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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Association of Polymorphisms in Fecundity Genes of GDF9, BMP15 and BMP15-1B with Litter Size in Iranian Baluchi Sheep
Moradband, F. ; Rahimi, G. ; Gholizadeh, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1179~1183
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10453
The incidence of mutation in three loci of GDF9, BMP15 and BMP15-1B and their effects on litter sizes was evaluated in Baluchi sheep. Wild-type alleles were detected for BMP15 and BMP15-1B loci and all individuals were found to be as non-carriers for FecB and
mutations but, a G to A nucleotide substitution was found in GDF9 locus. The frequency of
(0.82) wild type allele was higher than the frequency of
(0.18) mutant allele and the frequencies of
genotypes were 0.72, 0.20 and 0.08, respectively in GDF9 locus. The heterozygous (
) and homozygous (
) non-carrier ewes had 0.35 and 0.21 more lambs than the homozygous (
) carrier ewes, respectively (p<0.05). In addition to the finding of segregation of non-additive gene effect on litter size in the previous study in Baluchi sheep, these findings for the first time shows that the
gene has a major effect on litter size in this breed.
QTL Scan for Meat Quality Traits Using High-density SNP Chip Analysis in Cross between Korean Native Pig and Yorkshire
Kim, S.W. ; Li, X.P. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Choi, Y.I. ; Cho, B.W. ; Choi, B.H. ; Kim, T.H. ; Kim, J.J. ; Kim, Kwan-Suk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1184~1191
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11031
We attempted to generate a linkage map using Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchip genotypes of the
offspring from Korean native pig (KNP) crossed with Yorkshire (YS) pig, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) using the line-cross model. Among the genotype information of the 62,136 SNPs obtained from the high-density SNP analysis, 45,308 SNPs were used to select informative markers with allelic frequencies >0.7 between the KNP (n = 16) and YS (n = 8) F0 animals. Of the selected SNP markers, a final set of 500 SNPs with polymorphic information contents (PIC) values of >0.300 in the
groups (n = 252) was used for detection of thirty meat quality-related QTL on chromosomes at the 5% significance level and 10 QTL at the 1% significance level. The QTL for crude protein were detected on SSC2, SSC3, SSC6, SSC9 and SSC12; for intramuscular fat and marbling on SSC2, SSC8, SSC12, SSC14 and SSC18; meat color measurements on SSC1, SSC3, SSC4, SSC5, SSC6, SSC10, SSC11, SSC12, SSC16 and SSC18; water content related measurements in pork were detected on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC10, SSC12 and SSC14. Additional QTL of pork quality traits such as texture, tenderness and pH were detected on SSC6, SSC12, SSC13 and SSC16. The most important chromosomal region of superior pork quality in KNP compared to YS was identified on SSC12. Our results demonstrated that a QTL linkage map of the
design in the pig breed can be generated with a selected data set of high density SNP genotypes. The QTL regions detected in this study will provide useful information for identifying genetic factors related to better pork quality in KNP.
Relationship of Blood Metabolites with Reproductive Parameters during Various Seasons in Murrah Buffaloes
Khan, H.M. ; Mohanty, T.K. ; Bhakat, M. ; Raina, V.S. ; Gupta, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1192~1198
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10092
Peri-partum metabolic profile was evaluated in winter and summer calving, with 15 Murrah buffaloes in each seasonal group. In summer calvers, significantly lower values were observed for blood plasma urea nitrogen (BUN) at day 30 pre-partum (p<0.05), on calving day (p<0.05) and at all other stages (p<0.01); plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) values were significantly lower on day 30 pre-partum (p<0.01) and on day 60 post-partum (p<0.05). This was associated with significant reduction in days to first service (DFS) and service per conception (SPC) and an overall better reproductive performance in terms of service period, risk to first service on days 60, 90 and >90, and pregnancy risk to first service up to days 60 and 90. This may be attributed to better pre-partum nutritional status. Cervical and uterine involution were completed in fewer days, involutional changes took place at a faster pace and there were a lower number of abnormal involutional changes in winter compared to summer season. This may be attributed to better post-partum nutrition and less environmental stress. However, validation requires further targeted cohort investigation with a large sample size.
