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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Factors Influencing Genetic Change for Milk Yield within Farms in Central Thailand
Sarakul, M. ; Koonawootrittriron, S. ; Elzo, M.A. ; Suwanasopee, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1031~1040
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10401
The objective of this study was to characterize factors influencing genetic improvement of dairy cattle for milk production at farm level. Data were accumulated from 305-day milk yields and pedigree information from 1,921 first-lactation dairy cows that calved from 1990 to 2007 on 161 farms in Central Thailand. Variance components were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. Animal breeding values were predicted by an animal model that contained herd-year-season, calving age, and regression additive genetic group as fixed effects, and cow and residual as random effects. Estimated breeding values from cows that calved in a particular month were used to estimate genetic trends for each individual farm. Within-farm genetic trends (b, regression coefficient of farm milk production per month) were used to classify farms into 3 groups: i) farms with negative genetic trend (b<-0.5 kg/mo), ii) farms with no genetic trend (-0.5 kg/
kg/mo), and iii) farms with positive genetic trend (b>0.5 kg/mo). Questionnaires were used to gather information from individual farmers on educational background, herd characteristics, farm management, decision making practices, and opinion on dairy farming. Farmer's responses to the questionnaire were used to test the association between these factors and farm groups using Fisher's exact test. Estimated genetic trend for the complete population was
kg/year for cows. At farm level, most farms (40%) had positive genetic trend (
kg/mo) followed by farms with negative genetic trend (35%;
kg/mo) and those with no genetic trend (25%;
kg/mo). Except for educational background (p<0.05), all other factors were not significantly associated with farm group.
Genetic Analysis of Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Growth Traits of Mecheri Sheep under Dry Land Farming Conditions
Thiruvenkadan, A.K. ; Karunanithi, K. ; Muralidharan, J. ; Babu, R. Narendra ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1041~1047
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10361
Data on 2,365 Mecheri sheep (1,201 males and 1,164 females), maintained at the Mecheri Sheep Research Station, Pottaneri, India, and recorded between 1979 and 2006, were analysed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The body weights at different ages (i.e. at birth, weaning (3 months), 6, 9 and 12 months) were recorded and collected from the birth and growth registers maintained in the farm. The average weights of Mecheri sheep at birth, and at 12 months of age were
kg respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains were
g respectively. Study revealed a significant difference with the period of lambing on body weight, weight gain and efficiency in weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and the differences tended to increase with age. The direct heritability estimates increased from birth to six months of age and then decreased. The direct heritabilities of all body weights at different stages of growth were low to moderate in magnitude and the values at birth, weaning, six, nine and 12 months of age were 0.08, 0.17, 0.21, 0.13 and 0.10 respectively. For the estimation of heritability at birth and three months body weights, the direct additive genetic and maternal additive genetic effects have to be taken into account and for the estimation of six months weight, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects have to be included in the model. The estimates of heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations among the different body weights indicated that the selection for improving the body weights at different traits should be done on the basis of three or six months weight because of higher heritability estimates and having higher genetic correlations with other traits.
Chinese Holstein Cattle Shows a Genetic Contribution from Native Asian Cattle Breeds: A Study of Shared Haplotypes and Demographic History
Ferreri, Miro ; Gao, Jian ; Wang, Zhi ; Chen, Liben ; Su, Jingliang ; Han, Bo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1048~1052
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10461
The Chinese Holstein cattle breed, an introduced breed in China, has been crossbred with native cattle breeds. We hypothesised that the Chinese Holstein local population in Beijing share haplotypes with native Asian cattle breeds, the result of a sudden population expansion in the recent past. We also hypothesised that crossbreeding and population expansion left traces that shaped the genetic makeup of the breed. Evaluation of this was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of Chinese Holstein cattle from Beijing (n = 41) and a comparison of them with the published mtDNA sequences (n = 293) of 14 Asian breeds with an emphasis on Chinese native cattle breeds. Three shared common haplotypes between Chinese Holstein cattle and native Asian cattle were found. Moreover, a high level of haplotype diversity in Chinese Holstein cattle (h = 0.9557) and low nucleotide diversity (
= 0.0052) was found, indicating a past population bottleneck followed by rapid population growth. These findings are supported by the significantly negative deviation of Tajima's D (-1.82085), the star-like pattern of dominant haplotypes and the pairwise mismatch distribution analysis, which showed a unimodal pattern.
