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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Immunophenotype Characterization for Swine Selected Line, Which is Resistant for the Mycoplasma Pneumonia
Katayama, Masafumi ; Fukuda, Tomokazu ; Okamuara, Toshihiro ; Suda, Yoshihito ; Suzuki, Eisaku ; Uenishi, Hirohide ; Suzuki, Keiichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 889~897
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10391
Mycoplasma Pneumonia of swine (MPS) decreases the daily growth of pigs, and, co-infection with a virus sometimes causes severe pneumonia. Genetic selection of pigs resistant to the pulmonary MPS lesion might solve the economic loss due to MPS in animal production. Here, we examined the immunophenotype of Landrace line (Miyagino L2), genetically selected to reduce the incidence of pulmonary MPS lesion for 5 generations in Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station. Although this line is expected to be resistant to the pulmonary MPS lesion, the biological characteristics of its immune function are not clear. We investigated details of the immunorelated phenotype of Miyagino L2 at the hematological and molecular biological level, including cytokine expression, and compared the results with that of non-genetically selected Landrace. Miyagino L2 showed decreased antigen-specific IgG and IgM production and increased CD8-positive T-cell population, and high levels of cortisol concentration, suggesting that the MPS-resistant phenotype is associated these immunological differences. Additionally, T-cell CD4 expression was highly correlated with the MPS expected breeding value. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying this high correlation remain unknown, our result suggested that the genetic selection of the expression level of CD4 might be useful to improve MPS resistance in pig production.
DNA Polymorphism in SLC11A1 Gene and its Association with Brucellosis Resistance in Indian Zebu (Bos indicus) and Crossbred (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) Cattle
Kumar, Nishant ; Ganguly, Indrajit ; Singh, Rajendra ; Deb, Sitangsu M. ; Kumar, Subodh ; Sharma, Arjava ; Mitra, Abhijit ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 898~904
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10306
The PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in and around TM4 of SLC11A1 gene and its association with the incidences of brucellosis in Hariana breed (Bos indicus) and Holstein Friesian crossbred (Bos indicus
Bos taurus) cattle was examined. A fragment of 954 bp encoding the TM4 was amplified, and RFLP was identified by digestion of the amplicon independently with AluI and TaqI. The amplicon (GenBank Acc. No. AY338470 and AY338471) comprised of a part of exon V (<59 bp) and VII (62>), and entire intron 5 (423 bp), exon VI (71 bp) and intron 6 (339 bp). Digestion with AluI revealed the presence of two alleles viz, A (281, 255, 79 and 51 bp) and B (541, 255, 79 and 51 bp). The frequency of A allele was estimated as 0.80 and 0.73 in Hariana and crossbred cattle, respectively. Due to presence of a polymorphic TaqI site at intron 5, two alleles: T (552 and 402 bp) and Q (231, 321 and 402 bp) were identified. The frequency of T allele was estimated as 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. For association study, on the basis of serological tests and history of abortion, the animals were grouped into "affected" and "non-affected". However, no association could be established with the observed RFLPs.
Polymorphism of Exon 2 of BMP15 Gene and Its Relationship with Litter Size of Two Chinese Goats
Wang, Yuqin ; Yuanxiao, Li ; Nana, Zhang ; Zhanbin, Wang ; Junyan, Bai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 905~911
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10432
Polymorphisms of BMP15 gene exon 2 and its relationship with prolificacy of goats were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in Chinese two local goat breeds. The results showed that the product amplified by the primers displayed polymorphisms. Three genotypes (AA, BB and AB) were detected in Funiu white goats, and their frequency was 0.071, 0.715, 0.214, respectively. Two genotypes (AB and BB) were detected in Taihang black goats, and their frequency was 0.342 and 0.658, respectively. Sequencing revealed that four mutations (456T
C) occurred in genotype BB of Funiu white goat, which resulted in amino acid substitution of V155G and S171P. No mutation was detected in Taihang black goat. The Funiu white goat with genotype BB had 0.91 or 0.82 kids, more than those with AB or AA, respectively. The difference of the least squares means for litter size between BB and AB was not significant (p>0.05) in Taihang black goat. It is concluded that the BMP15 gene may be a major gene which affects the prolificacy in Funiu white goats. This study could provide basic molecular data on the reproductive characteristics of local breeds of Henan province in China, and a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of those two goat breeds.