Maturational Changes in Binding Capacity of Fowl Sperm to the Epithelium of the Sperm Storage Tubules during Their Passage through the Male Reproductive Tract
Ahammad, Muslah U. ; Okamoto, S. ; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro ; Nakada, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1199~1203
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11105
The objective of this study was to examine the binding potential of sperm to the epithelium of the sperm storage tubules (SST) in vitro and in vivo to assess the functional maturation of fowl sperm. Sperm from the testis, epididymis, as well as the proximal, middle and distal vas deferens were incubated in vitro with either the uterovaginal junction (UVJ)- or infundibular tissue containing SST at
for 30 min. Aliquots of sperm were also artificially inseminated into the uteri of hens, and the UVJ and infundibulum were collected 24 h post artificial insemination (AI). After incubation and AI, tissues were washed to remove loosely adhered sperm and subjected to fluorescence staining with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) for counting the number of bound sperm per 0.25 mm2 of surface area. Sperm from the testis, epididymis, and the three segments of the vas deferens exhibited their differential (p<0.05) binding capacity, which increased gradually from the testicular to distal vas deferens sperm under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Existing similar trend, sperm, regardless of their source had a lesser affinity to bind to the epithelium of the infundibular SST than to the UVJ-SST. These experimental results suggested that fowl sperm may undergo gradual changes in the process of functional maturation, whereby they gain the ability to bind to the epithelium of the SST during their passage through the male reproductive tract (MRT).
Influence of Nitric Oxide on Steroid Synthesis, Growth and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Granulosa Cells In vitro
Dubey, Pawan K. ; Tripathi, Vrajesh ; Singh, Ram Pratap ; Sastry, K.V.H. ; Sharma, G.Taru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1204~1210
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10290
Objective of this study was to examine the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor on steroid synthesis, growth and apoptosis of buffalo granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Follicular fluid of antral follicles (3-5 mm diameter) was aspirated and GCs were cultured in 0 (control),
of SNP for 48 h. To evaluate whether this effect was reversible, GCs were cultured in presence of
-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor or hemoglobin (Hb,
) as NO scavenger. Nitrate/nitrite concentration was evaluated by Griess method, progesterone and estradiol concentrations by RIA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. SNP (
) significantly (p<0.05) inhibited estradiol and progesterone synthesis, growth, disorganized GCs aggregates and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. However,
SNP induced the progesterone synthesis and stimulated GCs to develop into a uniform monolayer. Combination of SNP
M+L-NAME strengthened the inhibitory effect while, SNP+Hb together reversed these inhibitory effects. In conclusion, SNP at greater concentrations (
) has a cytotoxic effect and it may lead to cell death whereas, at a lower concentration (
) induced progesterone synthesis and growth of GCs. These findings have important implications that NOS derived NO are involved at physiological level during growth and development of buffalo GCs which regulates the steroidogenesis, growth and apoptosis.
Changes of Hypothalamic GnRH-I, POMC and NPY mRNA Expression and Serum IGF-I and Leptin Concentrations during Maturation of Shaoxing Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)
Ni, Y. ; Lu, L. ; Chen, J. ; Zhao, Ruqian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1211~1216
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11024
Sexual maturity in poultry is controlled by a complex neural circuit located in the basal forebrain, which integrates the central and peripheral signals to activate hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. This study demonstrated the changes of GnRH-I, POMC and NPY mRNA transcription in hypothalamus and IGF-I and leptin levels in serum of Shaoxing ducks during puberty. Body weight increased progressively from d30 to d120 and at d120 the flock reached 5% of laying rate. A significant upregulation of hypothalamic GnRH-I mRNA expression was observed from d60, reaching the peak at d120. POMC and NPY mRNA expression in hypothalamus showed a similar pattern, which increased from d30 to d60, followed by a significant decrease towards sexual maturity. Serum IGF-I levels exhibited two peaks at d30 and d120, respectively. Serum leptin displayed a single peak at d90. The results indicate that the down-regulation of POMC and NPY genes in hypothalamus coincides with the up-regulation of GnRH-I gene to initiate sexual maturation in ducks. In addition, peripheral IGF-I and leptin may relay the peripheral metabolic status to the central system and contribute to the initiation of the reproductive function in ducks.
Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Characteristics of Black Goat Kids Fed Sesame Hulls and Prosopis juliflora Pods
Abdullah, Abdullah Y. ; Obeidat, Belal S. ; Muwalla, Marwan M. ; Matarneh, Sulaiman K. ; Ishmais, Majdi A. Abu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1217~1226
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11061
Finding alternative feeds, such as sesame hulls and Prosopis juliflora species can attenuate difficulties of feed shortage and reduce the cost of animal feed in arid and semi-arid countries. Thirty-two Black male kids with similar initial weights (BW =
of age, were used to evaluate the effect of replacing barley grains and soybean meal with Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) and sesame hulls (SH) on growth performance, digestibility and carcass and meat characteristics. Kids were equally divided into four dietary treatment groups for an 84-d fattening period. Treatment diets had similar crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy (ME). The treatment groups were: (T1) no PJP nor SH, (T2) 10% PJP and 20% SH, (T3) 15% PJP and 15% SH, and (T4) 20% PJP and 10% SH. A tendency was detected (p<0.08) for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes that were greater for T2 than T3 and T4 while T1 was not different from all other treatment groups. Ether extract (EE) intake was the greatest (p<0.05) for T2 and the lowest for T1. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake was greater (p<0.05) for T2 than T1 while T3 and T4 were intermediate. Final live weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were comparable among different treatment groups. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among all treatment groups, however, EE digestibility was the lowest (p<0.05) for T1 when compared to other treatments. In addition, nitrogen intake, nitrogen in urine and retained and retention percentages were similar among all treatment groups. However, N loss in feces was higher (p<0.05) for T2 than T3 and T4 while T1 was intermediate. No differences were observed among treatment groups with respect to fasting live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, dressing-out percentages, mesenteric fat, visceral organs, carcass cuts percentages and carcass linear dimensions. No differences were also observed for dissected loin, leg, rack and shoulder tissues except in the total bone % for loin cuts and in the meat to bone ratio for rack cuts. T3 has the greatest total bone % and the lowest meat to bone ratio when compared to all other treatment groups. No differences were observed between treatment groups in all quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle. The present study demonstrates the potential of using PJP and SH for growing kids without adverse effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.
Effect on Milking Performance of Vitamin-Trace Element Supplements to Early Lactation Italian Brown Cows Grazing Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) Pasture
Tufarelli, Vincenzo ; Khan, R.U. ; Laudadio, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1227~1232
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11059
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of concentrates containing different levels of a vitamin-trace elements premix on milk yield and composition of dairy cows. The trial, which lasted 14 weeks, was conducted from January to March and used 45 multiparous Brown cows in the early phase of lactation. Cows (n = 15 per treatment) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments: the first group (control, C-0) was fed pelleted concentrate containing background vitamins and trace elements that supplied 1.0 times cows' daily requirements; the second group were fed the same concentrate, but containing 2.5 g/kg of vitamin and trace mineral premix per kg of concentrate (C-2.5); the third group were fed the same concentrate, but containing 5 g/kg of vitamin and trace mineral premix per kg of concentrate (C-5). The daily ration included ad libitum chopped oat hay, and the cows also had 8 h/d grazing on a ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) pasture. During the performance trial, cow milk yield was daily recorded and individual milk samples were analysed for milk composition and to determine milk renneting properties. Cows fed the intermediate premix level (C-2.5) in diet showed the highest fat-corrected milk production (p<0.05) compared to other groups. None of the milk quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for milk rheological parameters (rennet clotting time and curd firmness) that were positively improved in cows fed the C-2.5 diet (p<0.05). The findings from this study show that intermediate level of vitamin-trace elements premix in concentrate can be advantageously used in grazing dairy cows without negative effects on yield and quality of milk produced.
