Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Multiple Maternal Lineages of Vietnamese Local Chickens Inferred by Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences
Cuc, Ngo Thi Kim ; Simianer, Henner ; Groeneveld, Linn Fenna ; Weigend, Steffen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 155~161
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10155
In this study, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphism was used to assess genetic diversity of nine Vietnamese local chicken breeds. In addition, two Chinese breeds kept in Vietnam were included in the analysis for comparison. A 455-bp fragment of the mtDNA D-loop region was sequenced in 222 chickens of these 11 breeds. As reference, a skeleton was constructed based on chicken mtDNA sequences taken from the Genbank. Haplotypes of the nine Vietnamese local and two Chinese breeds were aligned together with these sequences. The Vietnamese and Chinese breeds showed a high degree of variability. In total, 37 haplotypes were identified in the chicken breeds studied forming eight clades. Thereby, the majority of individuals of the two Chinese breeds grouped together in one clade which is assumed to have its roots in the Indian subcontinent. Although the Vietnamese chicken breeds were distributed across all eight clades, most of them clustered in three main clades. These results suggest that the Vietnamese domestic chickens have originated from multiple maternal lineages, presumably from Yunnan and adjacent areas in China, South and Southwest China and/or surrounding regions (i.e. Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, and India).
Predicting the Accuracy of Breeding Values Using High Density Genome Scans
Lee, Deuk-Hwan ; Vasco, Daniel A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 162~172
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10163
In this paper, simulation was used to determine accuracies of genomic breeding values for polygenic traits associated with many thousands of markers obtained from high density genome scans. The statistical approach was based upon stochastically simulating a pedigree with a specified base population and a specified set of population parameters including the effective and noneffective marker distances and generation time. For this population, marker and quantitative trait locus (QTL) genotypes were generated using either a single linkage group or multiple linkage group model. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was simulated for an entire bovine genome (except for the sex chromosome, n = 29) including linkage and recombination. Individuals drawn from the simulated population with specified marker and QTL genotypes were randomly mated to establish appropriate levels of linkage disequilibrium for ten generations. Phenotype and genomic SNP data sets were obtained from individuals starting after two generations. Genetic prediction was accomplished by statistically modeling the genomic relationship matrix and standard BLUP methods. The effect of the number of linkage groups was also investigated to determine its influence on the accuracy of breeding values for genomic selection. When using high density scan data (0.08 cM marker distance), accuracies of breeding values on juveniles were obtained of 0.60 and 0.82, for a low heritable trait (0.10) and high heritable trait (0.50), respectively, in the single linkage group model. Estimates of 0.38 and 0.60 were obtained for the same cases in the multiple linkage group models. Unexpectedly, use of BLUP regression methods across many chromosomes was found to give rise to reduced accuracy in breeding value determination. The reasons for this remain a target for further research, but the role of Mendelian sampling may play a fundamental role in producing this effect.
Variability of Osteocalcin Status in Chinese Holstein Cattle: Do Phylogeny, Vitamin D or Gene Polymorphisms Matter?
Ferreri, Miro ; Gao, Jian ; Ren, Gaixian ; Chen, Liben ; Su, Jingliang ; Han, Bo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10166
Osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, displays patterns in relation to physiological and genetic factors. Here, we present an association study in a population of Chinese Holstein cattle (n = 24) with OC serum concentration as a phenotypic trait. We hypothesised that OC status is associated with phylogeny, vitamin D serum level and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used as an unlinked marker to examine phylogeny and linkage to measured phenotypic traits of vitamin D and OC status. Following an association study with OC serum variability as the trait, genotyping of SNPs (n = 27) in OC-related genes was performed. Candidate SNPs were chosen in genes with an emphasis on the vitamin D and vitamin K pathways. Multivariant factor analysis revealed a correlation between vitamin D serum concentration and a SNP in the gene GC (rs43338565), which encodes a vitamin D-binding protein, as well as between a SNP in NFATc1 (rs42038422) and OC concentration. However, univariate analysis revealed that population structure, vitamin D serum levels and SNPs were not significant determinants of OC status in the studied group.
