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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Discrimination of Korean Native Chicken Populations Using SNPs from mtDNA and MHC Polymorphisms
Hoque, M.R. ; Lee, S.H. ; Jung, K.C. ; Kang, B.S. ; Park, M.N. ; Lim, H.K. ; Choi, K.D. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1637~1643
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11144
Korean native chickens are a very valuable chicken population in Korea and their prices are higher than that of commercial broilers. In order to discriminate two commercial Korean native chicken populations (CCP1 and CCP2), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from mitochondrial (mt) DNA D-loop sequences and LEI0258 marker polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region were investigated. A total of 718 birds from nine populations were sampled and 432 mtDNA sequences were obtained. Of these, two commercial Korean native chicken populations (363 birds) were used for investigation of their genetic relationship and breed differentiation. The sequence data classified the chickens into 20 clades, with the largest number of birds represented in clade 1. Analysis of the clade distribution indicated the genetic diversity and relation among the populations. Based on the mtDNA sequence analysis, three selected SNPs from mtDNA polymorphisms were used for the breed identification. The combination of identification probability (Pi) between CCP1 and CCP2 using SNPs from mtDNA and LEI0258 marker polymorphisms was 86.9% and 86.1%, respectively, indicating the utility of these markers for breed identification. The results will be applicable in designing breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chicken populations and also used for the development of breed identification markers.
Detection of Mendelian and Parent-of-origin Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat Quality in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace
Choi, B.H. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Alam, M. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, T.H. ; Kim, K.S. ; Kim, J.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1644~1650
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11166
This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting meat quality in an
reference population of Korean native pig and Landrace crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 411 progeny from 38
full-sib families, and 133 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-average map of the 17 autosomes. The data set was analyzed using least squares Mendelian and parent-of-origin interval-mapping models. Lack-of-fit tests between models were used to characterize the QTL for mode of gene expressions. A total of 10 (32) QTL were detected at the 5% genome (chromosome)-wise level for the analyzed traits. Of the 42 QTL detected, 13 QTL were classified as Mendelian, 10 as paternal, 14 as maternal, and 5 as partial expressed QTL, respectively. Among the QTL detected at 5% genome-wise level, four QTL had Mendelian mode of inheritance on SSCs 5, 10, 12, and 13 for cooking loss, drip loss, crude lipid and crude protein, respectively; two QTL maternal inheritance for pH at 24-h and shear force on SSC11; three QTL paternal inheritance for CIE b and Hunter b on SSC9 and for cooking loss on SSC15; and one QTL partial expression for crude ash on SSC13, respectively. Most of the Mendelian QTL (9 of 13) had a dominant mode of gene action, suggesting potential utilization of heterosis for genetic improvement of meat quality within the cross population via marker-assisted selection.
Characterization of QTL for Growth and Meat Quality in Combined Pig QTL Populations
Li, Y. ; Choi, B.H. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Alam, M. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, K.S. ; Baek, K.H. ; Kim, J.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1651~1659
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11221
This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thirteen growth and meat quality traits in pigs by combing QTL experimental populations. Two F2 reference populations that were sired by Korea native pig (KNP) and dammed by Landrace (LN) or Yorkshire (YK) were generated to construct linkage maps using 123 genetic markers (mostly microsatellites) and to perform QTL analysis on porcine chromosomes (SSCs) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 15. A set of line-cross models was applied to detect QTL, and a series of lack-of-fit tests between the models was used to characterize inheritance mode of QTL. A total of 23, 11 and 19 QTL were detected at 5% chromosome-wise level for the data sets of KNP
YK cross and joint sets of the two cross populations, respectively. With the joint data, two Mendelian expressed QTL for live weight and cooking loss were detected on SSC3 and SSC15 at 1% chromosome-wise level, respectively. Another Mendelian expressed QTL was detected for CIE a on SSC7 at 5% genome-wise level. Our results suggest that QTL analysis by combining data from two QTL populations increase power for QTL detection, which could provide more accurate genetic information in subsequent marker-assisted selection.
Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Hanwoo Korean Cattle
Lee, S.H. ; Cho, Y.M. ; Lim, D. ; Kim, H.C. ; Choi, B.H. ; Park, H.S. ; Kim, O.H. ; Kim, S. ; Kim, T.H. ; Yoon, D. ; Hong, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1660~1665
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11165
This study presents a linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis and effective population size (
) for the entire Hanwoo Korean cattle genome, which is the first LD map and effective population size estimate ever calculated for this breed. A panel of 4,525 markers was used in the final LD analysis. The pairwise
statistic of SNPs up to 50 Mb apart across the genome was estimated. A mean value of
= 0.23 was observed in pairwise distances of <25 kb and dropped to 0.1 at 40 to 60 kb, which is similar to the average intermarker distance used in this study. The proportion of SNPs in useful LD (
) was 20% for the distance of 10 and 20 kb between SNPs. Analyses of past effective population size estimates based on direct estimates of recombination rates from SNP data demonstrated that a decline in effective population size to
= 98.1 occurred up to three generations ago.
Sialoglycoproteins of Mammalian Erythrocyte Membranes: A Comparative Study
Sharma, Savita ; Gokhale, Sadashiv M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1666~1673
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11162
The presence of sialoglycoproteins (SGPs) in the membranes from goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) erythrocytes was investigated by partial purification with a chloroform-methanol extraction method followed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate - Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to human (Homo sapiens) erythrocytes. The results show that mammalian erythrocytes possess clear differences in the SGPs numbers and molecular weights although all animals studied in this experiment are from the same class i.e. mammalia. The SGPs number in human, goat, buffalo and pig are four (PAS-1 to PAS-4), ten (PAS-GI to PAS-GX), seven (PAS-BI to PAS-BVII) and four (PAS-PI to PAS-IV) respectively as indicated by staining the polyacrylamide gel with sialoglycoprotein-specific Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) stain. The new SGPs could be observed only after the partial purification of membrane fractions named as PAS-HI with molecular weight (Mr) 190 kDa and PAS-HII 150 kDa in human, PAS-BIA in buffalo and PAS-PIA and PAS-PIVA in pig. The gels were also stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) and Silver stain to check the contamination of other membrane proteins in the purified fractions. The quantitative distribution of SGPs was also determined by densitometry. Present study indicates that there are some basic differences in mammalian erythrocyte membrane SGPs, especially with respect to their number and molecular weights indicating major structural variations.
Effects of the Combination of Glucose, Chromium Picolinate, and Vitamin C on Lipid Metabolism in Steers
Lee, Hong-Gu ; Yin, Jin-Long ; Xu, Cheng-Xiong ; Hong, Zhong-Shan ; Lee, Zhe-Hu ; Jin, Yong-Cheng ; Choi, Chang-Weon ; Lee, Do-Hyeung ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Choi, Yun-Jaie ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1674~1680
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11073
This study was conducted to examine the effects of glucose, chromium picolinate (CrP), and vitamin C (Vit C) on lipid metabolism in Korean native steers fitted with indwelling catheters. A total of 12 Korean native steers were randomly allocated to the following treatments: 1) normal control diet, 2) same as 1) +250 g of glucose by intravenous (IV) infusion, 3) same as 2)+13.5 g CrP administered orally, and 4) same as 3)+2.52 g Vit C by IV infusion. Glucose, Vit C, and CrP treatments were administered for five days. At days 1 and 3, serum insulin was higher in treated animals than in those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in the steers on treatment 2), control+13.5 g CrP, was lower than those on other treatments at 90 min post-infusion on days 1 and 3 (p<0.05). The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-
)2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut 4) in the longissimus muscle of steers on treatment 2 was higher than those on other treatments. In conclusion, the results suggest that CrP is associated with the regulation of gene expression involved in adipogenesis.