The Nutritive Value of Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) and Partial Replacement of Cotton Seed in Rations on the Performance of Growing Vietnamese Cattle
Vu, Chi Cuong ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pham, K.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1233~1242
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.90328
The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a local prolific breed) with an initial weight of 23-25 kg, were first assigned to four groups according to weight and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments to determine digestibility of nutrients in mulberry leaves (M. alba), natural Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58). All forages were cut and chopped daily before being offered (at 120% maintenance) to the sheep. In the feeding trial, 20 Laisind (Vietnam yellow cows
Red Sindhy bulls) crossbred bulls averaged 18 month old and 184 kg were used to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cottonseed in the diet by mulberry leaves on live weight gain and feed conversion rate. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four levels of fresh mulberry leaves which varied from 0 to 15% of total dietary dry mater and five animals per treatment over an 84 day period. The in vivo digestion trial showed the superior quality of mulberry leaves compared with the grasses. Chemical analysis indicated that mulberry leaves had the highest CP and the lowest NDF contents (22.3 and 31.1% DM, respectively) among the four forages tested. Digestibility of DM and OM of the mulberry leaf (66.4 and 71.8%, respectively) was also the highest but that of CP (58.2%) and NDF (58.4%) was the lowest of the four forages evaluated (p<0.05). Consequently, the ME value and therefore net energy (NE) and unit feed for lactation (UFL) values of the mulberry leaves, which was estimated from chemical composition and digestibility values, were the highest among the forages investigated in the present study. Results of the feeding trial showed no treatment effect on average daily gain (ADG) of the cattle. The values were 554, 583, 565 and 568 g/d for animals in the diets of 0, 5, 10, and 15% mulberry leaves inclusion, respectively. Total DM intake of the animal was not affected by the treatment when expressed as kg/animal/d. However, when adjusted for metabolic weight of the animal the DM intake was reduced (p<0.05) as whole cottonseed was replaced by mulberry leaves in the ration. When the level of mulberry leaves in the ration increased from 5 to 15% of dietary DM at the expense of whole cottonseed, CP and ME intakes of the cattle were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and the feed to gain ratio reduced by 8 to 14% as compared with the control diet (p<0.05). Mulberry leaf is a good feed ingredient for ruminants because of its high level of crude protein and high digestibility of nutrients and energy. Mulberry leaves can be efficiently used as a source of protein supplement to replace cottonseed, a more expensive animal feeds ingredient, in the diet for Vietnamese cattle.
Evaluation of Mixtures of Certain Market Wastes as Silage
Ozkul, H. ; Kilic, A. ; Polat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1243~1248
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10460
The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of vegetable wastes as silage for ruminants. Varying amounts of wheat straw (WS), wheat bran (WB) and salt (S) were combined with minced vegetable wastes (VW) during ensilage. Seven different ingredient combinations were investigated viz: 100% VW (Group I, control), 90% VW+9% WS+1% S (Group II), 80% VW+15% WS+4% WB+1% S (Group III), 70% VW+20% WS+9% WB+1% S (Group IV), 90% VW+9% WB+1% S (Group V), 80% VW+15% WB+4% WS+1% S (Group VI) and 70% VW+20% WB+9% WS+1% S (Group VII). The inclusion of straw and bran increased (p<0.01) the DM content of silage. The highest contents of the pure silage were CP (p<0.001), EE (p<0.01) and NFE (p<0.05). NDF contents of VW silage and group V were significantly lower and especially the VW silage was found to have the lowest ADL content (p<0.01). The in vitro ME values of VW silage and bran added silage were higher than other groups (p<0.01). pH, lactic acid and acetic acid values of silage groups were changed between 4.09-4.20, 2.43-3.46% and 0.60-0.86%, respectively. In conclusion, different mixtures of VW have a high ensilage capacity and can serve as an alternative roughage source for ruminants. The addition of 9% bran significantly improved the silage in view of both dry matter content and nutritive value.
Influence of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Combination with Flaxseed Oil or Fish Oil on Saturated Fatty Acid and n-3 to n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio in Broiler Chicken Meat
Shin, D. ; Kakani, G. ; Karimi, A. ; Cho, Y.M. ; Kim, S.W. ; Ko, Y.G. ; Shim, K.S. ; Park, Jae-Hong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1249~1255
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11109
This study examined the effect of CLA, flaxseed oil and fish oil and their combination forms on crude fat of liver and fatty acid profiles of liver, breast and thigh meat in broiler chicks. A total of 72, 1-day-old Cobb broilers were assigned to 6 groups, and fed an experimental diet supplemented with 5 different fat sources; conjugated linoleic acid (2% CLA), flaxseed oil (2% FXO), fish oil (2% FHO), CLA and flaxseed oil combination (1:1; 2% CXO), and CLA and fish oil combination (1:1; 2% CHO). Eight birds per treatment were processed, and liver, breast and thigh samples were investigated at 21 d of age. As a result of this study, most fatty acids of liver, breast and thigh meat were influenced by fat sources supplemented in the diet (p<0.05). CLA addition resulted in an increase of crude fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content but a concomitant decrease in n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio was observed in liver (p<0.05). Moreover, the same trends of SFA and n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio were also observed in breast and thigh meats of birds fed CLA alone. In the CXO-fed group or CHO-fed group, n-3 and n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio in both breast and thigh meat increased compared with CLA group, while SFA content decreased (p<0.05). FHO fed-groups had the lowest proportion of n-6 fatty acid in both breast and thigh meats compared to other fat source treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, the increased levels of crude fat and SFA in liver and meats obtained by feeding CLA could be reduced by its combination with FXO or FHO. In addition, the combination of CLA and FXO or FHO fed to broiler chicks could increase the n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of their meat along with the deposition of CLA.
Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs
Kim, Y.W. ; Ingale, S.L. ; Kim, J.S. ; Kim, K.H. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1256~1267
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11134
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary lysine and energy level on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 288 weaned pigs (initial BW
) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (4 replicates per treatment with 18 pigs in each replicate). Experimental diets were fed in the 3 phases: phase I (d 0 to 7), phase II (d 8 to 14) and phase III (d 15 to 28). Isocalorific diets (3,450 kcal/kg) with incremental lysine levels (Phase I: 1.51, 1.61, 1.71 and 1.81; Phase II: 1.35, 1.46, 1.56 and 1.66; Phase III: 1.18, 1.28, 1.39 and 1.49% lysine respectively for T1, T2, T3 and T4) were used as treatments. An increase in the dietary lysine levels linearly improved (p<0.05) the ADG and G:F during phases I, II and III as well as overall study period. The ATTD of DM (d 7 and 28) and CP (d 7, 14 and 28) were linearly improved (p<0.05) with increasing dietary lysine levels. ATTD of ash, Ca and P were not affected by dietary lysine level. In Exp. 2, 64 weanling pigs (initial BW
) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (4 replicates per treatment with 4 pigs in each replicate) in a
factorial arrangement on the basis of BW. Effects of two levels of energy (high, 3,450 or low, 3,350 kcal/kg) and lysine (high or low; 1.70 or 1.50, 1.55 or 1.35 and 1.40 or 1.20% in phase I, II and III diets, respectively) on performance and ATTD of nutrients were investigated. High energy and lysine diets improved ADG (p<0.05) in pigs during phase I, II and III and overall period (p<0.001), while G:F increased (p<0.05) during phase I and overall period. Pigs fed high lysine diets consumed more (p<0.05) feed during phase III and overall period. Additionally, pigs fed high energy diets had greater (p<0.05) ATTD of GE (d 7 and 14), CP (d 7 and 28) and DM (d 28); whereas, pigs fed high lysine diets had greater (p<0.05) ATTD of GE and CP during d 7, 14 and 28. ATTD of ash, Ca and P remained unaffected (p>0.05) by dietary energy and lysine level. However, there was no energy
lysine interaction for any of the measured variables. Results obtained in present study suggested that high energy and lysine level improve the growth performance and ATTD of nutrients in weanling pigs.
Determination of Adequate Method for Protein Extraction from Rice Bran and the Substitution of Dried Skim Milk with Protein Concentrate from Rice Bran in Early Weaned Pigs
Phipek, W. ; Nagasinha, C. ; Vallisuth, S. ; Nongyao, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1268~1273
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11198
The present study was conducted to determine a feasible method of protein concentrate extraction from rice bran (RBPC) and its effect as a substitution for skim milk in early weaning pig diets. An investigation to extract protein concentrate from full fat rice bran was undertaken to determine the best ratio of water and rice bran, the amount of NaOH and a HCl solvent to use in a simple paddle-type mixer with modified spinning to produce RBPC. The results stated that the best ratio for water mixing in the RBPC extraction process was 1:5 with 20 g NaOH and 30 min in a paddle-type mixer at 300 rpm. A mix of 250 ml 0.2 N HCl was optimum for neutralization and protein precipitation. After the fluid was spun out with a washing machine, the sediment was left for 12-14 hours to complete the filtration. One kilogram of rice bran could produce an average of 324.5 gram RBPC and it contained 3.40% ash, 496.48 kcal of GE/100 gram, 1.94% crude fiber, 28.20% ether extract, 7.64% moisture and 16.66% crude protein, respectively. A total of 45 crossbred piglets, weaned at 3 weeks of age were allotted into control diet (A) and dietary treatments formulated with a four different rates of RBPC substitution for skim milk at a percentage of 25 (B), 50 (C), 77 (D) and 100 (E) respectively, in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. All piglets had free access to feed and water until 8 week of age when the experiment ended. Feed intake, average daily gain, growth rate and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary treatments. Blood test parameters after completion of the growth trial indicated normal health. Even though the mean of cell hemoglobin concentration was significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) it was still within the normal range. The cost difference for BW gain of 100% RBPC substituted for skim milk in the weaning diet was approximately 35% lower than that of the control and the relative cost of production was 96.67, 92.85, 70.75 and 64.48% lower for the replacement of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of skim milk respectively. These results implied that this technology is feasible for use by small scale farmers to improve their self-reliance.