Teratogenic and Embryotoxic Effects of Clomiphene Citrate in Developing Mice
Ara, Chaman ; Asmatullah, Asmatullah ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1053~1059
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10392
The objective of this study was to assess the teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of clomiphene citrate in mice. The pregnant mice were administered a single dose of clomiphene citrate at different concentrations i.e 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0
BW on day 8 of gestation. Fetuses recovered on day 18 of gestation were analyzed on morphological, morphometric and histological basis. Morphological observations showed defects like open eyelids, anophthalmia, fore and hindlimb micromelia, meromelia, amelia, sacral hygroma, hydrocephaly, hemorrhagic spots, kyphosis and clubbed feet. Morphometric analysis indicated a significant (p<0.001) reduction in fetal body weight, crown rump length, head circumference, eye circumference, forelimb and hindlimb lengths and tail size against controls. The histological observations showed brain defects like hydrocephaly, enlarged ventricles and undifferentiated neuroglial cells in cerebellum. Cleft palate, underdeveloped pharynx and atrophy of jaw muscles were the common anatomical defects of pharyngeal region. It is concluded that the concentrations of clomiphene citrate used during the present study proved teratogenic in mice fetuses.
Molecular Characterization and Expression of LDHA and LDHB mRNA in Testes of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)
Singh, R.P. ; Sastry, K.V.H. ; Pandey, N.K. ; Shit, N.G. ; Agarwal, R. ; Singh, R. ; Sharma, S.K. ; Saxena, V.K. ; Jagmohan, Jagmohan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1060~1068
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10263
The LDH isozymes are key catalysts in the glycolytic pathway of energy metabolism. It is well known that the distribution of the LDH isozymes vary in accordance with the metabolic requirements of different tissues. The substrates required for energy production change noticeably at successive stages of testes development suggesting a significant flexibility in the expression of glycolytic enzymes. Therefore, expression of LHDA and LDHB mRNAs was examined in adult and prepubertal quail testis. The mRNA of both LDHA and LDHB were expressed and no significant difference was observed in prepubertal testes. The mRNA levels of LDHB significantly increased during testicular development. In the adult testis, LDHA mRNA was not expressed. Expression studies revealed the presence of different LDH isozymes during testicular development. In contrast, electrophoresis of both testicular samples revealed only single band at a position indicative of an extreme type of LDH isozyme in quail testes. Furthermore, nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarity to chicken, duck and rock pigeon. These sequence results confirmed the similarity of LDHA and LDHB subunit protein in different avian species.
Plasma Osmolality Controls Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats
Thang, Tran Van ; Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Nagamine, Itsuki ; Ogura, Go ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1069~1085
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11063
In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to clarify whether or not increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding suppress dry forage intake. Eight large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 3 to 6 years, weighing
kg) were used in two experiments conducted under sham feeding conditions. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 h during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in the control replenished saliva lost via the esophageal fistula and an intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution (RIHS) in the treatment was carried out in order to reproduce the effects of changing salt content due to feed entering the rumen. In experiment 2, the RIHS control was conducted in the same manner as the RIHS treatment of experiment 1. The treatment group consisted of RIHS-with an intravenous infusion of artificial mixed saliva (VIAMS) treatment that was carried out for 3 h to prevent increases in plasma osmolality during feeding. The results of the RIHS treatment in experiment 1 showed that ruminal fluid osmolality increased and then an increase in plasma osmolality was observed. This resulted in the production of thirst sensations and the reduction of cumulative dry forage intake to 43.3% (p<0.05) of the RIAPS control. The results of the RIHS-VIAMS treatment in experiment 2 indicated that ruminal fluid osmolality was the same as the RIHS control but plasma osmolality significantly decreased, and thirst level was markedly reduced. This caused a significant increase of 31.4% (p<0.05) in cumulative dry forage intake in the RIHS-VIAMS treatment compared to the RIHS control. These results indicate that increases in ruminal fluid osmolality during dry forage feeding indirectly suppresses dry forage intake by causing an increase in plasma osmolality and subsequently inducing thirst sensations. The results of the present study suggest that marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding.