Effect of Cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin in Presence and Absence of Egg Yolk during Freezing Step on Quality of Markhoz Buck's Spermatozoa
Farshad, A. ; Amidi, F. ; Khor, A. Koohi ; Rashidi, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 181~189
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10141
Cryopreservation protocols induce partially irreversible damage to mammalian sperm plasma membranes. Previous studies have indicated that adding cholesterol to the plasma membrane, as cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins, improves cryosurvival of sperm. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if treating sperm of Markhoz bucks with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) (0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 mg/ml diluted
sperm/ml) in Tris-citric acid-glucose diluents with and without egg yolk (containing 5% glycerol) would improve the post-thaw sperm quality. The motion characteristics were evaluated with a Computer Assisted System Analyzer (CASA); acrosome integrity and vitality were measured with the triple-stain technique. Samples were recovered before and after freezing by means of putting straws into
water for 30 sec and then parameters were assessed. The results showed that the treatments significantly affected motility, progressive motility, recovery rate, curvilinear velocity, beat cross frequency, live sperm with reacted acrosome, live sperm with unreacted acrosome, dead sperm with reacted acrosorne, and dead sperm with unreacted acrosome during freezing (p<0.05). However; no significant differences were found for average path velocity, straight line velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, straightness and linearity (p>0.05). The best results were observed for extender containing 2.25 mg/ml (
sperm/ml) CLC supplemented with 2.6% egg yolk. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate improved Markhoz sperm viability and motility following treatment in the presence of egg yolk.
Melatonin Attenuates Nitric Oxide Induced Oxidative Stress on Viability and Gene Expression in Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells, and Subsequently Increases Development of Bovine IVM/IVF Embryos
Kim, J.T. ; Jang, H.Y. ; Park, C.K. ; Cheong, H.T. ; Park, I.C. ; Yang, B.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 190~197
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10188
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture on developmental capacity of bovine IVM/IVF embryos and to determine whether or not melatonin acts as an antioxidant in BOEC culture and subsequent embryo development. These studies examined the effects of melatonin against NO-induced oxidative stress on cell viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the expression of antioxidant genes (CuZnSOD, MnSOD and Catalase) or apoptosis genes (Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Bax) during BOECs culture. We also evaluated the developmental rates of bovine IVM/IVF embryos with BOEC co-culture, which were pre-treated with melatonin (
) in the presence or absence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP,
) for 24 h. Cell viability in BOECs treated with SNP (50-
) decreased while melatonin addition (1-
) increased viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability in melatonin plus SNP (
) gradually recovered according to increasing melatonin addition (1-
). The LPO products were measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction for malondialdehyde (MDA). Addition of melatonin in BOEC culture indicated a dose-dependent decrease of MDA, and in the SNP group among BOECs treated with SNP or melatonin plus SNP groups MDA was significantly increased compared with SNP plus melatonin groups (p<0.05). In expression of apoptosis or antioxidant genes detected by RT-PCR, Bcl-2 and antioxidant genes were detected in melatonin or melatonin plus SNP groups, while Caspase-3 and Bax genes were only found in the SNP group. When bovine IVM/IVF embryos were cultured for 6-7 days under the BOEC co-culture system pre-treated with melatonin in the presence or absence of SNP, the highest developmental ability to blastocysts was obtained in the
melatonin group. These results suggest that melatonin has an anti-oxidative effect against NO-induced oxidative stress on cell viability of BOECs and on the developmental competence of bovine IVM/IVF embryo co-culture with BOEC.
Effect of Feed Types on Ochratoxin A Disappearance in Goat Rumen Fluid
Upadhaya, Santi Devi ; Yang, Liu ; Seo, Ja-Kyeom ; Kim, Myung-Hoo ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ; Lee, Chan-Ho ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 198~205
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10318
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feed types on Ochratoxin A (OTA) degradation by Korean native goats. Rumen fluid from canulated goats fed whole roughage or 50% roughage served as a source of micro-organisms. Experiments were undertaken i) to investigate OTA degradation ability in a
factorial arrangement with different feed types (100% roughage vs. 50% roughage) and rumen fluid fractions (whole rumen fluid, cells, autoclaved rumen fluid and supernatant) supplemented with OTA ii) to evaluate OTA degradation by the rumen fluid of goats fed two different diets at different time points (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h) of feeding iii) to isolate potential rumen microorganisms and iv) to identify elements responsible for OTA degradation. Rumen fluid from goats fed 100% roughage had higher (p<0.05) OTA degradability than 50% roughage diets. OTA degradation based on rumen fluid collection times showed that rumen fluid at 0 h showed significantly higher (p<0.05) degradability. Carboxypeptidase A (CPA) enzyme has been reported to be responsible for OTA degradation. Thus, using real time PCR, primers designed to target the CPA gene from Bacillus licheniformis could be amplified using genomic DNA from rumen fluid of goats and sequenced, thus enabling evaluation of the Bacillus population under different feeding condition and times. Our findings showed that the Bacillus population was significantly higher (p<0.05) before feeding (0 h) in animals which were fed a whole roughage diet, giving indirect evidence of OTA degradation being influenced by Bacillus sps. Thus, it can be concluded that OTA degradability is influenced by feed, feeding time and Bacillus licheniformis population.
