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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran
Atashi, Hadi ; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza ; Dadpasand, Mohammad ; Asaadi, Anise ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 447~451
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11303
The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08-1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05).
Enhancing Mulberry Leaf Meal with Urea by Pelleting to Improve Rumen Fermentation in Cattle
Tan, N.D. ; Wanapat, M. ; Uriyapongson, S. ; Cherdthong, A. ; Pilajun, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 452~461
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11270
Four, ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman
native) beef cattle with initial body weight of
were randomly assigned according to a
Latin square design. The dietary treatments were mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation at 0, 200, 400 and 600 g/hd/d with rice straw fed to allow ad libitum intake. All steers were kept in individual pens and supplemented with concentrate at 5 g/kg of body weight daily. The experiment was 4 periods, and each lasted 21 d. During the first 14 d, all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and during the last 7 d, they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. It was found that increasing MUP levels resulted in linearly increasing rice straw and total intakes (p<0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not significantly affected by MUP supplementation while
-N concentration was increased (p<0.05) and maintained at a high level (18.5 mg/dl) with supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d. Similarly, viable total bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic bacteria were enriched by MUP supplementation at 600 g/hd/d. However, the rumen microbial diversity determined with a PCR-DGGE technique showed similar methanogenic diversity between treatments and sampling times and were similar at a 69% genetic relationship as determined by a UPGMA method. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d improved DM intake, ruminal
-N, and cellulolytic bacteria thus iimproving rumen ecology in beef cattle fed with rice straw.
Modeling and Forecasting Livestock Feed Resources in India Using Climate Variables
Suresh, K.P. ; Kiran, G. Ravi ; Giridhar, K. ; Sampath, K.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 462~470
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11283
The availability and efficient use of the feed resources in India are the primary drivers to maximize productivity of Indian livestock. Feed security is vital to the livestock management, extent of use, conservation and productivity enhancement. Assessment and forecasting of livestock feed resources are most important for effective planning and policy making. In the present study, 40 years of data on crop production, land use pattern, rainfall, its deviation from normal, area under crop and yield of crop were collected and modeled to forecast the likely production of feed resources for the next 20 years. The higher order auto-regressive (AR) models were used to develop efficient forecasting models. Use of climatic variables (actual rainfall and its deviation from normal) in combination with non-climatic factors like area under each crop, yield of crop, lag period etc., increased the efficiency of forecasting models. From the best fitting models, the current total dry matter (DM) availability in India was estimated to be 510.6 million tonnes (mt) comprising of 47.2 mt from concentrates, 319.6 mt from crop residues and 143.8 mt from greens. The availability of DM from dry fodder, green fodder and concentrates is forecasted at 409.4, 135.6 and 61.2 mt, respectively, for 2030.
Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs
Razak, Okine Abdul ; Masaaki, Hanada ; Yimamu, Aibibula ; Meiji, Okamoto ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 471~478
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11349
The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (
). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.
Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers' Grains in Tibet
Yuan, Xianjun ; Yu, Chengqun ; Shimojo, M. ; Shao, Tao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 479~485
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11435
In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers' grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%.
Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow
Razzaghi, A. ; Aliarabi, H. ; Tabatabaei, M.M. ; Saki, A.A. ; Valizadeh, R. ; Zamani, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 486~495
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11325
Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing -100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed -100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.
Indirect Estimation of CH
from Livestock Feeds through TOCs Evaluation
Kim, M.J. ; Lee, J.S. ; Kumar, S. ; Rahman, M.M. ; Shin, J.S. ; Ra, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 496~501
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11352
Thirty-five available feeds were fermented in vitro in order to investigate their soluble total organic carbon (TOCs) and methane (
) production rate. A fermentation reactor was designed to capture the
gas emitted and to collect liquor from the reactor during in vitro fermentation. The results showed that
production rate greatly varied among feeds with different ingredients. The lowest
-producing feeds were corn gluten feed, brewer's grain, and orchard grass among the energy, protein, and forage feed groups, respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in digestibility, soluble total organic carbon (TOCs), and
emissions among feeds, during 48 h of in vitro fermentation. Digestibility and TOCs was not found to be related due to different fermentation pattern of each but TOCs production was directly proportional to
production (y = 0.0076x,
= 0.83). From this in vitro study, TOCs production could be used as an indirect index for estimation of
emission from feed ingredients.
A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats
Thang, Tran Van ; Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Nagamine, Itsuki ; Kishi, Tetsuya ; Ogura, Go ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 502~514
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11300
When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing
) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased plasma osmolality in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is the main physiological stimulating factor of water intake during and after dry forage feeding in large-type goats.