Dietary Tea Catechin Inclusion Changes Plasma Biochemical Parameters, Hormone Concentrations and Glutathione Redox Status in Goats
Zhong, Rongzhen ; Xiao, Wenjun ; Ren, Guopu ; Zhou, Daowei ; Tan, Chuanyan ; Tan, Zhiliang ; Han, Xuefeng ; Tang, Shaoxun ; Zhou, Chuanshe ; Wang, Min ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1681~1689
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11007
The beneficial effects of tea catechins (TCs) are related not only to their antioxidant potential but also to the improvement of animal meat quality. In this study, we assessed the effects of dietary TC supplementation on plasma biochemical parameters, hormone responses, and glutathione redox status in goats. Forty Liuyang goats were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 animals/group) that were assigned to four experimental diets with TC supplementation at 4 levels (0, 2,000, 3,000 or 4,000 mg TC/kg DM feed). After a 60-day feeding trial, all goats were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary TC treatment had no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, however, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.01), plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.01), and glucose (p<0.001) decreased and total protein (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) increased with the feeding time extension, and day 20 was the turning point for most of changes. Interactions were found in glutathione (p<0.001) and the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (p<0.05) in whole blood between treatment and feeding time. Oxidized glutathione in blood was reduced (p<0.05) by 2,000 mg TC/kg feed supplementation, and a similar result was observed in longissimus dorsi muscle. Though plasma glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) and glutathione reductase (p<0.05) activities were affected by treatment and feeding time interactions, and glutathione S-transferases activity increased with feeding day extension, no changed values appeared in longissimus dorsi muscle. In conclusion, dietary TC supplementation affected the concentrations of some blood metabolites and accelerated GSH depletion in the blood of goats. In terms of less high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the highest insulin and IGF-I concentrations, the highest ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in plasma, the dosage of 2,000 mg TC/kg feed might be desirable for growing goats to prevent glutathione depletion and keep normal physiological metabolism.
Effects of Moisture and a Saponin-based Surfactant during Barley Processing on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality of Feedlot Steers and on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation
Wang, Y. ; Gibb, D. ; Greer, D. ; McAllister, T.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1690~1698
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10437
Feedlot and in vitro ruminal experiments were conducted to assess the effects of saponin-containing surfactant applied during tempering of barley grain on cattle growth performance and on ruminal fermentation. In the feedlot experiment, treatments with three barley grain/barley silage based diets were prepared using barley grain at 7.7% moisture (dry, D), after tempering to 18% moisture (M), or after tempering with a saponin-based surfactant included at 60 ml/t (MS). Each treatment was rolled at settings determined previously to yield optimally processed barley. A total of 180 newly weaned British
Charolais steers were fed three diets in 18 pens for a 63-d backgrounding period and 91-d finishing period to determine feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment to measure the carcass characteristics. Tempering reduced (p<0.001) volume weight and processing index, but processing characteristics were similar between MS and M. Tempering increased (p<0.05) growth during backgrounding only, compared with D, but did not affect feed intake in either phase. During backgrounding, feed efficiency was improved with tempering, but during finishing and overall this response was only observed with the surfactant. Tempering did not affect carcass weight, fat content or meat yield. Surfactant doubled the proportion of carcasses grading AAA. In the in vitro experiment, barley (500 mg; ground to <1.0 mm or steam-rolled) was incubated in buffered ruminal fluid (40 ml) without or with surfactant up to 20
DM substrate for 24 h. Surfactant increased (p<0.05) apparent DM disappearance and starch digestibility but reduced productions of gas and the volatile fatty acid and acetate:propionate ratio, irrespective of barley particle size. Compared with feeding diets prepared with non-tempered barley, tempering with surfactant increased the feed efficiency of feedlot steers. This may have arisen from alteration in processing characteristics of barley grain by surfactant rather than its direct effect on rumen microbial fermentation.
Eco-friendly Production of Maize Using Struvite Recovered from Swine Wastewater as a Sustainable Fertilizer Source
Liu, YingHao ; Rahman, M.M. ; Kwag, Jung-Hoon ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Ra, Chang-Six ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1699~1705
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11107
Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) was recovered from swine wastewater and the feasibility of reutilizing it as a slowly-releasing fertilizer was evaluated. Maize growth was investigated with normal and high application rates of MAP and a fused super phosphate (FSP) fertilizer. A total of 5 treatments (
= MAP based on 30 kg P
= FSP based on 30 kg P
+urea equivalent to nitrogen of MAP applied in
= MAP based on 40 kg P
= FSP based on 40 kg P
+urea equivalent to nitrogen of MAP applied in
) were arranged with 3 replications. In the case of height and circumference, significant differences were found between controls and treated maize plants (p<0.01). However, no statistical differences were found between MAP- and FSP-urea treated maize. Leaf area and green biomass yield were significantly (p<0.01) higher in the treated group than control. Leaf area was also found significantly higher (p<0.01) in the higher MAP- treated group (2,374
) than other treatments.
emission was found to be lower in MAP treated soil than that from FSP-urea treated soil, which might be due to the slow releasing pattern of MAP. It could be assumed from the results that MAP would be an eco-friendly sustainable fertilizer source for crop production.