Documentation of Physiological Parameters and Blood Profile in Newly Born Kajli Lambs
Saddiqi, H.A. ; Nisa, M. ; Mukhtar, N. ; Shahzad, M.A. ; Jabbar, A. ; Sarwar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 912~918
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10336
Newly born lambs have to face challenges in a new environment totally different from that of the uterus. Adaptation to extra-uterine life involves functional changes with almost each organ and system in the body undergoing a series of metabolic and anatomical modifications. Failure to adapt the extra-uterine environment can not only lead to homeostatic disturbances but also lead to the death of the affected lambs. Hematological parameters of newly born lambs show variability that differs between breeds of lambs. The purpose of present study was to determine homeostatic responses and physiological reference values in Kajli breed lambs occurring in the neonatal period through changes in blood profile, respiratory rate, heart rate, live weight and rectal, scrotal and skin temperatures. For this purpose, sixteen clinically fit lambs (males = 10 and females = 6) with a mean body weight
kg were selected. Physiological data of selected parameters of each Kajli lamb was recorded at three day intervals and hematological parameters at five days for a period of 30 days. In general, statistical analysis showed a significant effect of time (p<0.001) on all the studied physiological and hematological parameters except platelets counts, white blood cells and hemoglobin concentration. The results documented in the current study are an addition to existing knowledge of the physiology of Kajli sheep breed should be helpful in developing feeding, disease diagnoses and treatment protocols for newborn Kajli stock.
Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Expression in the Uterine Endometrium during the Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy in Pigs
Kim, Min-Goo ; Shim, Jang-Soo ; Seo, Hee-Won ; Choi, Yo-Han ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ; Ka, Hak-Hyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 919~928
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11033
The pig exhibits true epitheliochorial placentation, where the fetal membrane maintains attachment throughout pregnancy but does not invade into the maternal uterine endometrium. Accordingly, the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules are very important for embryo implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. In our recent microarray analysis, we found that activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) was expressed in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy in pigs. To better understand the roles of ALCAM in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, we examined ALCAM expression in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that ALCAM was differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, with the highest levels on D12 of pregnancy. ALCAM mRNA was localized to the luminal and glandular epithelial cells and to the trophectoderm of conceptuses during early pregnancy. The steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone had no effect on ALCAM expression in an endometrial explant culture study. Further, we found that ALCAM expression in the uterine endometrium from gilts with somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos was not different from that in gilts with embryos from natural mating. ALCAM was expressed in a pregnancy stage- and cell type-specific manner in the uterine endometrium and conceptuses during pregnancy. These findings suggest that ALCAM may play a role in the establishment of pregnancy. Further analysis of ALCAM will provide insight into the implantation process and establishment of pregnancy in pigs.
Effects of Micronization on the In situ and In vitro Digestion of Cereal Grains
McAllister, T.A. ; Sultana, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 929~939
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10387
The effects of micronization on in situ and in vitro nutrient disappearances of wheat, barley and corn were investigated in a series of experiments. In Experiment 1, chemical composition and in situ dry matter disappearance (DMD) of six varieties of wheat were determined. In addition, an in vitro study was completed using ground micronized and unmicronized wheat (var. Kansas). In Experiment 2, three varieties of wheat (Kansas, Sceptre and Laura) and in Experiment 3, three cereal grains (wheat, barley and corn) were either micronized for 1 min to attain internal kernel temperatures of 90-100
or not (controls), and DM, protein and starch disappearances were estimated. In Experiment 2, an in vitro study was also completed using ground micronized and unmicronized wheat (var. Kansas). Wheat samples varied with respect to crude protein (10.0-21.2%), starch (61.6-73.9%), NDF (8.5-11.8%), volume weight (753-842 g/L) and kernel hardness (0.0-32.0). Rate (p = 0.003) and extent (p = 0.001) of in situ DMD differed among wheat varieties. Correlations between in situ kinetics, and chemical and physical properties of wheat varieties showed that protein content was negatively correlated with the rate of disappearance (
= -0.77). Micronization of all grains markedly reduced (p = 0.001) the rate and extent of DM, and protein disappearances as compared to control samples. Micronization increased (p<0.05) the digestion of starch in wheat. However, release of ammonia into the incubation medium was markedly reduced (p<0.05), suggesting that micronization increased the resistance of protein to microbial digestion. Disappearances of DM, protein and starch differed (p = 0.001) among cereal grains with wheat>barley>corn. Micronization reduced the rate of DM disappearance (p = 0.011) and slowly degradable protein fractions (p = 0.03), however, increased (p = 0.004) slowly degradable starch fractions of all three cereals. Examination of in situ samples by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that microbial colonization focused on starch granules in micronized grains, and that the protein matrix exhibited resistance to microbial colonization. These results suggest that micronization may be used to increase the ruminal escape value of protein in cereal grains, but may lead to increased starch digestion if grains are finely ground.
