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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle
Matsui, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 597~605
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.r.01
Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
Molecular Characterization and Expression Pattern of Gene IGFBP-5 in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)
Wang, X.J. ; Shi, J.J. ; Yang, J.F. ; Liang, Y. ; Wang, Y.F. ; Wu, M.L. ; Li, S.Y. ; Guo, X.D. ; Wang, Z.G. ; Liu, D.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 606~612
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11290
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is one of the six members of IGFBP family, important for cell growth, apoptosis and other IGF-stimulated signaling pathways. In order to explore the significance of IGFBP-5 in cells of the Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus), IGFBP-5 gene complementary DNA (cDNA) was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the animal's fetal fibroblasts and tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene is 816 base pairs (bp) in length and includes the complete open reading frame, encoding 271 amino acids (GenBank accession number JF720883). The full cDNA nucleotide sequence has a 99% identity with sheep, 98% with cattle and 95% with human. The amino acids sequence shares identity with 99%, 99% and 99%, respectively. The bioinformatics analysis showed that IGFBP-5 has an insulin growth factor-binding protein homologues (IB) domain and a thyroglobulin type-1 (TY) domain, four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, five casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, three prenyl group binding sites (CaaX box). The IGFBP-5 gene was expressed in all the tested tissues including testis, brain, liver, lung, mammary gland, spleen, and kidney, suggesting that IGFBP-5 plays an important role in goat cells.
Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Beef Marbling Using QTL and Pathway Analysis in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Park, Hye-Sun ; Seo, Seong-Won ; Cho, Yong-Min ; Oh, Sung-Jong ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Lim, Da-Jeong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 613~620
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11347
Marbling from intramuscular fat is an important trait of meat quality and has an economic benefit for the beef industry. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping was performed to identify the marbling trait in 266 Hanwoo steers using a 10K single nucleotide polymorphism panel with the combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium method. As a result, we found nine putative QTL regions for marbling: three on BTA6, two on BTA17, two on BTA22, and two on BTA29. We detected candidate genes for marbling within 1 cM of either side of the putative QTL regions. Additionally, to understand the functions of these candidate genes at the molecular level, we conducted a functional categorization using gene ontology and pathway analyses for those genes involved in lipid metabolism or fat deposition. In these putative QTL regions, we found 95 candidate genes for marbling. Using these candidate genes, we found five genes that had a direct interaction with the candidate genes. We also found SCARB1 as a putative candidate gene for marbling that involves fat deposition related to cholesterol transport.
Construction of fat1 Gene Expression Vector and Its Catalysis Efficiency in Bovine Fetal Fibroblast Cells
Liu, Boyang ; Yang, Runjun ; Li, Junya ; Zhang, Lupei ; Liu, Jing ; Lu, Chunyan ; Lian, Chuanjiang ; Li, Zezhong ; Zhang, Yong-Hong ; Zhang, Liying ; Zhao, Zhihui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 621~628
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11495
The FAT-1 protein is an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, which can recognize a range of 18- and 20-carbon n-6 substrates and transform n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into n-3 PUFAs while n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effect on human health. Fat1 gene is the coding sequence from Caenorhabditis elegans which might play an important role on lipometabolism. To reveal the function of fat1 gene in bovine fetal fibroblast cells and gain the best cell nuclear donor for transgenic bovines, the codon of fat1 sequence was optimized based on the codon usage frequency preference of bovine muscle protein, and directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pEF-GFP. After identifying by restrictive enzyme digests with AatII/XbaI and sequencing, the fusion plasmid pEF-GFP-fat1 was identified successfully. The pEF-GFP-fat1 vector was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells mediated by Lipofectamine2000
. The positive bovine fetal fibroblast cells were selected by G418 and detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that a 1,234 bp transcription was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and the positive transgenic fat1 cell line was successfully established. Then the expression level of fat1 gene in positive cells was detected using quantitative PCR, and the catalysis efficiency was detected by gas chromatography. The results demonstrated that the catalysis efficiency of fat1 was significantly high, which can improve the total PUFAs rich in EPA, DHA and DPA. Construction and expression of pEF-GFP-fat1 vector should be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of regulation of fat1 in vitro. It could also be the first step in the production of fat1 transgenic cattle.