Effect of Feeding Sesame Hull on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Carcass Characteristics of Black Goat Kids
Obeidat, Belal S. ; Gharaybeh, Firas F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 206~213
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10107
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing barley and soybean meal in finishing diets with sesame hull (SH) on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Black goat kids. Twenty-one Black goat kids were assigned randomly to 0%, 10%, or 20% SH diets (7/diet). The study lasted for 63 d. Intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) of kids fed the 10% diet were greater (p<0.05) than for the 0% and 20% SH diets (p<0.10). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were highest (p<0.05) for kids fed the 10% SH diet when compared to 0% and 20% SH diets. Ether extract (EE) intake was greater (p<0.05) for kids fed 10% and 20% SH diets when compared to 0% SH. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF were similar among all diets. However, sesame hull inclusion increased (p<0.05) EE digestibility. Final body weight, total gain, average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio were comparable among all diets. Cost of gain was lower (p<0.05) in kids fed 20% SH than the 0% SH diet, while there was no difference between the 10% SH diet and the other two diets. Dressing percentage, hot and cold carcass weights, non-carcass components, carcass cut weights, and meat quality parameters were not influenced by SH. Total fat percentage in the leg was greater (p<0.05) on 0% SH than on the 10% SH diet. Results of this study demonstrated that inclusion of sesame hull at levels of 10 or 20% did not influence the performance of Black goat kids, but the cost of gain was lower.
Chemical Changes during Ensilage and In sacco Degradation of Two Tropical Grasses: Rhodesgrass and Guineagrass Treated with Cell Wall-degrading Enzymes
Zhu, Yu ; Nishino, Naoki ; Xusheng, Guo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 214~221
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10170
Effects of the cell wall-degrading enzymes derived from Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma viride on the silage fermentation and in sacco degradation of tropical grasses i.e. rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth. cv. Callide) and guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Natsukaze) were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments. These two grasses were either treated with or without the enzymes before ensiling. Untreated rhodesgrass produced acetate fermentation silage (lactate,
DM) with high final pH value and
-N content (5.84 and
DM). Addition of enzymes significantly increased (p<0.01) the lactate production (lactate, 45.6; acetate,
DM) and decreased (p<0.01) the pH and
-N (4.80 and
DM) in the ensiled forages when compared with the control silages. Untreated guineagrass was successfully preserved with a high lactate proportion (lactate, 45.5; acetate,
DM), and the addition of enzymes further enhanced the desirable fermentation (lactate,
DM). The content of NDF was lowered (p<0.05) by enzymes in both silages, but the extent appeared greater in the enzyme-treated rhodesgrass (rhodesgrass,
DM). Changes in the kinetics of in sacco degradation showed that enzyme treatment increased (p<0.01) the rapidly degradable DM (rhodesgrass, 299 vs.
DM; guineagrass, 324 vs.
DM) but did not influence the potential degradation, lag time and degradation rate of DM and NDF in the two silages.