Effects of Feeding Oxalate Containing Grass on Intake and the Concentrations of Some Minerals and Parathyroid Hormone in Blood of Sheep
Rahman, M.M. ; Nakagawa, T. ; Niimi, M. ; Fukuyama, K. ; Kawamura, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 940~945
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10445
In order to determine whether oxalate from grasses affects feed intake, blood calcium (Ca) and other blood parameters of adult sheep, two feeding trials were conducted. In Trial 1, one group of sheep received guineagrass (0.47% soluble oxalate) and another group received setaria (1.34% soluble oxalate) for 28 d. In Trial 2, one group of sheep received guineagrass while another group received the same grass treated with an oxalic acid solution (at a rate of 30 g oxalic acid/kg dry matter of hay) for 72 d. All sheep received concentrate mixtures (0.5% of body weight) throughout the experiment. In both trials, it was observed that plasma Ca concentration (11.0-11.7 mg/dl) was significantly (p<0.05) lower in sheep fed high oxalate-containing grasses than in sheep fed low oxalate-containing grasses (12.4-13.7 mg/dl). No differences (p>0.05) were observed in concentrations of magnesium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone in plasma between the feeding of low and high oxalate-containing grasses. In addition, no differences (p>0.05) were observed in roughage dry mater (DM) intake, total DM intake or body weight of sheep. This study suggests that sheep may consume oxalate-rich forage, but Ca bioavailability may decrease with increasing oxalate levels in the ration.
Influence of Replacing Corn Grain by Enzose (Corn Dextrose) on Nutrient Utilization, Thyroid Hormones, Plasma Metabolites, and Weight Gain in Growing Lambs
Shahzad, M. Aasif ; Nisa, M. ; Sarwar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 946~951
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10407
The study was conducted to evaluate enzose (corn dextrose), a corn milling byproduct, as substitute for corn grain as energy in growing lambs. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated. The control diet (E0) had no enzose whereas enzose replaced 20, 40, 60 and 80% corn grain in E20, E40, E60 and E80 diets on the basis of energy supply, respectively. Fifty growing lambs were divided into 5 groups, 10 animals in each, in a randomized complete block design. Nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fibre) intake and digestibilities increased with gradual replacement of corn grain by enzose. Lambs fed E80 diet also retained higher nitrogen (N) than those fed E0 diet. Plasma glucose,
increased while urea N decreased in lambs receiving higher enzose content. Maximum weight gain was recorded in lambs fed diets containing maximum concentration of E as a replacement for corn grains. A better feed conversion ratio was recorded in lambs fed E80 compared with those fed E0 diet. The study suggests that enzose can be used as an economical feed ingredient to replace corn grain upto 80%, without any adverse effects on growth performance of growing lambs.
Effects of Passive Transfer Status on Growth Performance in Buffalo Calves
Mastellone, V. ; Massimini, G. ; Pero, M.E. ; Cortese, L. ; Piantedosi, D. ; Lombardi, P. ; Britti, D. ; Avallone, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 952~956
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10348
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of passive transfer status, determined by measuring serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration 24 hours after parturition, on growth performance in buffalo calves allowed to nurse the dam during the first month of life. Serum Ig concentration 24 hours after birth ranged from 28.1 to 35.9 mg/ml, birth weight ranged from 29 to 41 kg, body weight 30 days after birth ranged from 48.5 to 62.9 kg. The Average Daily Gain (ADG) from birth to day 30 ranged from 448 to 1,089 g/d. Significant linear associations were detected between serum Ig concentration 24 hours after birth and day-30 weight (p< 0.05;
= 0.31) and between serum Ig concentration 24 hours after birth and ADG from birth to day 30 (p<0.001;
= 0.72). Results indicated that passive transfer status was a significant source of variation in growth performance when buffalo calves nursed the dam. Maximizing passive transfer of immunity by allowing calves to nurse the dam can increase growth performance during the first month of life.
Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Immune Response of Weaned Calves with Experimentally Induced Lipopolysaccharide Challenge
Kwon, In-Hyuk ; Kim, Myung-Hoo ; Yun, Cheol-Heui ; Go, Jong-Yeol ; Lee, Chan-Ho ; Lee, Hyun-June ; Phipek, Wisut ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 957~964
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10419
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on the level of cortisol hormone and immune-related serum proteins in weaned calves after experimentally induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein neonatal calves (n = 21; 8 males and 13 females, BW =
kg) were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: SBM (control calf starter having soybean meal (SBM) as a main protein source) and FSBM (substitute SBM in control diet with FSBM) groups. All calves were fed milk replacer using an automatic milk-feeder according to step-down milking method and weaned at 7 weeks old. Experimental diets were given to calves ad libitum throughout the experimental period. For LPS challenge, all calves except negative control animals given phosphate buffered saline (PBS), were injected subcutaneously with Salmonella typhimurium LPS on day 7 (D7) after weaning (D0). No significant difference in growth performance and milk intake was observed between SBM and FSBM calves. Feeding FSBM diet resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher LPS-specific IgG at D12 and D19 and LPS-specific IgA at D19 in peripheral blood. Calves fed with FSBM diet also had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of serum haptoglobin (Hp) at D8. Overall concentration of cortisol in FSBM group was considerably lower than that of SBM group. Results from current study indicate that FSBM may provide beneficial effects in alleviating weaning stress and enhance immune status of weaned calves.
Dry Matter Digestion Kinetics of Two Varieties of Barley Grain Sown with Different Seeding and Nitrogen Fertilization Rates in Four Different Sites Across Canada
Cleary, L.J. ; Van Herk, F. ; Gibb, D.J. ; McAllister, T.A. ; Chaves, A.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 965~973
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10427
Our objective was to determine the differences in the rate and extent of dry matter digestion between barley subjected to differing agronomic variables. Two malting barley varieties, Copeland and Metcalfe were seeded at rates of 200 and 400 plants/
. Each of these varieties received nitrogen fertilizer at rates of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg/ha, resulting in a total of 20 different barley grain samples. Samples were ground through a 6mm screen and approximately 3 g of each weighed into 50
Dacron bags and sealed. The bags were incubated in three ruminally cannulated Holstein cattle for periods of 0, 3, 6 and 24 h. Using the data obtained from these incubations, rates of digestion were able to be predicted. The soluble fraction ranged from 0.229-0.327, the slowly degradable fraction ranged from 0.461-0.656, and the undegradable fraction ranged from 0.038-0.299. The rates of digestion ranged from 0.127-0.165
and the effective degradability ranged from 0.527-0.757. At the Canora location, the Copeland samples which received 120 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer had a significantly lower (p = 0.013) soluble fraction than the rest of the samples at that location. A significant interaction (p = 0.009) was seen between the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer application with samples from the Canora location, as well as significant differences (p = 0.029) between nitrogen application rates in samples from the Indian head location. The rate of digestion of samples from the Indian head location differed (p = 0.020) between the two seeding rates, with samples seeded at 200 seed/
having a slightly higher rate of degradation. Differences in the effective degradability were seen between the different nitrogen application rates with samples from both the Canora and Indian head locations, as well as an (p = 0.004) interaction between the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer application rate. Although there was not a clear correlation between the different variables, both nitrogen application and seeding rate did have a significant effect on the rates and extent of digestion across each of the four locations.