Rumen Microbial Population in the In vitro Fermentation of Different Ratios of Forage and Concentrate in the Presence of Whole Lerak (Sapindus rarak) Fruit Extract
Suharti, Sri ; Astuti, Dewi Apri ; Wina, Elizabeth ; Toharmat, Toto ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1086~1091
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10409
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of lerak extract on the dynamic of rumen microbes in the in vitro fermentation of diet with different ratios of forage and concentrate. In vitro fermentation was conducted according to the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). The design of experiment was a factorial block design with 2 factors. The first factor was the ratio of forage and concentrate (90:10, 80:20, and 70:30 w/w) and the second factor was the level of lerak extract (0, 0.6, and 0.8 mg/ml). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, proportional VFA and NH3 concentration were measured at 4 h incubation. Protozoal numbers in the buffered rumen fluid after 4 and 24 h of incubation were counted under a microscope. Bacterial DNAs of buffered rumen fluid were isolated from incubated samples after 24 h of incubation using a QiaAmp kit. Total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Prevotella ruminicola were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lerak extract markedly reduced protozoal numbers in buffered rumen fluid of all diets after 24 h of incubation. Total bacteria did not change with lerak extract addition. While no difference in F. succinogenes was found, there was a slight increase in R. albus number and a significant enhancement in P. ruminicola number by increasing the level of lerak extract in all diets. Propionate concentration significantly increased in the presence of lerak extract at level 0.8 mg/ml. It was concluded that the addition of lerak extract could modify rumen fermentation and had positive effects on rumen microbes.
Replacing Concentrate with Wheat Straw Treated with Urea Molasses and Ensiled with Manure: Effects on Ruminal Characteristics, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Nitrogen Metabolism of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls
Hassan, Z. ; Nisa, M. ; Shahzad, M.A. ; Sarwar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1092~1099
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10337
To evaluate the effects of replacing concentrate with urea molasses treated fermented wheat straw (FWS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on ruminal characteristics, in situ digestion kinetics and nitrogen (N) metabolism was studied in Nili Ravi cannulated buffalo bulls in a
Latin Square Design. Wheat straw treated with urea (4%) and molasses (6%) was ensiled with cattle manure (CM) (70:30) and fermented for 40 days. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. In the FWS0, FWS10, FWS20 and FWS30 diets 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the concentrate was replaced with FWS, respectively. Daily intake by bulls was restricted to 1.5% dry matter (DM) of body weight. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration was greater (p<0.05) in bulls fed FWS diet than for those fed FWS0 diet at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h post-parandial. Bulls fed FWS 20 and FWS 30 diets had higher ruminal pH at 3 and 6 h post-parandial than bulls fed FWS10 and FWS0. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations 3 h post-parandial were greater (p<0.05) in bulls fed FWS0 than those fed FWS diets. However ruminal VFA tended to increase at 6, 9 and 12 h post-parandial as the level of FWS increased. In situ ruminal DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation, rates of disappearance and extent of digestion were higher (p<0.05) for bulls fed FWS30 diet than those fed FWS0. Ruminal DM and NDF lag time tended to decrease (p<0.05) as FWS concentration in the diet increased. Feed intake, nitrogen intake, N-balance and blood urea-N did not differ (p>0.05) in buffalo bulls fed different diets. Wheat straw treated with urea and molasses and ensiled with CM enhanced the nutritive value of wheat straw and improved nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls when up to 30% of the concentrate was replaced with FWS; no adverse effects on ruminal characteristics and nutrients digestibilities were detected.
