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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths
Szucs, E. ; Geers, R. ; Jezierski, T. ; Sossidou, E.N. ; Broom, D.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1499~1506
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.r.02
Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.
Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fat Deposition Traits in Pigs
Choi, B.H. ; Lee, K.T. ; Lee, H.J. ; Jang, G.W. ; Lee, H.Y. ; Cho, B.W. ; Han, J.Y. ; Kim, T.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1507~1510
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12116
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with fat deposition traits in pigs are important gene positions in a chromosome that influence meat quality of pork. For QTL study, a three generation resource population was constructed from a cross between Korean native boars and Landrace sows. A total of 240 F2 animals from intercross of F1 were produced. 80 microsatellite markers covering chromosomes 1 to 10 were selected to genotype the resource population. Intervals between adjacent markers were approximately 19 cM. Linkage analysis was performed using CRIMAP software version 2.4 with a FIXED option to obtain the map distances. For QTL analysis, the public web-based software, QTL express (http://www.qtl.cap.ed.ac.uk) was used. Two significant and two suggestive QTL were identified on SSC 6, 7, and 8 as affecting body fat and IMF traits. For QTL affecting IMF, the most significant association was detected between marker sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6, and a suggestive QTL was identified between sw268 and sw205 on SSC8. These QTL accounted for 26.58% and 12.31% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. A significant QTL affecting IMF was detected at position 105 cM between markers sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6.
Empirical Statistical Power for Testing Multilocus Genotypic Effects under Unbalanced Designs Using a Gibbs Sampler
Lee, Chae-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1511~1514
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12133
Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells. Mean empirical statistical power was estimated for testing posterior mean estimate of combined genotype effect. A practical example for obtaining empirical statistical power estimates with a given sample size was provided under unbalanced designs. The empirical statistical powers would be useful for determining an optimal design when interactive associations of multiple loci with complex phenotypes were examined.
DNA Polymorphism of Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein-3 Gene and Its Association with Cashmere Traits in Cashmere Goats
Liu, Haiying ; Liu, Chao ; Yang, Guiqin ; Li, Hui ; Dai, Jin ; Cong, Yuyan ; Li, Xuejian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1515~1520
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12351
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) gene is important for regulation of growth and development in mammals. The present investigation was carried out to study DNA polymorphism by PCR-RFLP of IGFBP-3 gene and its effect on fibre traits of Chinese Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Four hundred and forty-four animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the hircine IGFBP-3 gene. A 316-bp fragment of the IGFBP-3 gene in exon 2 was amplified and digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. Three patterns of restriction fragments were observed in the populations. The frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes was 0.58, 0.33 and 0.09 respectively. The allelic frequency of the A and B allele was 0.75 and 0.25 respectively. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a C>G transition in the exon 2 region of the IGFBP-3 gene resulting in R158G change which caused the polymorphism. Least squares analysis revealed a significant effect of genotypes on cashmere weight (p<0.0001), cashmere fibre length (p<0.001) and hair length (p<0.05) of the animals. The effect of genotypes on cashmere fibre diameter was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The animals of AB and BB genotypes showed higher cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and hair length than the animals possessing AA genotype. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine IGFBP-3 gene might be a potential molecular marker for cashmere weight in cashmere goats.
Evaluation of BTA1 and BTA5 QTL Regions for Growth and Carcass Traits in American and Korean Cattle
Kim, K.S. ; Kim, S.W. ; Raney, N.E. ; Ernst, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1521~1528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12218
Previously identified QTL regions on BTA1 and BTA5 were investigated to validate the QTL regions and to identify candidate genes for growth and carcass traits in commercial cattle populations from the USA and Korea. Initially, a total of 8 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers in the BTA1 and 5 QTL regions were used for Chi-square tests to compare the frequencies of individual alleles between high and low phenotypic groups for the US (Michigan Cattleman's Association/Michigan State University; MCA/MSU) cattle. For a subsequent study, 24 candidate genes containing missense mutations and located within the QTL regions based on bovine genome sequence data were analyzed for genotyping in the two commercial cattle populations. Re-sequencing analyses confirmed 18 public missense SNPs and identified 9 new SNPs. Seventeen of these SNPs were used for genotyping of the MCA/MSU cattle (n = 98) and Korean native cattle (n = 323). On BTA1, UPK1B, HRG, and MAGEF1 polymorphisms residing between BM1312 and BMS4048 were significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean populations. On BTA5, ABCD2, IL22 and SNRPF polymorphisms residing between BL4 and BR2936 were associated with marbling and backfat traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean cattle populations. These results suggested that BTA 1 and 5 QTL regions may be segregating in both Korean Hanwoo and USA commercial cattle populations and DNA markers tested in this study may contribute to the identification of positional candidate genes for marker-assisted selection programs.
A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace
Lee, K.T. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Alam, M. ; Choi, B.H. ; Park, M.R. ; Kim, K.S. ; Kim, T.H. ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1529~1539
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12474
A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an
cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection.
Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows
Chung, H.J. ; Kim, K.W. ; Han, D.W. ; Lee, H.C. ; Yang, B.C. ; Chung, H.K. ; Shim, M.R. ; Choi, M.S. ; Jo, E.B. ; Jo, Y.M. ; Oh, M.Y. ; Jo, S.J. ; Hong, S.K. ; Park, J.K. ; Chang, W.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1540~1545
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12294
Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.
Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows
Li, X.Z. ; Park, B.K. ; Yan, C.G. ; Choi, J.G. ; Ahn, J.S. ; Shin, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1546~1552
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12248
A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (
d post-partum; mean
SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels without any negative effects in lactating cows.
Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae)
Lee, Sang-Moo ; Kim, Jae-Yeon ; Kim, Eun-Joong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1553~1558
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12254
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was
, and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and
/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at p<0.05. Although total feed intake was not significantly altered, it numerically increased in animals of low stocking density (G1) compared to those subjected to high stocking density treatment (i.e. G4). Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in G3 compared to G1 and G2. Animals in G1 (low stocking density) grew faster (p<0.05) than those of high stocking density (G3 and G4). Back fat thickness, meat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (p<0.01) compared to G3 and G4, and animals in G3 produced smaller carcasses (p<0.05). Carcass quality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both. Nonetheless, these results confirm previous studies reporting a negative effect of increased stocking density on animal productivity. Further, animal welfare under an intensive farming system in relation to economical return is discussed.
Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake
Karlsson, Linda ; Ruiz-Moreno, M. ; Stern, M.D. ; Martinsson, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1559~1567
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12213
The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or
, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The
treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (p<0.05) and an increase in intestinal digestibility that could be explained both by a linear and a quadratic model for total AA and most individual AA (p<0.05). The
treatment decreased ruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (p<0.001). It is concluded that moist heat treatment at
did not overprotect the CP of HC and could be used to shift the site of CP and AA digestion from the rumen to the small intestine. This may increase the value of HC as a protein supplement for ruminants.
Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers
Piao, Min Yu ; Kim, Hyun-J. ; Seo, J.K. ; Park, T.S. ; Yoon, J.S. ; Kim, K.H. ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1568~1574
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12379
Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS). In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR) were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR) diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS), 0.77 (MS) and 0.95 (HS), respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal's body weight) in a
Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p>0.05). The ruminal
-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the other groups; however, the mean values of ruminal
-N, pH and VFA concentration among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). In addition, the purine derivative (PD) excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN) among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in Holstein steers.
Effects of Supplementing Microbially-fermented Spent Mushroom Substrates on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)
Kim, Y.I. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Kim, K.H. ; Oh, Y.K. ; Moon, Y.H. ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1575~1581
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12251
This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of microbially-fermented spent mushroom substrates (MFSMS) on weight gain, carcass characteristics, and economic efficiency of Hanwoo steers. Highly cellulolytic bacteria (Enterobacter spp. and Bacillus spp.) isolated from spent mushroom substrates (SMS) stacks were inoculated (1% v/v) into the SMS, which was anaerobically fermented and fed to the steers for 12.6 months during the growing and fattening periods. Growing Hanwoo steers were assigned to the control group without supplementation of Microbially-fermented SMS (MFSMS), to a treatment group with 50% of MFSMS (1/2 of the ad libitum group), and to a treatment group with ad libitum access to SMS (the ad libitum group). All the groups were fed the formulated feed and rice straw. The voluntary intake (DM basis) of MFSMS was 1.6 kg/d during the growing period and 1.4 kg/d during the fattening period. The voluntary rice straw intake decreased by 6 to 11%, but the total voluntary DMI increased by 7 to 15% with MFSMS fed. The increased DMI with MFSMS supplementation resulted in a tendency of increased (p = 0.055) live weight gain by 8 to 12% compared with the control group. At slaughtering, the supplementation of MFSMS increased (p<0.05) the ribeye area by an average of 10 cm2. In conclusion, feeding MFSMS improved growth performance and carcass traits of Hanwoo steers and could successfully replace a part of conventional roughage such as rice straw commonly used in Asian countries.
Effect of Lysine to Digestible Energy Ratio on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs
Cho, S.B. ; Han, In-K. ; Kim, Y.Y. ; Park, S.K. ; Hwang, O.H. ; Choi, C.W. ; Yang, S.H. ; Park, K.H. ; Choi, D.Y. ; Yoo, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1582~1587
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12311
This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of lysine (Lys) to DE ratio on growth performance, and carcass characterics in finishing barrows. Ninety six cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace
Duroc, average BW
kg) were assigned as a randomized complete block design by 2 energy levels and 4 Lys:DE ratios on the basis of BW to one of 8 treatments with 3 replications with 4 animals per pen. The levels of DE and Lys:DE ratio for each treatment were i) DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, ii) DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, iii) DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, iv) DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE, v) DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, vi) DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, vii) DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, viii) DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE. During finishing period from 58 kg to 103 kg of BW, increased energy density in the diet increased (p<0.05) ADG and gain:feed ratio, but did not influence ADFI. As Lys:DE ratio was increased, ADG, ADFI and gain:feed ratio were improved in finishing barrows (p<0.05). There were positive interactions (p<0.05) between carcass weight, grade, and backfat thickness and energy density and Lys level (p<0.05). In conclusion, data from our current study suggest that maximum yields including ADG, gain:feed ratio, carcass weight and grade can be achieved by administrating finishing pigs with an ideal Lys:DE ratio, Lys 2.1 g/DE Mcal.