Re-evaluation of Dietary Methionine Requirement by Plasma Methionine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
Bae, Jun-Young ; Ok, Im-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Hyung ; Hung, Silas S.O. ; Min, Tae-Sun ; Bai, Sung-Chul C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 974~981
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10189
This study was designed to re-evaluate the dietary methionine requirement by means of the plasma methionine and ammonia concentrations in surgically modified rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A total of 35 rainbow trout averaging
g (initial body weight, mean
SD) were randomly distributed into seven groups with five fish in each group. After 48 h of feed deprivation, each group of fish was fed one of seven L-amino acid based diets containing 0.5% cystine and graded levels of methionine (0.25, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80 or 0.95% of diet, dry matter bases) by intubation at 1% body weight on dry matter basis. Blood samples were taken at 0, 5 and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free methionine concentrations (PPmet, 5 h after intubation) and post-absorptive plasma free methionine concentrations (PAmet, 24 h after intubation) of fish fed diets containing 0.60% or higher methionine were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of fish fed diets containing 0.50% or lower methionine. PPmet and PAmet in fish fed diets containing 0.60% or higher methionine were not significantly different except PPmet of fish fed diet containing 0.95% methionine. Post-prandial plasma ammonia concentrations (PPA, 5 h after intubation) of fish fed diets containing 0.70% or higher methionine were significantly higher than those of fish fed diets containing 0.60% or lower methionine, and PPA of fish fed diets containing 0.25 and up to 0.60% methionine were not significantly different from each other. Broken-line model analyses on PPmet, PAmet, and PPA indicated that the dietary methionine requirement of rainbow trout was between 0.59 (1.69) and 0.67 (1.91) % of diets (% dietary protein bases) when the diets contained 0.5% cystine.
Corns with Different Nutritional Profiles on Growing and Finishing Pigs Feeding (30 to 90 kg)
De Oliveira, Gisele Cristina ; Moreira, Ivan ; De Souza, Ana Lucia Pozzobon ; Murakami, Alice Eiko ; Parra, Angela Rocio Poveda ; De Oliveira Carvalho, Paulo Levi ; Borile, Maicon Danner ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 982~992
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.90587
Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and to verify the pig performance in growing and finishing phases (30 to 90 kg) fed on diets containing common corn (CC), high-lysine corn (HLC) and high-oil corn (HOC). In the total digestibility trial (Exp. I) 12 barrows were used. Values of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) as-fed basis for CC, HLC and HOC, were: 3,396 and 3,275 kcal/kg; 3,248 and 3,139 kcal/kg; 3,445 and 3,308 kcal/kg, respectively. In order to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids, as well as the values of true digestible amino acids of the CC, HLC and HOC, an ileal digestibility trial was done (Exp. II) with T-cannulated barrows ("T" simple). The treatments consisted of three diets, with one of them as the sole source of protein (CC, HLC and HOC). In the performance experiment (Exp. III), 36 crossbred pigs, allotted in a completely randomized design with three treatments and 12 replications were used. Treatments consisted of three diets: 1 - CC; 2 - HLC and 3 - HOC. It was observed no difference for performance and carcass variables among the corns with different nutritional profiles. Results of the three experiments highlighted the importance of segregating corns in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for formulating diets for growing and finishing pigs.
Influence of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract on Broilers and Laying Hens
Ao, X. ; Zhou, T.X. ; Kim, H.J. ; Hong, S.M. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 993~1000
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10450
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE) as feed additive in broilers and laying hens. In broilers, 480 Arbor Acre male broilers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 20 chicks per pen. The experiment lasted 5 weeks and dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) FRGE1, basal diet+1 g/kg fermented red ginseng extract; iii) FRGE2, basal diet+2 g/kg fermented red ginseng extract and iv) FRGE3 basal diet+4 g/kg fermented red ginseng extract. Throughout the experiment, no effects were observed (p>0.05) in performance in response to FRGE. At the end of the experiment, FRGE administration improved (p<0.05) the lymphocyte level compared with CON. The relative weight of bursa of fabricius and spleen were increased (p<0.05) by the inclusion of FRGE3. Besides, redness (
) value for the breast meat was higher (p<0.05) in FRGE1 and FRGE3 treatments than that in CON. In laying hens, 240 ISA brown layers at 35 weeks of age were used in this 8-week trial. Dietary treatments were the same as in the broilers trial with 10 replicates per treatment and 6 layers per replicate. During the entire experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in performance or egg quality among all the treatments. However, the layers fed diets supplemented with FRGE had higher lymphocyte level (p<0.05) compared with those fed CON. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation with FRGE did not influence performance but improved the lymphocyte level in both broilers and laying hens.
