estrus interval and cortisol concentration in sows at weaning time compared with other treatments. Dietary TRT1 led to a higher (p<0.05) epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations than other treatments. No differences (p>0.05) were noted in suckling, sleeping, fighting frequency and mortality in piglet and eating, standing times, backfat and body weight loss in sows. In conclusion, creep feed initiated from day 5 and 10 reduce diarrhea scores in piglets and benefit the estrus interval in sows compared with those initiated from day 15 and no-creep feeding diets, indicating creep feeding could improve the pigs and sows performance, especially those initiated from day 5 and 10.
Nutritional Evaluation of Canola Protein Concentrate for Broiler Chickens
Thacker, P.A. ; Petri, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1607~1614
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11161
This trial was conducted to determine the effects of including canola protein concentrate in diets fed to broiler chickens on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance (0-21 days). A total of 180, day-old, male broiler chicks weighing an average of 52.8
0.6 g were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15% canola protein concentrate added at the expense of canola meal. There were five birds per pen and six replicate pens per treatment. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the 21-day experiment. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker and was fed throughout the experimental period. The digestibility of dry matter, energy and phosphorus increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of canola protein concentrate. Although nutrient digestibility was higher for birds fed diets containing canola protein concentrate, these improvements did not translate into improvements in broiler performance. Weight gain was unaffected (p = 0.24) by level of canola protein concentrate. Feed intake was significantly increased (p<0.01) with the result that feed conversion tended to be poorer (p = 0.07) for birds fed diets containing canola protein concentrate. Mortality was also unaffected (p = 0.56) by dietary treatment.
Effects of Carbohydrate and Water Temperature on Nutrient and Energy Digestibility of Juvenile and Grower Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli
Lee, Sang-Min ; Pham, Minh-Anh ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1615~1622
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11207
A factorial (
) experimental design was employed to determine apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM), protein, lipid, energy and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of the test diets containing either
-potato starch (A-PS),
-potato starch (B-PS),
-corn starch (B-CS) or dextrin (DEX) as dietary carbohydrate energy for juvenile (average weight 30 g) and grower (average weight 300 g) rockfish reared at 13
. Chromic oxide was used as an inert marker. Feces were collected by fecal collectors attached to rearing tanks from triplicate groups of juvenile and grower rockfish. Digestibilities of DM, energy and NFE of the test diets were significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate and water temperature (p<0.01), but not by fish size. DM digestibility of the fish fed the A-PS diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed other treatments, except for the DEX diet at 20
. DM digestibility of rockfish fed the B-CS diet was significantly lower than that of other diets. A similar pattern was observed in apparent digestibility of energy. NFE digestibility of fish fed the test diets was significantly affected by carbohydrate and significantly correlated to DM (r = 0.97, p<0.01) and energy (r = 0.99, p<0.01) digestibilities, regardless of water temperature and fish size. NFE digestibility of the fish fed the
-starch diets was relatively lower compared to that of the
-starch diets, and ranged from 35 to 43% and 20 to 27% for B-PS and B-CS, respectively. The present findings indicate that carbohydrate and water temperature significantly affected digestibilities of dry matter, energy and nitrogen-free extract of rockfish. Among dietary carbohydrates,
-potato starch could be effectively used as dietary carbohydrate energy for rockfish at 13
Early Growth Response of Broilers to Dietary Lysine at Fixed Ratio to Crude Protein and Essential Amino Acids
Panda, A.K. ; Rao, S.V. Rama ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Lavanya, G. ; Reddy, E. Pradeep Kumar ; Sunder, G. Shyam ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1623~1628
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11080
The effects of dietary lysine (Lys) at a fixed ratio to crude protein (CP) and essential amino acids (EAA) on early growth response of broilers were studied. Four diets were formulated to contain similar metabolizable energy (ME, 2,950 kcal/kg) but contained graded levels of incremental Lys (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4%) while also increasing the dietary CP and EAA (methionine, methionine+ cystine, threonine and tryptophan) to maintain a constant ratio with Lys. Each diet was fed at random to 10 replicates of 6 chicks each throughout the experimental period (1-21 d). At the lowest concentration of Lys of 1.1% (19.04% CP), body weight gain (BWG) was lowest and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorest. The BWG increased and FCR decreased linearly as dietary Lys increased upto 1.3% (22.5% CP). Lowest feed consumption was observed in the dietary group that contained 1.1% Lys (19.04% CP) in the diet. Increasing the concentration of Lys to 1.2% (20.77% CP), significantly increased the feed consumption. The concentrations of protein, calcium, phosphorus and cholesterol in serum were not influenced by the variation in Lys contents in the diet. The humoral immune response as measured by antibody titre in response to SRBC inoculation was significantly lower in the diets containing 1.1% Lys compared to 1.4%. It is concluded that the Lys requirement of broilers is 1.3% (22.5% CP) during 0 to 21 days of age for eliciting optimum performance when a fixed ratio of Lys to CP (1:17.31) and essential AA is maintained (1:0.47 Met; 1:0.56 Thr; 1:0.17 Try).
Pork Production in China, Japan and South Korea
Oh, S.H. ; Whitley, N.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1629~1636
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11155
Global pork markets are becoming more competitive, riding the wind of the bilateral free trade agreement. China is the world's largest pork producer with nearly 50% of the world's total production. China's fast growing economy has provided its people with higher purchasing power, resulting in a rapid expansion of the Chinese swine industry over the past decades. Worldwide, China consumes the greatest amount of pork and it is believed that this trend will continue. Japan is the world's largest pork importing country, even though it also produces a lot of pork. The Japanese swine industry encounters weighty obstacles in production costs and environmental limitations which result in reduced domestic supply and creates the situation in which Japan has to import a significant amount of pork for their consumption. South Korea is also a large buyer of pork, with a status greatly influenced by the struggle that the country has faced with Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) which occurred in 2000, 2002 and 2010. High production costs, low production efficiency, and forced culling following the FMD outbreak resulted in the loss of many hog farming households in the country, reducing supply of domestic pork in the face of continued demand. Overall, pork production in these economically important countries can greatly impact the industry globally. The goal of this review paper is to describe pork production in China, Japan, and South Korea and discuss these countries' role in global pork export markets.