Dietary Protein Restriction Alters Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats
Kang, W. ; Lee, M.S. ; Baik, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1274~1281
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10430
Dietary protein restriction affects lipid metabolism in rats. This study was performed to determine the effect of a low protein diet on hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in growing male rats. Growing rats were fed either a control 20% protein diet or an 8% low protein diet. Feeding a low protein diet for four weeks from 8 weeks of age induced a fatty liver. Expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key lipogenic enzyme, was increased in rats fed a low protein diet. Feeding a low protein diet decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion without statistical significance. Feeding a low protein diet down-regulated protein expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, an important enzyme of VLDL secretion. Feeding a low protein diet increased serum adiponectin levels. We performed glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Both GTT and ITT were increased in protein-restricted growing rats. Our results demonstrate that dietary protein restriction increases insulin sensitivity and that this could be due to low-protein diet-mediated metabolic adaptation. In addition, increased adiponectin levels may influences insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, dietary protein restriction induces a fatty liver. Both increased lipogenesis and decreased VLDL secretion has contributed to this metabolic changes. In addition, insulin resistance was not associated with fatty liver induced by protein restriction.
Effect of Xylanase Supplementation on the Net Energy for Production, Performance and Gut Microflora of Broilers Fed Corn/Soy-based Diet
Nian, F. ; Guo, Y.M. ; Ru, Y.J. ; Peron, A. ; Li, F.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1282~1287
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10441
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of xylanase on net energy for production, performance, nutrient digestion and gut microflora of broilers fed corn/soy-based diet. Eighty-four day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to two groups receiving two treatments, respectively. Each treatment had six replicate cages with seven broilers per cage. The diets were based on corn and soybean. The treatments were: i) basal diet reduced in apparent metabolizable energy (-0.63 MJ/kg compared to commercial diet specifications); ii) basal diet supplemented xylanase at 4,000 u/kg feed. The experiment used the auto-control, open circuit respiration calorimetry apparatus to examine the heat production and net energy for production. The results revealed that xylanase supplementation did not affect growth performance and diet AME value, but increased
value by 18.2% (p<0.05) and decreased daily heat production per
by 31.7% (p<0.05). There was no effect (p>0.05) of xylanase supplementation on the ileal digestibility of N and hemicelluloses, but the ileum digestibility of energy was increased by 2% by xylanase supplementation (p<0.05). Xylanase supplementation increased (p<0.05) the count of lactobacillus and bifidobacterial in the caecum.
Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Myogenic Differentiation
Rajesh, Ramanna Valmiki ; Jang, Eun-Jeong ; Choi, In-Ho ; Heo, Kang-Nyeong ; Yoon, Du-Hak ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Lee, Hyun-Jeong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1288~1302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10344
The aim of this study was to analyze the proteome expression of bovine satellite cells from longissimus dorsi (LD), deep pectoral (DP) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle depots during in vitro myogenic differentiation. Proteomic profiling by twodimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of differentiating satellite cells revealed a total of 38 proteins that were differentially regulated among the three depots. Among differentially regulated proteins, metabolic proteins like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were found to be up regulated in ST, while alpha-enolase (NNE) in LD and DP depot satellite cells were down regulated. Also, our analysis found that there was a prominent up regulation of cytoskeletal proteins like actin, actincapping protein and transgelin along with chaperone proteins like heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB 1) and T-complex protein 1 (TCP-1). Among other up regulated proteins, LIM domain containing protein, annexin 2 and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (Rho GDI) are observed, which were already proven to be involved in the myogeneis. More interestingly, satellite cells from ST depot were found to have a higher myotube formation rate than the cells from the other two depots. Taken together, our results demonstrated that, proteins involved in glucose metabolism, cytoskeletal modeling and protein folding plays a key role in the myogenic differentiation of bovine satellite cells.