The Effects of Copper Supplementation on the Performance and Hematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens
Samanta, B. ; Ghosh, P.R. ; Biswas, A. ; Das, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1001~1006
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10394
To determine the efficiency of copper (Cu) supplementation, a feeding experiment was carried out with 240 day old broiler chicks (vencobb-100). Birds were divided into four dietary treatments: i) C - no additives, ii)
-75 mg inclusion of Cu/kg diet, iii)
-150 mg inclusion of Cu/kg diet, iv)
-250 mg inclusion of Cu/kg diet. The present study was carried out in the Department of Animal Physiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India for a period of 42 days (6 weeks). Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of
day of the experiment and the result was found to be encouraging for commercial enterprises when the chickens were fed at 150 mg Cu/kg (
) of their diet. Excess dietary copper more than 150 mg/kg reduced the haemoglobin (Hb) concentration in blood and resulted in the accumulation of copper in the liver with decreased blood Hb concentration and packed cell volumes (PCV). Copper supplementation increased the total erythrocyte count (TEC) as copper is involved in erythropoiesis. But, from the result it is indicated that the dietary copper concentration could not alter the total leukocyte count (TLC). In case of different leucocytes count (DLC), there were no significant differences observed among the different treated groups. Statistical analysis showed significant (p<0.01) difference in plasma concentration of copper, zinc, ferrous and cholesterol among the different copper treated groups. The result indicates that supplementation of copper is an effective way of improving the production performance and haematological parameters in broiler chicken.
Evaluation of the Apparent Ileal Digestibility (AID) of Protein and Amino Acids in Nursery Diets by In vitro and In vivo Methods
Cho, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1007~1010
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10435
The objective was to evaluate in vitro prediction of ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids (AA) for current nursery pig diets (n = 10) by using pepsin and pancreatin incubations. To compare in vivo ileal digestibility, forty nursery pigs (4 pigs per diet) with an initial BW of
kg were surgically equipped with T-cannula in the distal ileum. In all cases, the values of in vitro digestibility were higher than those of in vivo digestibility (p<0.05). With regard to the relationships of essential and non essential AA (CP), the
value was 0.76. With regard to AA, high relationships were observed in Ile, Thr, and Gly (0.85, 0.83, and 0.89, respectively). Also, there was a lower relationship for Arg, Met, Ala, Asp, Glu, Pro, Ser, and Tyr with
values of 0.56, 0.54, 0.40, 0.54, 0.45, 0.24, 0.49, and 0.35, respectively between in vitro and in vivo digestibility. The EAA relationship (
= 0.71) was generally higher than that of NEAA (
= 0.50) numerically. In conclusion, there were strong linear relationships between in vivo and in vitro ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly). In vitro prediction of ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly) seems to have significant potential for practical application.
Protective Effects of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) against Aflatoxin B1 in Broiler Chicks
Chand, N. ; Muhammad, Din ; Durrani, F.R. ; Qureshi, M. Subhan ; Ullah, Sahibzada S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1011~1018
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10418
Aflatoxin-contaminated feed cause mortality, suppression of the immune system, reduced growth rates and losses in feed efficiency. This research study was planned to investigate the immunomodulatory and growth promoting effect of milk thistle as feed additive against aflatoxin
in broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two hundred and forty (240) day old broilers chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups AfF, aflatoxin free feed; Aflatoxin
was present in the feed at the levels of 80-520
of the feed in the remaining three groups. Aflatoxin contaminated feed was provided for 5 weeks. Group AfB was supplemented with toxin binder "Mycoad" at 3 g/kg of feed and group AfT was supplemented with milk thistle at10 g/kg of feed. Each group was further sub divided into two sub-groups, vaccinated against ND (Newcastle disease), IB (Infectious bronchitis) and IBD (Infectious bursal diseases) according to recommended schedule of vaccination or non vaccinated. Each sub group carried three replicates with 10 chicks per replicate. Chicks were reared in pens in an open sided house. Supplementary heat was provided to all the chicks during brooding period. Mean body weight gain and dressing percentage were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group AfF, followed by AfT, AfB and Af. Weight gain and dressing percentage was the same in group AfB and AfT, while it was significantly lower in group Af. Feed intake, breast, thigh and leg weight were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in group AfF, followed by AfB, AfT and Af. Significantly lower (better) FCR value was recorded in group AfT. Water intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group AfT and AfF as compared to other groups. Mortality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group Af. Mean bursa and thymus weights were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in group AfF, AfB and AfT followed by Af, while higher spleen weight was recorded in group AfT. Mean antibody titer against ND, IB and IBD was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group AfT, as compared to other groups. It is concluded that milk thistle at 10 g/kg of feed could effectively be utilized as immunostimulant and growth promotant in the presence of immunosuppressant aflatoxin
in the feed.