Effects of Calcium Fertilization on Oxalate of Napiergrass and on Mineral Concentrations in Blood of Sheep
Rahman, M.M. ; Nakagawa, T. ; Niimi, M. ; Fukuyama, K. ; Kawamura, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1706~1710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11101
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium (Ca) fertilization on oxalate content in napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) and on some blood parameters of sheep. Re-growth napiergrass was grown with or without Ca fertilizer and offered to sheep. Eight sheep, divided into two groups of 4 animals each were used. Calcium-fertilized napiergrass was offered daily to the animals as experimental treatment, whereas without Ca-fertilized napiergrass was given to the animals as control. Results showed that there was a trend to lower soluble and total oxalate concentrations in Ca-fertilized grass than control. The Ca-fertilized grass contained (p<0.05) lower concentrations of K and Mg than control, though Ca fertilization had no affect (p>0.05) on Ca and Na concentrations in plants. Feeding of Ca-fertilized grass had no affect on the feed consumption, blood Mg level and daily gain of sheep. However, sheep fed control grass had lower (p<0.05) blood Ca level than sheep fed Ca-fertilized grass. Our findings suggest that Ca fertilization might minimize the negative effects of oxalate.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Glutathione on Blood Biochemical Changes and Growth Performances of Holstein Calves
Kim, Jong-Hyeong ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Lee, Hyun-June ; Ki, Kwang-Seok ; Lee, Wang-Shik ; Ha, Jong-K. ; Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1711~1717
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11177
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of glutathione (GSH) on health, solid feed consumption, nutrient intake, body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency, blood metabolites and the occurrence of diarrhea in Holstein neonatal calves. The calves were fed plain milk as a control (CON) or milk with GSH supplementation. Sixteen calves were separated from their mothers immediately after birth, moved into individual cages and fed colostrum for the first three days. For GSH supplementation, three grams of GSH powder were mixed in 1.8 L of heat-treated milk and placed in a plastic bottle with a rubber nipple. The calves were fed GSH-supplemented milk only once out of four daily feedings. For the first 25 d, calves were fed 1.8 L of milk four times per day. Milk feeding frequency was reduced to three times per day from days 26 to 30, followed by twice a day from days 31 to 44, and once a day from days 45 to 49, after which they were weaned at day 50. Body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and growth performance were monitored until day 70. The dietary supplementation of GSH had no effect on daily feed intake and growth performance in growing calves. Hematological results revealed red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was lower, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly higher in calves fed GSH. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were lower in calves fed GSH. Rectal temperature at day 70 was higher in calves that did not receive GSH, while mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH. It is concluded from the present study that BW gain, total dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, and breathing rate did not differ between groups. However, there were some positive blood parameters and the mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH compared to CON which did not receive GSH. With the results obtained, supplementation of GSH is highly recommended.
Effects of Keratinase on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology, Intestinal Ecology and Inflammatory Response of Weaned Piglets Fed Diets with Different Levels of Crude Protein
Wang, D. ; Piao, X.S. ; Zeng, Z.K. ; Lu, T. ; Zhang, Q. ; Li, P.F. ; Xue, L.F. ; Kim, S.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1718~1728
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11132
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the in vitro ability of keratinase to hydrolyze soybean glycinin and
-conglycinin and to evaluate the in vivo effects of keratinase when included in corn-soybean diets with different levels of crude protein and fed to nursery pigs. In experiment 1, a saturated keratinase solution (1 ml) was added to two blank controls of either glycinin or
-conglycinin resulting in the hydrolysis of 94.74% glycinin and 88.89%
-conglycinin. In experiment 2, 190 pigs (8.3
0.63 kg BW) were allotted to one of four treatments in a 2
2 factorial arrangement on the basis of body weight, and sex was balanced among the pens. The effects of crude protein (19 vs. 22%) and keratinase (0 vs. 0.05%) were studied. Each treatment was applied to six pens with seven (two pens) or eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 21 d. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved (p<0.05) with keratinase supplementation while feed intake was reduced (p<0.05). Keratinase supplementation increased (p<0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, energy, crude protein and phosphorus. Keratinase supplementation also increased n-butyric acid in the cecum and colon, lactobacilli and total anaerobe counts in the colon as well as the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the ileum. Additionally, fecal score, ammonia nitrogen and branch chain volatile fatty acids in the colon, E. coli and total aerobe counts in the colon, crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum as well as serum interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 concentrations were also decreased (p<0.05) by keratinase supplementation. A reduction in dietary crude protein decreased (p<0.05) colon ammonia nitrogen concentration and cecal propionic acid and branch chain volatile fatty acid concentrations. In addition, cecal E. coli counts, colon total anaerobe counts, ileal crypt depth, and serum interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 concentrations were also decreased (p<0.05) with the reduction of dietary crude protein. With the exception of fecal scores, there were no significant interactions between crude protein and keratinase. This study provides evidence that dietary keratinase supplementation improved nursery pig performance by improving intestinal morphology and ecology, thus improving nutrient digestibility and alleviating the inflammatory response.
Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality in Broilers, Fed Flaxseed Meal
Mridula, D. ; Kaur, Daljeet ; Nagra, S.S. ; Barnwal, P. ; Gurumayum, Sushma ; Singh, K.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1729~1735
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11141
The effect of flaxseed meal on broiler performance, carcass characteristics, alpha-linolenic acid contents, and organoleptic characteristics of chicken meat was studied during a 42 day experiment. Broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 experimental groups and fed iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. Flaxseed meal did not affect the weekly body weight of broiler chicks during the first two weeks but thereafter weekly body weight reduced among flaxseed meal groups. At the end of
week, birds fed on 15% flaxseed meal showed a reduction of 8% in body weight compared to the control group. Control group had significantly higher weight gain with slightly higher feed consumption and better feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and energy efficiency ratio (EER) than the flaxseed meal groups. Among the treatments, birds of 5 and 10% flaxseed meal groups had significantly better FCR, PER and EER compared to those of the 15% flaxseed meal group. The carcass characteristics data indicated a significant reduction in the eviscerated weight and breast yield at 15% flaxseed meal in the diet as compared to other dietary groups. However, the alpha-linolenic acid content in both breast and thigh meat was higher with an increasing level of flaxseed meal in the diets without affecting the sensory acceptability of meat. Based on the present study, up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the alpha-linolenic acid content in the broiler meat.
Effect of Corticosterone on Hypothalamic Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Expression in Broiler Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) Fed a High Energy Diet
Song, Zhigang ; Yuan, Lei ; Jiao, Hongchao ; Lin, Hai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1736~1743
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11164
This paper reports the peripheral and central effect of corticosterone on feed intake and hypothalamic corticotropinreleasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in chicks fed a high energy diet. Three experiments were conducted: corticosterone was supplemented to the feed (30 mg/kg diet), injected subcutaneously (s.c., 4 mg/kg body weight) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 4 ng). The results showed that dietary corticosterone significantly increased feed intake. The s.c. corticosterone administration increased feed intake within 1 to 3 h and at 1 to 5 h after the injection. The i.c.v. corticosterone administration increased feed intake within 1 h after the injection, but not at 1 to 3 h. Dietary supplementation and s.c. injection of corticosterone decreased the CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus. Therefore, peripheral corticosterone exerted a decreased effect on hypothalamic CRH mRNA levels, and corticosterone had a stimulating effect on feed intake in broiler chicks fed a high energy diet.
Effects of Feeding a Dry or Fermented Restaurant Food Residue Mixture on Performance and Blood Profiles of Rats
Kim, Young-Il ; Bae, Ji-Sun ; Jee, Kyung-Su ; McCaskey, Tom ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1744~1751
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11149
This study was conducted to compare the effects of feeding dry or fermented (aerobically or anaerobically with or without lactic acid bacteria) restaurant food residue mixture-containing diets on animal performance and blood profiles. Rats were used as the model animal for the simulation of laboratory rodents, rabbit or horse feeding and fed for 4 wks. The results were compared with feeding a dry diet (control) with the same ingredient composition as diets processed by aerobic and anaerobic methods. Feeding all the fermented diets tended to increase (p>0.05) average daily gain of rats resulting in improved (p<0.01) feed efficiency. Apparent digestibility of NDF was increased (p<0.05) by feeding the fermented diets, although digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, and NFC were not affected (p>0.05). Compared with the aerobically fermented diet, digestibility of ADF was increased (p<0.05) for the anaerobically fermented diet and for the 0.5% LAB culture plus anaerobically fermented diet. The digestibility of crude ash tended to increase (p>0.05) with feeding of the fermented diets. Feeding either of the fermented diets had little effects on serum nutrients, electrolytes, enzymes and blood cell profiles of rats except sodium and uric acid concentrations. These results showed that compared with feeding a dry food residue-containing diet, feeding aerobically or anaerobically fermented diets showed better animal performance as indicated by higher feed efficiency and rat growth rate. These improvements were attributed to the desirable dietary protein conservation during the food residue fermentation process and to higher total tract digestibilities of NDF and crude ash in the fermented food residue diets.