Effects of Replacement of Fish Meal by Soy Protein Isolate on the Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity and Serum Biochemical Parameters for Juvenile Amur Sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii)
Xu, Q.Y. ; Wang, C.A. ; Zhao, Z.G. ; Luo, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1588~1594
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12192
An 8-wk experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal (FM) with soy protein isolate (SPI) on the growth, digestive enzyme activity and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii). SPI was used to replace 0, 25, 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100% of dietary FM and 100% replacement supplemented crystalline amino acid. Healthy sturgeon with an average initial weight of
g were randomly assigned to 24 aquaria (8 treatments with triplicates each) at an initial stocking density of 11 fish per aquarium and cultured for 8 wks. The results showed that 75.00% or more substitution resulted in a poor weight gain rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate compared to that of fish fed the control diet (p<0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed between diets of 25.00% to 62.50% substitution. Protease, lipase and amylase activity in foregut, mid-gut and hindgut were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by diets where SPI replacement levels were 62.50% or more. Levels of serum total protein (TP) and globulin decreased significantly from 21.03, 10.34 to 14.05, 5.63 g/L with the increasing dietary SPI (p<0.05), but alkaline phosphatase activity significantly increased (p<0.05). In addition, supplemental crystalline amino acid in the FM absence diet did not improve growth performance, intestine digestive enzyme activities and serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, the results from this study showed adverse effects of inclusion of SPI in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and serum biochemical parameters in juvenile Amur sturgeon. Based on WGR and replacement ratio presented in this report, a 57.64% replacement level was recommended.
Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs
Cho, J.H. ; Zhang, S. ; Kim, In-Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1595~1604
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12339
Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW =
kg, average age =
d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW =
kg, average age =
d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can improve growth performance, and prevent diarrhea incidence in pigs, it can also increase LMA in finishing pigs.
Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens
Li, Huaqiang ; Jin, Liji ; Wu, Feifei ; Thacker, Philip ; Li, Xiaoyu ; You, Jiansong ; Wang, Xiaoyan ; Liu, Sizhao ; Li, Shuying ; Xu, Yongping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1605~1610
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12235
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of
, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (
) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5%
either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05). All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05) the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.
Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province
Safary, H. ; Daneshyar, Mohsen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1611~1616
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12234
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment
time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment
time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).
Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health
Li, Pengfei ; Piao, Xiangshu ; Ru, Yingjun ; Han, Xu ; Xue, Lingfeng ; Zhang, Hongyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1617~1626
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12292
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (
kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-
level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a candidate for use as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in weaning pig diets.
Solid Waste from Swine Wastewater as a Fuel Source for Heat Production
Park, Myung-Ho ; Kumar, Sanjay ; Ra, ChangSix ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1627~1633
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12302
This study was to evaluate the feasibility of recycling the solids separated from swine wastewater treatment process as a fuel source for heat production and to provide a data set on the gas emissions and combustion properties. Also, in this study, the heavy metals in ash content were analyzed for its possible use as a fertilizer. Proximate analysis of the solid recovered from the swine wastewater after flocculation with organic polymer showed high calorific (5,330.50 kcal/kg) and low moisture (15.38%) content, indicating that the solid separated from swine wastewater can be used as an alternative fuel source. CO and NOx emissions were found to increase with increasing temperature. Combustion efficiency of the solids was found to be stable (95 to 98%) with varied temperatures. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed five thermal effects (four exothermic and one endothermic), and these effects were distinguished in three stages, water evaporation, heterogeneous combustion of hydrocarbons and decomposition reaction. Based on the calorific value and combustion stability results, solid separated from swine manure can be used as an alternative source of fuel, however further research is still warranted regarding regulation of CO and NOx emissions. Furthermore, the heavy metal content in ash was below the legal limits required for its usage as fertilizer.
Comparison of Pork Quality and Sensory Characteristics for Antibiotic Free Yorkshire Crossbreds Raised in Hoop Houses
Whitley, N. ; Hanson, D. ; Morrow, W. ; See, M.T. ; Oh, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1634~1640
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12296
The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score,
, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and
were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The
was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers
Lee, Kyung-Haeng ; Jung, Samooel ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Il-Suk ; Lee, Jun-Heon ; Jo, Cheorun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1641~1648
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12260
This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dietary GL supplementation. Antioxidative effect (total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity,
reducing activity, reducing power, and TBARS value) in the thigh from the broilers improved significantly with 1.0% GL. Linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the broilers fed both levels of dietary GL. However, volatile basic nitrogen content and microbiological quality was not shown to be different between control and treated group. Results indicate that 1.0% dietary supplementation of GL can improve the antioxidant activity of broiler thigh meat and may enhance the meat quality.