Effect of Antler Development Stage on the Chemical Composition of Velvet Antler in Elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis)
Jeon, Byong-Tae ; Cheong, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Park, Jae-Hyun ; Park, Pyo-Jam ; Sung, Si-Heung ; Thomas, David G. ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Moon, Sang-Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1303~1313
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.10412
This study was conducted to provide the basic information to allow improved scientific assessment of velvet antler's quality by investigating the change of chemical composition during different antler growth stages in elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis). Twenty four antlers were harvested from elk stags (aged 4-5 years) on 65 days (VA65), 80 days (VA80) and 95 days (VA95) after button casting, and the chemical composition of each antler was determined in five sections (top, upper, middle, base, and bottom). Crude protein and ether extract content was the highest in the top section, whereas ash content was the highest in the bottom section in all groups (p<0.05). Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was higher in the VA65 group than in the VA95 group in the upper section of antler (p<0.05). The collagen content was higher in the VA65 group compared to the VA95 group in the middle and bottom sections (p<0.05), and increased downward from the top to the bottom section. The proportions of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid and isoleucine were higher (p<0.05), whereas proline and glycine were lower in the top section of antler compared to all other sections (p<0.05). The proportion of linoleic acid, 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, total
-6 fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for all sections in the VA65 group was higher than in the VA95 group (p<0.05). These results suggested that the quality of velvet antler is strongly influenced by antler development stage.
Pulsed Electric Field Effects to Reduce the Level of Campylobacter spp. in Scalder and Chiller Water during Broiler Chicken Processing
Shin, Dae-Keun ; Martin, Bradely C. ; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1314~1317
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11075
To evaluate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) application on scalder and chiller water on Campylobacter contamination, four different treatments under three different water conditions including hard scalder water (
), soft scalder water (
) and chiller water, were applied as follows: i) a control treatment with no salt and no electric treatment, ii) a PEF only treatment, iii) a PEF treatment with 0.5% salt water, and iv) a PEF treatment with 1% salt water treatment. The use of PEF in hard scalding water showed an effect of reducing Campylobacter when compared to the control during the 200 s timeframe. With the addition of salt, the intervention caused at least 5.81 log CFU/ml reduction of Campylobacter counts after 200 s of PEF exposure. Similar effects were observed under soft scalding conditions. Campylobacter reductions were evident under chilling conditions with up to 2.00 log for PEF only, 5.77 log for PEF+0.5% salt and 2.69 log for PEF+1% salt treatment in water. Therefore, the current PEF setting for the scalder and chiller water can be successfully used to reduce pathogenic loads of Campylobacter on broiler chicken carcasses, and further research may be necessary to apply it in the poultry processing industry.
Factors Affecting High Mortality Rates of Dairy Replacement Calves and Heifers in the Tropics and Strategies for Their Reduction
Moran, John B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 24, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1318~1328
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11099
The tropics is not an ideal location for calf rearing as the high temperatures and humidities introduce many potential disease problems to milk fed calves. In addition, the type of dairy farming (generally poorly resourced small holder farming) and the general lack of awareness of the long term implications of poorly reared stock do not encourage farmers to pay close attention to their calf and heifer rearing systems. Surveys of calf rearing systems in Asia, tropical Africa and South America highlight the high calf and heifer mortalities. A range of 15 to 25% pre-weaning calf mortality is typical on many tropical dairy farms. It is often as high as 50%, indicating very poor calf management. This contrasts with US findings of less than 8% mortality from birth to 6 months while surveys of Australian farmers report only 3% losses. Simple extension programs on farms in Sri Lanka and Kenya have drastically reduced calf mortalities and improved pre-weaning growth rates. Improved management strategies leading to lower calving intervals, higher calving rates, reduced still born and pre-weaned calf mortalities and fewer non pregnant heifers can supply many more dairy herd replacements than currently occurs. Such strategies can increase the number of replacement heifer calves in the herd from 15 to over 35%, thus allowing farmers to increase their herd sizes through natural increases. Simple management procedures such as ensuring adequate intake of good quality colostrum within the first 12 hours of life, housing and good hygiene to minimise disease transfer, providing clean drinking water, developing appropriate feeding protocols to encourage early rumen development and paying closer attention to climate control and animal health can all lead to improved calf vigour and performance. Good record keeping is also important so farmers can more easily identify susceptible calves and quickly treat potential problems.