Salivary Secretion Volume Related Ruminal Distension and Suppression of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats
Thang, Tran Van ; Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Nagamine, Itsuki ; Ogura, Go ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1100~1111
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11001
Two experiments under sham feeding conditions were conducted to determine whether or not ruminal distension brought about by feed boluses entering the rumen is a factor in the marked suppression of feed intake after 40 min of feeding. In experiment 1, a comparison was made between the intraruminal insertion of a water filled balloon (RIB) treatment and normal control (non-insertion of a balloon, NIB). In experiment 2, saliva lost due to sham feeding conditions was replenished via an intraruminal infusion of iso-osmotic artificial saliva. A comparison of dry forage intake was then conducted between the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-RIB) treatment, and the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and non-insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-NIB) control. In experiment 1, eating rates in the RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding tended to be lower than those in the NIB control. In comparison with the NIB control, cumulative dry forage intake in the RIB treatment was 29.7% less (p<0.05) upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the NIB control and the RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 53.2% and 60.9% total weight of the boluses, respectively. In experiment 2, eating rates in the RRIAS-RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding was significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in the RRIAS-NIB control. Cumulative dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment was a significant 45.5% less (p<0.05) compared with that in the RRIAS-NIB control upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the RRIAS-NIB control and the RRIAS-RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 54.1% and 64.2% total weight of the boluses, respectively. The level of decrease in dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment of experiment 2 was larger than that in the RIB treatment of experiment 1. In the present experiments, due to the sham feeding conditions, the increases in osmolality of ruminal fluid and plasma, and a decrease in ruminal fluid pH which are normally associated with feeding were not observed. The results indicate that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding.
Preliminary Study on Meat Quality of Goats Fed Levels of Licury Oil in the Diet
Silva, Thadeu Mariniello ; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes ; Barbosa, Larissa Pires ; Neto, Americo Froes Garcez ; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina ; Lanna, Dante Pazzanese Duarte ; Da Silva, Mauricio Costa Alves ; De Jesus, Iona Brito ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1112~1119
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11053
The study aimed to evaluate the best level of licury oil in the diet of 3/4 Boer goats, as determined by profile analysis of commercial cuts on aspects of chemical composition, sensorial quality and fatty acid content. Nineteen male goats were used, with an initial weight of 10.8 kg/live weigh. The animals were fed with hay and a concentrated mix containing different levels of licury oil, which constituted the treatments. The experiment lasted for 60 days, at which point the animals were submitted to feed fasting and slaughtered. The carcass weight, commercial yield and cuts were measured. The ham was collected for sensorial and chemical evaluation and the longissimus dorsi was collected for fatty acid profile analysis. The addition of licury oil to the diet did not promote changes in the proportions and weights of the commercial cuts, nor to the meat's sensorial attributes. The sum of medium-chain fatty acids and the atherogenicity index was increased with the addition of oil. Licury oil can be added to the diet of goats (up to 4.5%) without resulting in changes in to the proportions of the commercial cuts, or to the chemical composition or sensorial characteristics of the meat. Based on the chain length of fatty acids, the addition of 4.5% licury oil can improve the quality of meat, but no effect was noted in relation to the atherogenicity index.
Effect of Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 Grown on Citrus-juice Waste and Corn-soybean Meal Substrate on Growth Performance, Nutrient Retention, Caecal Microbiology and Small Intestinal Morphology of Broilers
Sen, Sinol ; Ingale, S.L. ; Kim, J.S. ; Kim, K.H. ; Kim, Y.W. ; Khong, Chou ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Kim, E.K. ; Kim, H.S. ; Kwon, I.K. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1120~1127
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10443
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste and corn-soybean substrate on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred twenty d-old Ross chicks were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment had 4 replicates of 20 chicks in each. Experimental diets were fed in 2 phases, starter (d 0 to 21) and finisher (d 21 to 35). Dietary treatments were; negative control (NC: basal diet without any antimicrobial), positive control (PC: basal diet added with 20 mg/kg Avilamycin), basal diet added with 0.30% Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on corn-soybean substrate (P1), and basal diet added with 0.30% Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste substrate (P2). Overall BW gain, feed intake and FCR were better (p<0.05) in PC, P1 and P2 treatments as compared to NC. Moreover, overall BW gain and FCR in PC and P2 treatments were greater than P1. Retention of CP, GE (d 21, d 35) and DM (d 35) were increased (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1 and P2 compared with NC. At d 35, caecal Clostridium and Coliform counts were lower (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1 and P2 than NC. Moreover, Clostridium and Coliform counts in treatment PC was lower (p<0.05) than P1. Villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum were increased (p<0.05) in treatments PC, P1, P2 as compared to NC. However, retention of nutrients, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology remained comparable among treatments P1 and P2. It is concluded that Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 inclusion at 0.30% level had beneficial effects on broilers' growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microflora and intestinal morphology. Additionally, citrus-juice waste can be used as substrate for growth of probiotic Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2.
Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Caecal Coliform Bacteria Count of Broiler Chicks Fed Diet with Green Tea Extract
Erener, Guray ; Ocak, Nuh ; Altop, Aydin ; Cankaya, Soner ; Aksoy, Hasan Murat ; Ozturk, Ergin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1128~1135
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10434
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary green tea extract (GTE) on the performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (gut) traits, caecal coliform bacteria count, and pH and color (CIE
) values of the breast muscle in broilers. A total number of 600 day-old broilers (Ross 308) was allocated to three treatments with four replicates containing 50 (25 males and 25 females) birds. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet as the control (0GTE) and diets with GTE at 0.1 (0.1GTE) or 0.2 (0.2GTE) g/kg. Body weights and the feed intake of broilers were measured at 1, 21 and 42 days, the feed intake was measured for different periods and the feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At 42 day four birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass and organ weights, caecal coliform bacteria count, and also quality of the breast muscle. The dietary GTE increased the body weight, feed efficiency, carcass weight and dressing percentage and decreased caecal coliform bacteria count of broilers (p<0.05). The 0GTE broilers consumed (p<0.01) less feed than the 0.1GTE birds in the entire experimental period. The relative abdominal fat weight and gut length of broilers in the 0.2GTE were tended to be lower (p<0.07) than those in the 0GTE group. The breast meat from 0.1GTE birds had a lower pH value when compared to that from 0GTE birds. The 0.1GTE broilers had lighter breast meat than 0GTE and 0.2GTE birds. The dietary GTE increased
values of the breast meat. Thus this product appeared to have a measurable impact on CIE color values of the breast meat in broilers. The results of the present study may indicate that the improved production results in the group with added GTE are directly connected with physiological mechanisms such as the regulation of the caecal micro-flora.
Effect of Dietary Essential Oils on Growth, Feed Utilization and Meat Yields of White Leg Shrimp L. vannamei
Kim, J.D. ; Nhut, T.M. ; Hai, T.N. ; Ra, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1136~1141
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11006
Effect of dietary essential oils on growth, feed utilization and meat yields of white leg shrimp L. vannamei was investigated. White shrimp fry weighing 0.62 g were kept in one of 12 tanks (75 head/500 L holding tank) in a closed recirculation system. Four experimental diets, a commercial diet (control), phytoncide oil (PO), oregano oil (OO) and fermented garlic liquid (GL) were fed for 16 weeks. The mean water quality values for the whole experimental period were
mg/L for water temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen, respectively. At the end of the trial, 10 shrimp per tank were randomly sampled and meat yields (%) were evaluated after peeling the shell and removing the head. After a 16 week feeding trial, final weight of shrimp ranged from 21.9 g to 23.6 g. Feed conversion was not significantly different among groups (p>0.05), which was the lowest (1.95) in the control and highest (2.30) in the PO. Specific growth rate was also not significantly different (p>0.05) and ranged from 3.18% to 3.25%. Average daily gain of 0.2 g was obtained in all treatments. Mortality varied from 35.1% for control to 44.9% for OO. Meat yields maintained constant at 52.1% for control to 53.0% for PO. The study suggested that natural essential oils could not exert any improvement in growth performance, mortality and meat yields of white leg shrimp.