Effects of Dietary Multi-nutritional Targeted Supplementation According to Different Growth Stages on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers
Park, Byung-Ki ; Choi, Nag-Jin ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol ; Jeon, Byoung-Soo ; Kim, Meing-Joong ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Im, Seok-Ki ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Chang, Jong-Soo ; Hwang, In-Ho ; Kim, Young-Jun ; Kwon, Eung-Gi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 222~229
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10202
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary multi-nutritional targeted supplementation according to different growth stages on performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Korean native Hanwoo steers. Thirty two Hanwoo steers, 6 months of age and weighing
, were distributed into 2 groups: control group without any supplements, and multi-nutritional targeted supplementation (MNTS) treatment group supplied with wheat bran and catechins (WBC, 8 to 16 months of age), ruminally protected amino acid-enriched fatty acid (RPAFA, 17 to 28 months of age) and ruminally protected choline with vitamin E (RPCV, 22 to 28 months of age), respectively. Average daily gain was not significantly different between the two groups. During the late fattening period, concentrate, rice straw and dry matter intakes were relatively lower in MNTS than in the control group. Rib eye area, back fat thickness and yield index were similar between the two groups. Meat color was relatively lower in MNTS compared with the control group. The appearance rate of high quality grade (
and 1) tended to be higher in MNTS compared with the control group. Thus, the present results indicate that dietary multi-nutritional targeted supplementation at different growth stages could be recommendable to increase income according to production of high quality Hanwoo beef without any negative effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics.
Effects of Cooling and Exogenous Bovine Somatotropin on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation of Crossbred Holstein Friesian Cow in the Tropics
Chaiyabutr, N. ; Boonsanit, D. ; Chanpongsang, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 230~238
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10240
Effects of cooling and supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on hemato-biochemical characteristics were studied at different stages of lactation of crossbred Holstein Friesian cows in a tropical environment. Ten primiparous cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. The first group was housed as the non-cooled animals in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof in a normal shaded house (NS), while the second group was housed as cooled cows in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof under misty fan cooling (MFC). Three injections with rbST (500 mg per dose) at each stage of lactation (early, mid and late lactation) significantly increased total milk yield as compared with pretreatment in both cooled and non-cooled cows. Milk fat was significantly increased, while total solids, solid not fat, milk protein and lactose were not affected by the rbST treatment. Hematological parameters, plasma proteins, albumin, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma inorganic phosphate and the activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were not affected by supplemental rbST in cooled and non-cooled cows. Supplementation of rbST caused a significant decrease in plasma urea concentration, while plasma FFA concentrations significantly increased in both cooled and non-cooled cows. The results of the present study suggest that exogenous rbST is efficacious in increasing milk yield without adverse effects on lactating crossbred Holstein cows in a tropical environment.
Concentrations of Calcium-binding Protein and Bone Gla-protein in Culture Medium and CaBP mRNA Expression in Osteoblasts of Broiler Chickens
Guo, Xiaoyu ; Yan, Sumei ; Shi, Binlin ; Feng, Yongmiao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 239~245
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10059
This study was conducted to determine the effects of excess vitamin A on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, contents of calcium-binding protein (CaBP), bone gla-protein (BGP) in culture medium and CaBP mRNA expression in chicken osteoblasts in vitro. Osteoblastic cells in the tibia from 1-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chickens were isolated using enzyme digestion. The subconfluenced cells were divided into eight treatments with six replicates in each treatment and cultured in a medium containing either vehicle or different levels of vitamin A (0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and
/ml), and the control received an equivalent volume of ethanol. The incubation lasted 48 h. The results showed that vitamin A down-regulated ALP activity in the culture medium as well as CaBP mRNA expression of osteoblasts in a linear dose-dependent manner (p = 0.124 and p<0.10, respectively), and suppressed the contents of BGP and CaBP in the culture medium in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.05 and p<0.10, respectively) with increasing addition of vitamin A. The addition of 0-
/ml vitamin A to the culture medium increased ALP activity, BGP and CaBP contents as well as CaBP mRNA expression compared with other groups, but positive effects of vitamin A tended to be suppressed when vitamin A was increased to
/ml, and adverse effects occurred when vitamin A was increased to 10.0-
/ml. These results implied that there was a threshold level of vitamin A inclusion beyond which inhibitory effects occurred, and the mechanism by which overdose of vitamin A reduced bone growth in chickens was probably reduced osteoblastic cell activity, and inhibited expression of CaBP mRNA and CaBP secretion.