Effects of Squid Ink on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions and Immunity in Growing Broiler Chickens
Liu, Huazhong ; Luo, Ping ; Chen, Shaohong ; Shang, Jianghua ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1752~1756
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11128
This study was conducted to explore the effects of squid ink on growth performance, immune functions and antioxidant ability of broiler chickens during a period of six weeks. Either sex Arbor Acres broilers were equally allotted to 4 groups with 3 replicates of 20 chickens each. Broilers diets for the 4 test groups were prepared separately with starter and finisher phases. Control chickens were fed with basal diet and birds of group Exp 2, Exp 4 and Exp 6 were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 2%, 4% and 6% of squid ink, respectively. Broilers were sacrificed to investigate antioxidant parameters of sera, indices of thymus, spleen and bursa of fabricius and spleen lymphocyte proliferation, as well as growth performance on the
day. The results revealed that, i) squid ink promoted growth performance of broilers during days 22 to 42 and the whole trial period (p<0.05 or p<0.01); ii) squid ink elevated relative weight of the three immune organs during the starter phase and spleen lymphocyte proliferation throughout the experiment (p<0.05); iii) squid ink increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in sera from broilers during the whole period (p<0.05). The above results suggest that squid ink could improve growth performance, antioxidant ability and immune functions of growing broiler chickens and be employed in the development of feed additives for animals.
Effect of Aflatoxin on Feed Conversion Ratio in Broilers: A Meta-analysis
Suganthi, R. Umaya ; Suresh, K.P. ; Parvatham, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1757~1762
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11124
Aflatoxins are natural contaminants of poultry feeds and feed ingredients and cause liver damage, immunosuppression, reduction in performance and mortality in broilers. A number of studies have been carried out to study the effects of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio in broilers. The results on feed conversion ratio of 10 research articles in broilers fed with aflatoxin from first day of age to six weeks of age were compiled and were subjected to meta-analysis. Chi-square test and
(heterogeneity co-efficient) were applied to test for significance of heterogeneity of studies. To integrate results, fixed effect model by Inverse Variance method (IV method) was used when heterogeneity was insignificant and otherwise random effect model by DerSimonian and Laird Method (DL method) was used. The results of meta-analysis showed that the adverse effect of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio at the end of first week was negligible, second week was medium and third to six weeks was very large.
Effect of Dietary Grape Pomace Fermented by Saccharomyces boulardii on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs
Yan, L. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 12, 2011, Pages 1763~1770
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11189
Landrace] pigs with an average initial BW of 19.3
0.17 kg were used in this 15-wk growth experiment to investigate the effects of grape pomace fermented by Saccharomyces boulardii on pig growth performance, nutrient digestibility and quality attributes of pork. Pigs were allotted to 2 dietary treatments (7 replications) based on their initial BW in a randomized complete block design. The experimental treatments were: i) control (CON; basal diet), ii) FGPP (CON+30 g/kg fermented grape pomace product). Dietary FGPP improved (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), coefficient apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) during 35-70 d of the experiment. Similarly, pigs fed the FGPP supplemented diet had a higher N digestibility (p<0.05) in the finisher phase (day 71-105). Dietary FGPP increased (p<0.05) the marbling score, the redness (
) and yellowness (
) values, as well as the anti-oxidative ability (lower TBARS). The inclusion of FGPP reduced palmitic acid (C:16:0), stearic acid (C:18:0), arachidic acid (C:20:0) and SFA levels (p<0.05) in subcutaneous fat. An increased (p<0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n6), total PUFA and PUFA/SFA ratio were observed in the FGPP group. Dietary FGPP supplementation decreased the arachidic acid (C:20:0) level in longissimus muscle (LM). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of FGPP at the level of 30 g/kg improved the growth performance, nutrients digestibility and altered the fatty acid pattern in the subcutaneous fat as well as some attributes of pork meat.