Effects of Lysine Intake during Middle to Late Gestation (Day 30 to 110) on Reproductive Performance, Colostrum Composition, Blood Metabolites and Hormones of Multiparous Sows
Zhang, R.F. ; Hu, Q. ; Li, P.F. ; Xue, L.F. ; Piao, X.S. ; Li, D.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1142~1147
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10449
Lysine intake during gestation has a major impact on subsequent reproductive performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of lysine intake from mid-gestation until farrowing on the reproductive performance of multiparous sows. On day 30 of gestation, 200 Landrace
Large White sows were randomly assigned to one of four groups based on body weight and parity (n = 50). The gestation diets contained 0.46, 0.56, 0.65 or 0.74% lysine. Increasing dietary lysine concentration improved sow body condition at farrowing and increased litter weights (p<0.05). Dietary lysine level also had a significant effect on the dry matter (p<0.05) and protein content (p<0.05) of colostrum. Increased lysine intake increased serum insulin concentration (p<0.05) and there was a trend towards increased serum prolactin content (linear, p = 0.07). However, increased lysine tended to decrease blood urea N (quadratic, p = 0.05). These results suggest that higher lysine levels (0.65-0.75%) than those recommended by the National Research Council improved reproductive performance for multiparous gestating sows and this increase may be partially mediated through blood metabolites or metabolic hormone levels.
Effect of Dietary Composition with Different Feeding Regime on Compensatory Growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Cho, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1148~1156
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10352
Compensatory growth of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed different diets with different feeding regime was compared. Four hundred fifty fish (twenty five fish per tank) were randomly distributed into 18 of 180 L flow-through tanks. Six treatments were prepared: fish were hand-fed with the control (C) diet to satiation twice a day, six days a week, for 8 weeks (C-8W treatment); and other groups of fish were starved for 2 weeks and then fed with the C, high protein (HP), high carbohydrate (HC), high lipid (HL), and combined protein, carbohydrate and lipid (CPCL) diets to satiation twice a day, six days a week, for 6 weeks, referred to as C-6W, HP-6W, HC-6W, HL-6W, and CPCL-6W treatments, respectively. Final body weight of fish in HP-6W treatment was higher than that of fish in C-6W, but not different from that of fish in C-8W, HC-6W, HL-6W and CPCL-6W treatments. Specific growth rate of fish in HP-6W treatment was higher than that of fish in all other treatments except for fish in CPCL-6W treatment. Feeding rate of fish in C-8W treatment was higher than that of fish in HP-6W, HC-6W, HL-6W and CPCL-6W treatments, but not different from that of fish in C-6W treatment. In addition, feeding rate of fish in C-6W treatment was higher than that of fish in HP-6W, HL-6W and CPCL-6W treatments. Feed and protein efficiency ratios of fish in HP-6W, HC-6W, HL-6W and CPCL-6W treatments were higher than those of fish in C-6W treatment. None of moisture, crude protein and ash content of the whole body of fish excluding the liver was different among treatments. Dietary supplementation of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and their combination could improve compensatory growth of fish when fish were fed for 6 weeks after 2-week feed deprivation; especially, supplementation of dietary protein was the most effective to improve compensatory growth of fish.
Inclusion of Ensiled Cassava KM94 Leaves in Diets for Growing Pigs in Vietnam Reduces Growth Rate but Increases Profitability
Ly, Nguyen T.H. ; Ngoan, Le D. ; Verstegen, Martin W.A. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1157~1163
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10451
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the inclusion of different levels of ensiled cassava leaves (variety KM94) in the diets on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs in Vietnam. A total of 40 crossbreds pigs (Large White
Mong Cai, 20 males and 20 females) with an initial live weight of 23.5 kg (SD = 0.86) were randomly allocated to one of the four pens across 5 units. Four experimental diets were formulated for two growth periods, period 1 (60 days) for 20 to 50 kg and period 2 lasted 30 days, from 50 kg until slaughter. Four diets were formulated containing inclusion levels of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves diet of 0, 10, 15 and 20% in the DM. Diets were formulated based on previously determined ileal amino acid digestibility values of the KM94 products and were isonitrogenous and isocaloric on a metabolizable energy basis. Each pen of pigs was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments. Dry matter intake and final weight tended to decreased with increasing levels of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves in the diet while there was a significant (p = 0.022) decrease in average daily gain. Protein depositions of the F1 pigs tended (p = 0.093) to decrease with increasing inclusion levels of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves. There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio, carcass quality and fat gain between the groups of pigs. There were clear differences in feed costs among the experimental diets (p = 0.001) with increasing levels of ensiled cassava KM 94 leaves in the diet reducing feed costs. It was concluded that, in diets for growing pig, inclusion of ensiled cassava leaves reduces growth rate of pigs in Vietnam but increases profitability as measured by feed costs.