Effect of Antioxidants on Physio-biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Broiler Chicken at High Altitude
Biswas, A. ; Ahmed, M. ; Bharti, V.K. ; Singh, S.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 246~249
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10060
The present study was carried out on broilers to study the effect of oral administration of vitamin E and selenium (E-care Se) on growth performance, haematological and biochemical parameters for a period of 42 days (6 weeks). A total of 90 oneday-old broiler chicks were divided into three equal groups:
. Group T1 was maintained as control and was fed only with the basal diet throughout the experimental period. Two experimental diets,
, were formulated to contain an additional 100 g (150 IU vitamin E/kg+0.5 mg Se/kg) and 200 g (300 IU vitamin E/kg+1.0 mg Se/kg) of E-care Se which was the source of vitamin E and selenium. Body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in antioxidant-treated groups compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in feed conversion ratio (FCR). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for haematological (TEC, Hb, PCV and ESR) and biochemical (GOT and GPT) study. Body weight was increased significantly in both treated groups compared with the control group and highest body weights were recorded in group
. TEC, PCV and Hb content increased significantly (p<0.01) in the treated groups as compared to the control group, but ESR, GOT and GPT values decreased significantly (p<0.01) in both treated groups as compared to the control group. The result reveals that use of antioxidants (vitamin E and selenium) is an effective way of getting the best result in terms of body weight gain and haemato-biochemical profiles in broiler birds at high altitude.
The Protective Effects of Different Mycotoxin Adsorbents against Blood and Liver Pathological Changes Induced by Mold-contaminated Feed in Broilers
Che, Zhengquan ; Liu, Yulan ; Wang, Huirong ; Zhu, Huiling ; Hou, Yongqing ; Ding, Binying ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 250~257
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10022
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different mycotoxin adsorbents including esterified glucomannan (EGM), hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, blood parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed mold-contaminated feed. Two hundred and forty 10-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to one of the five dietary treatments including: i) control diet; ii) mold-contaminated diet; iii) moldcontaminated diet+0.05% EGM; iv) mold-contaminated diet+0.2% HSCAS; v) mold-contaminated diet+0.1% CMA. At 35-days-old, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. 0.1% CMA improved ADG and ADFI during 10-42 d compared to the moldcontaminated group (p<0.05). The mold-contaminated diet increased total white blood cell (WBC) number, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) level, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and
-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, and decreased red blood cell (RBC) number and serum globulin (GLB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (p<0.05). The three mycotoxin adsorbents alleviated the alteration of RBC, WBC, Hgb and AST caused by the mold-contaminated diet. Furthermore, 0.1% CMA increased GLB concentration and decreased Hct level and GGT activity (p<0.05). Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by the mold-contaminated diet (p<0.05). Both EGM and HSCAS prevented the increase of MPO activity (p<0.05). Liver lesion, including severe vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, was observed in chicks fed the mold-contaminated diet. 0.05% EGM prevented these effects except for biliary hyperplasia and mild vacuolar degeneration. 0.2% HSCAS showed medium vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. Liver of broilers fed 0.1% CMA revealed a mild vacuolar degeneration. These results indicate that a mold-contaminated diet results in adverse effects on blood parameters and liver morphology. 0.05% EGM and 0.2% HSCAS partially alleviated the adverse effects. However, 0.1% CMA almost completely ameliorated the adverse effects.
Effects of Dietary Wild-ginseng Adventitious Root Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Relative Organ Weight and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens
Yan, L. ; Meng, Q.W. ; Lee, J.H. ; Wang, J.P. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 258~263
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10222
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary wild-ginseng adventitious root meal (WGM) on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 480, 2-day-old male broiler chicks (BW =
) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (6 cages with 20 broilers per cage). Dietary treatments were: i) CON (basal diet), ii) WGM0.1 (basal diet+0.1% WGM), iii) WGM0.2 (basal diet+0.2% WGM) and iv) WGM0.3 (basal diet+ 0.3% WGM). Birds fed WGM0.3 diet (p<0.05) had a higher feed intake (FI) than those fed the CON diet during weeks 1 to 3. During weeks 3 to 5, dietary WGM0.1 treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) BW gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) compared with the CON and WGM0.3 treatments. Overall, birds fed WGM0.1 improved BWG and FI compared with those fed the CON treatment. A greater lymphocyte count was observed (p<0.05) in WGM0.2 and WGM0.3 treatments compared with the CON treatment; dietary WGM decreased (p<0.05) the total cholesterol concentration compared with the CON group. The inclusion of WGM increased the relative weight of spleen and bursa of fabricius (p<0.05) compared with CON, while less abdominal fat was observed in the WGM0.3 treatment (p<0.05) compared with CON. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of breast muscle were decreased (p<0.05) by WGM supplementation. Overall, our results indicated that the use of WGM at the 0.1% level could enhance growth performance in broilers. The supplementation of WGM could induce a decreased TBARS, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol in broiler chickens.