Growth of Ovarian Primary Follicles Retrieved from Neonates of Different Ages and Derivation of Mature Oocytes Following In vitro-Culture
Choi, J.H. ; Yoo, C.R. ; Ahn, J.Y. ; Park, J.H. ; Lim, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 629~634
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2010.10249
This study was conducted to improve the yield of mature oocytes from in vitro-culture of ovarian primary follicles by optimizing follicle retrieval from neonatal mice of different ages. Primary follicles of 75 to
in diameter were collected daily from 7- to 14-day-old neonatal mice, and subsequently cultured in
-MEM medium. Number of primary follicles isolated, growth of the follicle during in vitro-culture and maturation of intrafollicular oocytes were monitored. Overall, mean number of preantral follicles per animal was improved from 10.7 to 88.7 as the age of follicle donors was increased from 7 to 14-day-old. Number of primary follicles was increased gradually up to 11-day-old (35.7 follicle per an animal), then reduced to 29 in 14-day-old (p = 0.0013). More follicles retrieved from 10-day-old or 11-day-old females maintained their morphological normality at the end of primary culture than the follicles retrieved from 9-day-old. Of those cultured, primary follicles retrieved from 11-day-old mice yielded largest larger number of early secondary follicles than the follicles retrieved from in the other ages (39 vs. 13 to 29%). More than 3.3-times increase (0.86 to 2.86; p<0.05) in an average number of mature oocytes per animal was observed in the group of 11-day-old, compared with 9-day-old. However, no difference was found in the percentage of primary follicles developing into the pseudoantral stage (21 to 30%; p = 0.5222) and in the percentage of oocytes mucified (32 to 39%; p = 0.5792). In conclusion, a positive correlation between retrieval time and follicle growth was detected, which influences the efficiency to derive mature oocytes by follicle culture.
Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells
Kim, Hyun ; Kim, Dong-Hun ; Park, Soo-Bong ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Kim, Sung-Woo ; Do, Yoon-Jun ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Yang, Boh-Suk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 635~641
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11336
Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski) was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.
Effects of Two Halophytic Plants (Kochia and Atriplex) on Digestibility, Fermentation and Protein Synthesis by Ruminal Microbes Maintained in Continuous Culture
Riasi, A. ; Mesgaran, M. Danesh ; Stern, M.D. ; Moreno, M.J. Ruiz ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 642~647
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11256
Eight continuous culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate various nutritional values of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) compared with Atriplex (Atriplex dimorphostegia). Dried and pelleted samples (leaves and stems) provided substrate for metabolism by ruminal microbes maintained in a continuous culture fermentation system. Results indicated that there were no differences (p>0.05) in dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) digestibility between the two halophytic plants. Atriplex had higher (p<0.05) organic matter (OM) digestibility compared with Kochia. Neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility of Atriplex (411 g/kg) was higher (p<0.05) than that of Kochia (348 g/kg), however acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in Kochia compared with Atriplex (406 vs. 234 g/kg). There were no differences (p>0.05) between the two halophytic plants in molar proportion of acetate and propionate, but the concentration of butyrate and valerate in Kochia were about two fold of Atriplex (p<0.05). When Kochia provided substrate to the microbes, protein synthesis was higher (p<0.05) compared with feeding Atriplex (5.96 vs. 4.85 g N/kg of OM truly digested). It was concluded that Kochia scoparia and Atriplex dimorphostegia had similar digestibility of DM and CP. It appears that these halophytic plants may not have enough digestible energy for high producing ruminants.
Fatty Acid Profiles and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Expression in Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Growing Lambs Influenced by Addition of Tea Saponins and Soybean Oil
Mao, H.L. ; Wang, J.K. ; Lin, J. ; Liu, J.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 648~652
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11386
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of tea saponins (TS) and soybean oil (SO) on fatty acid profile and gene expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs. Thirty-two Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a
factorial arrangement with main effects of TS (0 or 3 g/d) and SO (0 or 30 g/kg of diet DM). The diet without additives was considered as NTNS (no TS or SO). After a feeding trial for 60 d, four lambs of each treatment were slaughtered to collect the samples of LD muscle. Percentage of trans-11 vaccenic acid was enhanced (p<0.05) in muscle of lambs fed TS and SO. The proportion of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) by SO, but decreased (p<0.05) by TS in LD muscle. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids in muscle was decreased (p<0.05) by addition of TS and SO, while addition of SO increased (p<0.05) the percentage of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ratio of cis-9, trans-11 CLA to tran-11 vaccenic acid was decreased (p<0.05) by TS, but increased (p<0.05) by SO. The same effects were observed in SCD mRNA expression. From these results it is indicated that including TS and SO in the diet of growing lambs affect the fatty acid profiles of LD muscle and that the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the muscle influenced by TS and SO may be related to the SCD gene expression.
Effects of Dietary Potential Acid Production Value on Productivity in Dairy Cows
Kim, E.T. ; Lee, S.S. ; Kim, H.J. ; Song, J.Y. ; Kim, C.H. ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 653~658
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12020
This study was conducted to estimate the potential acid production value (PAPV) of major diets and to determine the relationship between dietary PAPV and dairy production traits. Estimation of PAPV of major cattle feeds was based on an in vitro technique, which determined the degree of Ca dissociation from
. Data on feeds and production traits were collected on 744 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows from five different farms. Grains had high PAPV with variable protein sources and by-products. High PAPV feedstuffs had a higher total gas production and lower pH compared to those with low PAPV. Dietary PAPV had a positive correlation with intake of dry matter, NDF, ADF, milk yield and milk solid production but a negative correlation with milk protein and milk fat concentration. Current results indicate that dietary PAPV can be utilized in predicting dairy production traits.