Effect of Microbial Phytase on Performance, Nutrient Absorption and Excretion in Weaned Pigs and Apparent Ileal Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs
Zeng, Z.K. ; Piao, X.S. ; Wang, D. ; Li, P.F. ; Xue, L.F. ; Salmon, Lorraine ; Zhang, H.Y. ; Han, X. ; Liu, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1164~1172
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11016
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma reesei derived phytase for pigs fed diets with fixed calcium to total phosphorus ratios (1.5:1). In Exp. 1, 280 weaned pigs (initial BW of
kg) were allocated to one of five dietary treatments on the basis of weight and gender in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were the low phosphorus (0.6% Ca, 0.4% total P and 0.23% available P) diets supplemented with 0, 250, 1,000, or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg of diet and a positive control diet (PC; 0.85% Ca, 0.58% total P and 0.37% available P). The treatments were applied to seven pens with eight pigs per pen, half male and half female. In Exp. 2, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannula (initial BW =
kg) were assigned to three dietary treatments with a double
Latin square design. The dietary treatments were the low-phosphorus diet (0.53% Ca, 0.34% total P and 0.14% available P), the low phosphorus diet plus 1,000 FTU phytase/kg and a positive control diet (0.77% Ca, 0.50% total P and 0.30% available P). In Exp. 1, there were linear increases (p<0.01) in weight gain, phosphorus absorption, bone strength, calcium and phosphorus content of fat-free dried bone and plasma phosphorus concentrations with increasing dose rate of phytase. The performance of pigs fed the diets with 250, 1,000, or 2,000 FTU of phytase/kg did not differ from pigs fed the PC diet. Pigs fed diets with 1,000 or 2,000 FTU of phytase/kg did not differ from pigs fed the PC diet in bone characteristics. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ash and energy was not affected by dietary treatment. However, pigs fed the PC diet excreted more fecal phosphorus (g/d, p<0.01) and fecal phosphorus per BW gain (g/kg) than pigs fed the diets with phytase. Phytase linearly decreased (p<0.01) fecal phosphorus excreted per BW gain (g/kg), plasma calcium concentration as well as plasma and bone alkaline phosphatase activity. In Exp. 2, phytase supplementation in the low-P diet increased (p<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca, P, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, alanine and cysteine, tended to AID of crude protein, isoleucine, threonine, asparagine and serine. In conclusion, the novel phytase originated from Trichoderma reesei is effective in releasing Ca, P, and amino acids from corn soy based diet for pigs.
Determination of Wool Follicle Characteristics of Iranian Sheep Breeds
Ansari-Renani, H.R. ; Moradi, S. ; Baghershah, H.R. ; Ebadi, Z. ; Salehi, M. ; Momen, S.M. Seyed ; Ansari-Renani, M.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 8, 2011, Pages 1173~1177
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10431
In this study wool follicle characteristics of Iranian sheep breeds were investigated. A total of 242 male and female sheep of different age from 5 breeds were studied. Samples of skin were taken from the right midside to determine follicle characteristics. Overall averages for males and females were
for S/P ratio;
for primary follicle density;
for secondary follicle density;
for total primary plus secondary follicle density;
for percentage of inactive secondary follicles. Significant differences were found in some follicle characteristics between sheep breeds. Results of this study showed that sheep breeds raised in different parts of Iran characterized by a low S/P ratio and follicle density could be classed as carpet wool breeds.