Fatty Acid Composition of Fry Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fed Graded Levels of Sand Smelt (Atherina boyeri) Meal
Gumus, Erkan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 264~271
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10223
The effect of replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets with sand smelt meal (SSM) on fatty acid composition of carp fry, Cyprinus carpio, was examined. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (38% crude protein,
) diets replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% FM protein by SSM protein were formulated. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in aquaria, and each aquarium was stocked with 20 fish (initial average weight of
). Fish were fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 13 weeks. Results indicated that final weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio of fish fed with different SSM replacement diets did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from fish fed the control diet, except for 100% SSM level. No significant differences were noted among experimental treatments on dry matter, protein, lipid and ash contents of the fish body composition (p>0.05). Fatty acid analysis showed that saturated fatty acids in fish muscle significantly decreased, but monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not change with increasing dietary SSM. However, some changes also could be observed for some particular fatty acids in experimental fish. For example, the amounts of 15:0, 17:0, 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6 and 22:5n-3 significantly increased, but 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3 and 20:1 n-9 significantly decreased with increasing dietary SSM. Total n-6 PUFA increased with increasing dietary SSM, but total n-3 PUFA were not changed in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 was not affected significantly in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets containing different proportions of SSM, including the control diet.
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Changes in the Bovine Whey Proteome during the Transition from Colostrum to Milk
Zhang, Le-Ying ; Wang, Jia-Qi ; Yang, Yong-Xin ; Bu, Deng-Pan ; Li, Shan-Shan ; Zhou, Ling-Yun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 272~278
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10122
Bovine whey protein expression patterns of colostrum are much different from that of milk. Moreover, bovine colostrum is an important source of protective, nutritional and developmental factors for the newborn. However, to our knowledge, no research has been performed to date using a comparative proteomic method on the changes in the bovine whey proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk. This study therefore separated whey protein of days 1, 3, 7 and 21 after calving using two dimension electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins at different collection times were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to understand the developmental changes in the bovine whey proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk. The expression patterns of whey protein of days 1 and 3 post-partum were similar except that immunoglobulin G was down-regulated on day 3, and four proteins were found to be down-regulated on days 7 and 21 compared with day 1 after delivering, including immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, albumin, and lactotransferrin, which are involved in immunity and molecule transport. The results of this study confirm the comparative proteomic method has the advantage over other methods such as ELISA and immunoassays in that it can simultaneously detect more differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the difference in composition of milk indicates a need for adjustment of the colostrum feeding regimen to ensure a protective immunological status for newborn calves.
Effects of Storage Temperature and Time on the Quality of Eggs from Laying Hens at Peak Production
Jin, Y.H. ; Lee, K.T. ; Lee, W.I. ; Han, Y.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 279~284
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10210
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage temperature and time on the quality parameters of eggs from laying hens at peak production. A total of 576 eggs were obtained from Lohmann Light-Brown hens, which were collected 3 times when the hens were 26, 27, and 28 weeks old. The fresh eggs were collected and measured within 2 h of being laid. Samples of 48 eggs each were stored in chambers for 2, 5, or 10 d inside a refrigerator (
), at room temperature (
), and at a high temperature (
). As the storage temperature and time increased, egg weight, percentage of albumen, Haugh unit (HU), and yolk color significantly (p<0.001) decreased. In addition, egg shell weight, shell percentage, and albumen weight significantly (p<0.001) decreased with storage time. Yolk weight, yolk percentage, and albumen pH significantly (p<0.001) increased with increasing storage temperature, and yolk pH significantly (p<0.001) increased with increasing storage time. When the storage temperature was increased to
, egg weight loss dramatically increased from 1.74 to 3.67% at 5 and 10 d of storage time, respectively. With the exception of the
storage temperature, HU dramatically decreased according to storage time and temperature, decreasing from 91.3 to 72.63 at
and from 87.62 to 60.92 at
during 10 d of storage; however, this decline was not found at
. A rapid increase in albumen alkalinity was observed even after just 2 d of storage regardless of the storage temperature. Interactions between storage time and temperature were significant (p<0.001) with respect to egg weight loss, egg shell weight and percentage, albumen weight and percentage, yolk weight and percentage, albumen and yolk pH, HU, and yolk color. The results of the current study indicated that eggs from laying hens at peak production had significant deterioration of internal quality with increasing storage temperature and time. The results suggest that egg weight loss, albumen pH, and HU are parameters that are greatly influenced by the storage temperature and time of eggs from hens at peak laying.