Effect of Xylanase on Performance and Apparent Metabolisable Energy in Starter Broilers Fed Diets Containing One Maize Variety Harvested in Different Regions of China
O'Neill, H.V. Masey ; Liu, N. ; Wang, J.P. ; Diallo, A. ; Hill, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 515~523
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11314
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in broiler performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal digestible energy (IDE) between five different maize samples fed with and without xylanase at 16,000 U/kg. Various in vitro characterisations were conducted to determine if any could predict performance or AME. Samples of the maize were harvested in five diverse regions and fed individually in a mash diet as follows (g/kg): test maize 608.3; soya bean meal (SBM) 324.1; poultry fat 25.2; salt 4.6; met 2.6; lys 1.6; thr 0.5; limestone 9.7, dical 18.4; vit/min 5.0; CP 210 and ME (kcal/kg) 3,085. The diets were fed to 720 broilers with 6 replicates, each containing 12 birds per treatment, from 0 to 18 d of age. Maize samples were analysed for starch, protein, crude fibre, fat, protein solubility index (PSI) and vitreousness using near infra red reflectance spectroscopy (NIR). They were also assayed using an in vitro starch digestibility method. The results showed that there was no effect of harvest region on the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers over the 18 d period (p = 0.959, 0.926, 0.819 respectively). There was an improvement in all parameters with the addition of xylanase (FI p = 0.011; BWG and FCR p<0.001). There was a significant positive effect of xylanase on IDE, AME, IDE Intake (IDEI) and AME intake (AMEI) (p<0.0001 in all cases). Although there was no significant effect of maize source, there was a strong trend towards variability in IDE (p = 0.066) and AME (p = 0.058). There were no significant correlations (p<0.05) between any proximate or physiochemical values and any performance or AME values. This may suggest that none of those selected were suitable predictors for performance or AME. The broilers performed well according to the breed guidelines, with slightly increased FI, increased BWG and similar FCR prior to the addition of xylanase. When FCR and BWG were analysed with FI as a covariate, xylanase addition remained significant suggesting that the improvement in BWG and FCR was driven by an increase in digestibility and nutrient availability.
The Long Term Effects of Fairly Low-level of Supplemental Fat on the Productive Performance of Commercial Layers
Bozkurt, Mehmet ; Kucukyilmaz, Kamil ; Cabuk, Metin ; Catli, Abdullah Ugur ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 524~530
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11375
Laying hens were fed commercial diets added with supplemented fat (SFAT) at 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8% in order to study the long term dietary effects - on - their productive performance from 22 to 75 wk of age. Five hundred and seventy six Single Comb White Leghorn hens were assigned to one of the four dietary treatments. The experimental phase consisted of three periods of 18 wk each. The final body weight and gain of hens fed on diets with SFAT at 1.2% and 1.8% were lower (p<0.05) than those hens given no SFAT. The SFAT at the 1.2% and 1.8% levels improved egg production rate, egg weight and mass, as well as FCR. Mortality and feed consumption were not affected by dietary SFAT. Administration of a diet with SFAT significantly decreased the cracked-broken egg ratio (p<0.01). The beneficial effects of SFAT on egg production performance were particularly more pronounced at intermediate and later ages. Hence, SFAT by period interactions were significant for all traits studied except feed intake. Hens fed SFAT deposited significantly higher abdominal fat than those on the no-SFAT diet. As a result, SFAT at 1.2% and 1.8% inclusion levels provided benefits in terms of efficient table egg production.
The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts
Schinckel, A.P. ; Einstein, M.E. ; Jungst, S. ; Matthews, J.O. ; Fields, B. ; Booher, C. ; Dreadin, T. ; Fralick, C. ; Tabor, S. ; Sosnicki, A. ; Wilson, E. ; Boyd, R.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 531~540
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11215
Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178) and gilts (N = 2,274) were fed either high energy (HE) or low energy (LE) diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A
) of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was cut weight = (1+
) where Diet = -0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10,
= -0.003, -0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, -0.0025, respectively). Diet affected ham weight (bD = -0.0046, p = 0.01), belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001) three-muscle ham weight (
= -0.014, p = 0.001), boneless loin weight (bD = -0.010, p = 0.001), tenderloin weight (
= -0.023, p = 0.001), sirloin weight (
= -0.009, p = 0.034), and fat-free lean mass (
= -0.0145, p = 0.001). Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.
Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens
Ao, Z. ; Kocher, A. ; Choct, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 541~551
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11378
The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.
The Influence of Dietary Calcium and Phosphorus Imbalance on Intestinal NaPi-IIb and Calbindin mRNA Expression and Tibia Parameters of Broilers
Li, Jianhui ; Yuan, Jianmin ; Guo, Yuming ; Sun, Qiujuan ; Hu, Xiaofei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 552~558
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11266
factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary calcium and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) imbalance on calbindin and NaPi-IIb mRNA levels in the small intestine and tibia parameters of broiler chicks. One hundred and forty four 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were divided into four treatments consisted of six replicates with six chicks each. The two dietary calcium levels were 1.10% and 0.60%, and two dietary nPP levels were 0.50% and 0.27%. Results showed that a high Ca/nPP ratio diet (4.07:1) significantly depressed feed intake and weight gain of broilers (p<0.05), but a lower Ca:nPP ratio (1.2:1) had no influence (p>0.05). Low-Ca with low-P diet resulted in low tibia minerals and tibia breaking strength of broilers, and all the tibia parameters were further decreased when the dietary ratio of Ca to P was relative higher. Low dietary Ca or P up-regulated the calbindin and NaPi-IIb mRNA expression levels. Low Ca with normal P diet up-regulated duodenal calbindin mRNA expression level to the greatest extent. Low P with a normal Ca diet significantly enhanced NaPi-IIb mRNA expression level to the highest extent. These results suggest that the calbindin and NaPi-IIb mRNA expression were enhanced by the imbalance between dietary Ca and nPP, and their expression were not only influenced by Ca or nPP level, but also the ratio of Ca:nPP.
Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype
Kucukyilmaz, Kamil ; Bozkurt, Mehmet ; Herken, Emine Nur ; Cinar, Mustafa ; Catli, Abdullah Ugur ; Bintas, Erol ; Coven, Fethiye ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 559~568
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11382
White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration.
Forsythia suspensa Extract Has the Potential to Substitute Antibiotic in Broiler Chicken
Han, X. ; Piao, X.S. ; Zhang, H.Y. ; Li, P.F. ; Yi, J.Q. ; Zhang, Q. ; Li, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 569~576
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11425
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. First, a well-diffusion assay procedure and a 2-fold dilution method were used to determine the bacteriostatic activity of FSE on Escherichia coli K88, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella was assayed. An inhibitory effect of FSE was observed on the growth of these bacteria. This effect seems to be dose depended, which disappeared after 25.00, 12.50, 1.56 mg/ml. Second, a 42-d trial with 252 broiler chickens (d 1,
g BW) was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of FSE in broiler chicken. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet from d 1 to 21 and a finisher diet from d 22 to 42. Dietary treatments included were: i) NC: negative control fed a corn-soybean meal based diet; ii) PC: positive control group fed based diet with chlortetracycline; and iii) FC: a test group fed with 100 mg FSE/kg diet. In this study growth performance did not differ among treatments during the starter period. However, dietary supplemental chlortetracycline and FSE increased (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with NC during the finisher and overall phase. Apparent digestibility of calcium on d 21, digestibility of energy and calcium on d 42 of FC was greater (p<0.05) than NC. Moreover, cecal Escherichia coli counts for birds from FC were lower (p<0.05) than NC. Dietary FSE supplementation also improved (p<0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratios in both duodenum and ileum and decreased (p<0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum. Duodenum villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum from the FC group were also greater (p<0.05). Serum growth hormone and IGF-1 were not influenced by different treatments. Apparently, FSE has the potential to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken.
Effects of Dietary Garlic Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition of Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus)
Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Ra, Chang-Six ; Song, Young-Han ; Sung, Kyung-Il ; Kim, Jeong-Dae ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 577~583
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12012
This study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extract (GE) on growth performance of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). The first experiment was designed to determine the optimum levels of garlic extract as growth promoter during 10 weeks. Three groups (two replicates/group) of 240 fish with mean body weight of 85 g were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0% of GE. The highest weight gain (%) and feed efficiency (%) were found in fish groups fed with diet containing 0.5% GE. Subsequently, the supplemental effects of dietary GE was studied on growth of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) with an average body weight of 59.6 g. Fish cultured in freshwater were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with 0.5% GE or without GE (control), respectively, at the level of 2.0% of fish body weight per day for 5 weeks. Weight gain (51.1%), feed efficiency (79.1%), specific growth rate (1.18%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.50) of fish fed 0.5% GE were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fish fed the control diet. Significantly higher protein (PRE 20.4%) and lipid retention efficiencies (LRE, 74.5%) were also found in 0.5% GE group (p<0.05). The present results suggested that dietary GE could improve growth and feed utilization of juvenile sterlet sturgeons.
Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched
Nagle, T.A.D. ; Glatz, P.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 584~591
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11051
To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown). Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000-6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07) for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55%) were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30%) while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05) higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24%) and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt areas than the control areas, with slightly more using the shelterbelts in the afternoon than in the morning. Approximately 17 times more birds used the forage areas compared to the control area in the corresponding range. There were 8 times more birds using a hay bale enriched area compared to the area with no hay bales. The use of forage sources (including hay bales) were the most successful method on-farm to attract birds into the range followed by shelterbelts and artificial shade. Free range egg farmers are encouraged to provide pasture, shaded areas and shelterbelts to attract birds into the free range.
Simple Spot Method of Image Analysis for Evaluation of Highly Marbled Beef
Irie, M. ; Kohira, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 4, 2012, Pages 592~596
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11204
The simple method of evaluating highly marbled beef was examined by image analysis. The images of the cross section at the 6 to 7th rib were obtained from 82 carcasses of Wagyu cattle. By using an overall trace method, the surrounding edges of the longissimus thoracis and three muscles were traced automatically and manually with image analysis. In a spot method, 3 to 5 locations (2.5 or 3.0 cm in diameter) for each muscle were rapidly selected with no manual trace. The images were flattened, binarized, and the ratio of fat area to muscle area was determined. The correlation coefficients for marbling between different muscles, and between the overall trace and the spot methods were 0.55 to 0.81 between different muscles and 0.89 to 0.97, respectively. These results suggested that the simple spot method is speedy and almost as useful as the overall trace method as a measuring technique for beef marbling in loin muscles, especially for highly marbled beef.