Genomic Analyses of Toll-like Receptor 4 and 7 Exons of Bos indicus from Temperate Sub-himalayan Region of India
Malik, Y.P.S. ; Chakravarti, S. ; Sharma, K. ; Vaid, N. ; Rajak, K.K. ; Balamurugan, V. ; Biswas, S.K. ; Mondal, B. ; Kataria, R.S. ; Singh, R.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1019~1025
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10342
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the recognition of invading pathogens and the modulation of innate immune responses in mammals. The TLR4 and TLR7 are well known to recognize the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and single stranded (ssRNA) ligands, respectively and play important role in host defense against Gram-negative bacteria and ssRNA viruses. In the present study, coding exon fragments of these two TLRs were identified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed in terms of insertion-deletion polymorphism, within bovine TLRs 4 and 7, thereby facilitating future TLR signaling and association studies relevant to bovine innate immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of TLR 4 exons revealed that this gene is more variable, particularly the coding frame (E3P1), while other parts showed percent identity of 95.7% to 100% at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectivley with other Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds from different parts of the world. In comparison to TLR4, sequence analysis of TLR7 showed more conservation among different B. indicus and B. taurus breeds, except single point mutation at 324 nucleotide position (AAA to AAM) altering a single amino acid at 108 position (K to X). Percent identity of TLR7 sequences (all 3 exons) was between 99.2% to 100% at nucleotide and amino acid level, when compared with available sequence database of B. indicus and B. taurus. Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) analysis showed variations in the exon fragments located in the Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) region, which is responsible for binding with the microbial associated molecular patterns and further, downstream signaling to initiate anti-microbial response. Considering importance of TLR polymorphism in terms of innate immunity, further research is warranted.
Effect of Caponization on Muscle Composition, Shear Value, ATP Related Compounds and Taste Appraisal in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Lin, Cheng-Yung ; Lin, Liang-Chuan ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1026~1030
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10068
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of caponization on the muscle composition, ATP-related compounds, the shear values, the taste panel scores and the muscle fiber areas of Taiwan country chicken cockerels. At 10 wks of age, cockerels were divided into two groups: caponized and untreated. Birds were fed grower and finisher diets ad libitum in an eighteen-week experimental period. Results showed that capons contained significantly greater muscle fat content, less breast and thigh muscle moisture content, shear value and muscle fiber area (p<0.05) than those of intact birds. However, neither treatment groups differed significantly (p>0.05) in breast and thigh muscle protein content. Compared with the intact birds, the capons contained significantly (p<0.05) less muscle ash content in the breasts, but did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in thigh muscle ash content. The breast muscle IMP and ATP+ADP+AMP+IMP contents in the intact birds were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the capons. The intact birds had significantly (p<0.05) higher ATP and AMP contents than did the capons as well as significantly (p<0.05) less ADP and inosine (HxR) contents in the thigh and breast muscles. The Hypoxanthine (Hx) content of the thighs in the intact birds was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the capons; however, there was an adverse effect on the breast muscle Hx content. The breast muscle K value in the intact birds was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that in the capons. The capons produced significantly (p<0.05) higher taste panel scores than did the intact birds for both flavor and juiciness of thigh muscle as well as for flavor and tenderness of breast muscle.