Some Prophylactic Options to Mitigate Methane Emi ssion from Animal Agriculture in Japan
Takahashi, Junichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 285~294
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.r.03
The abatement of methane emission from ruminants is an important global issue due to its contribution to greenhouse gas with carbon dioxide. Methane is generated in the rumen by methanogens (archaea) that utilize metabolic hydrogen (
) to reduce carbon dioxide, and is a significant electron sink in the rumen ecosystem. Therefore, the competition for hydrogen used for methanogenesis with alternative reductions of rumen microbes should be an effective option to reduce rumen methanogenesis. Some methanogens parasitically survive on the surface of ciliate protozoa, so that defaunation or decrease in protozoa number might contribute to abate methanogenesis. The most important issue for mitigation of rumen methanogenesis with manipulators is to secure safety for animals and their products and the environment. In this respect, prophylactic effects of probiotics, prebiotics and miscellaneous compounds to mitigate rumen methanogenesis have been developed instead of antibiotics, ionophores such as monensin, and lasalocid in Japan. Nitrate suppresses rumen methanogenesis by its reducing reaction in the rumen. However, excess intake of nitrate causes intoxication due to nitrite accumulation, which induces methemoglobinemia. The nitrite accumulation is attributed to a relatively higher rate of nitrate reduction to nitrite than nitrite to ammonia via nitroxyl and hydroxylamine. The in vitro and in vivo trials have been conducted to clarify the prophylactic effects of L-cysteine, some strains of lactic acid bacteria and yeast and/or
1-4 galactooligosaccharide on nitrate-nitrite intoxication and methanogenesis. The administration of nitrate with
1-4 galacto-oligosaccharide, Candida kefyr, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis were suggested to possibly control rumen methanogenesis and prevent nitrite formation in the rumen. For prebiotics, nisin which is a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis has been demonstrated to abate rumen methanogenesis in the same manner as monensin. A protein resistant anti-microbe (PRA) has been isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum as a manipulator to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. Recently, hydrogen peroxide was identified as a part of the manipulating effect of PRA on rumen methanogenesis. The suppressing effects of secondary metabolites from plants such as saponin and tannin on rumen methanogenesis have been examined. Especially, yucca schidigera extract, sarsaponin (steroidal glycosides), can suppress rumen methanogenesis thereby improving protein utilization efficiency. The cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), or cashew shell oil, which is a natural resin found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew nutshell has been found to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. In an attempt to seek manipulators in the section on methane belching from ruminants, the arrangement of an inventory of mitigation technologies available for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) in the Kyoto mechanism has been advancing to target ruminant livestock in Asian and Pacific regions.
Emissions from Grazing Ruminants in New Zealand: Challenges and Opportunities
Clark, H. ; Kelliher, F. ; Pinares-Patino, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 2, 2011, Pages 295~302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.r.04
Almost half of New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions arise from agriculture and enteric methane (
) emissions arising from ruminant animals constitute 30% of total
-e emissions. Enteric
emissions have increased by 9% since 1990. Extensive research has been undertaken to develop reliable methods for measuring enteric
emissions. New Zealand studies using the SF6 tracer technique suggest that on average this technique yields similar values to the 'gold' standard of calorimetry, but with a larger variance. National inventory estimates based on results obtained using the
technique will therefore overestimate the uncertainty. Mitigating emissions can be achieved by changing feed type but there are practical and cost barriers to the use of alternative feeds. Forages containing condensed tannins do reduce emissions but are agronomically inferior to the forages currently used. Rumen additives have shown some success in-vitro but results from in-vivo trials with both monensin and fumaric acid have been disappointing. The development of methods for directly manipulating rumen microorganisms are at an early stage and work to develop vaccines that can inhibit methanogenesis has yielded mixed results. The successful identification of sheep with contrasting
yields raises the possibility that, in the long term, a breeding approach to
mitigation is feasible.