Effects of Feeding Methylthio Butyric Acid Isopropyl Ester on Postpartum Performance and Metabolism in Dairy Cows
Xia, K. ; Xi, W.B. ; Wang, Z.B. ; Wang, Y. ; Zhang, Y.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 659~664
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11405
The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of HMBi on the production performance and metabolism in dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows under similar conditions were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments; i) Control, a basal diet; ii) T1, a basal diet plus HMBi (0 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum); and iii) T2, a basal diet plus HMBi (10 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum). Treatments were initiated 21 d before expected calving and continued through 91 d postpartum. HMBi was top-dressed onto the total mixed ration of each cow. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake, plasma urea nitrogen, peak milk yield, days to peak milk yield, nonesterified fatty acid, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic oxalaetic transaminase, milk fat content, milk protein content, milk lactose content, and milk solid non-fat content. The milk composition yields were increased by the HMBi-supplemented treatment. The T1 and T2 treatments increased the yields of 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose compared with the control. Although there was no difference in the milk composition of the control and T2-treated cows, the T2-treated cows exhibited higher milk fat yield (increased by 74 g/d), lower milk urea nitrogen (reduced by 3.41%), and plasma
-hydroxy butyrate than the control cows. The results indicate that HMBi supplementation to diet has beneficial effects, and that there is no difference between supplementation at prepartum and starting only at parturition.
Combination of an Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast and Yeast Culture with a Direct-fed Microbial in the Feeds of Broiler Chickens
Gomez, S. ; Angeles, M.L. ; Mojica, M.C. ; Jalukar, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 665~673
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11316
A balance trial experiment was carried out to evaluate the potential relationship between an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) and yeast culture combined with a live Bacillus subtilis (Bs) on the productive parameters, ileal digestibility, retention of nutrient and energy and villus morphology in broilers. Seventy two 28 d old, Ross B308 male broilers were assigned to a factorial combination of 2 levels of EHY (0 and 1 kg/ton of feed) and 2 levels of Bs (0 and 125 g/ton of feed). The experiment lasted 2 weeks. Several treatment interactions were observed. EHY-fed broilers showed the lowest feed intake and feed conversion ratio whereas Bs-fed broilers showed the highest feed intake and intermediate feed conversion ratio (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05). Also, EHY-fed broilers had greater ileal digestibility of dry matter (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.01) and energy (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05) but these responses were counterbalanced by the combination of EHY and Bs. The thickness of the mucosa was similar between the control and EHY-fed broilers, but was lowest when Bs was added alone (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.01). The thickness of the villus was greater in EHY plus Bs-fed broilers, intermediate for the control and lower for Bs or EHY-fed broilers (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05). The area of the villus was greater in the control and EHY plus Bs-fed broilers (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05). In addition, EHY-fed broilers showed greater breast yield and nitrogen retention (p<0.01) and ashes digestibility (p<0.05). On the other hand, Bs-fed broilers had greater carcass and breast weight, nitrogen retention, energy excretion and villus height (p<0.05). In summary, EHY and Bs enhanced some growth, carcass and nutrient retention responses, but did not show any synergic relationship in these responses. Opposite to this, the results suggest that the positive effect of EHY on the feed conversion and digestibility of nutrients were counterbalanced by the addition of Bs.
Effects of Supplemental Glutamine on Growth Performance, Plasma Parameters and LPS-induced Immune Response of Weaned Barrows after Castration
Hsu, C.B. ; Lee, J.W. ; Huang, H.J. ; Wang, C.H. ; Lee, T.T. ; Yen, H.T. ; Yu, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 674~681
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11359
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, plasma parameters and LPS-induced immune response of weaned barrows after castration. In experiment 1, forty-eight weaned male piglets were used and fed maize and soybean meal diets supplemented with 0 (Control) or 2% L-Gln (Gln+) for 25 days. The results indicated that the Gln+ group tended to increase average daily gain compared to control in stages of days 7 to 14 and 0 to 25. The Gln+ had significantly better feed efficiency than the control group did during days 14 to 25 and 0 to 25. The plasma blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase contents of Gln+ group were higher than those of the control group on day 14 post-weaning. In experiment 2, sixteen weaned male piglets were injected with E. coli K88+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on day 14 post-weaning. The results showed that the Gln+ group had lower concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol than the control group on day 14 pre-LPS challenge. In addition, Gln+ group had higher plasma IgG concentration than the control group for pre- or post-LPS challenged on day 14 post-weaning. In summary, dietary supplementation of Gln was able to alleviate the stressful condition and inflammation associated with castration in weaned barrows, and to improve their immunity and growth performance in the early starter stage.
Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis in Drinking Water
Liu, Xiaolu ; Yan, Hai ; Lv, Le ; Xu, Qianqian ; Yin, Chunhua ; Zhang, Keyi ; Wang, Pei ; Hu, Jiye ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 682~689
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11334
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry.
Bacterial Community Dynamics during Swine In vitro Fermentation Using Starch as a Substrate with Different Feed Additives for Odor Reduction
Alam, Md.J. ; Jeong, C.D. ; Mamuad, L.L. ; Sung, H.G. ; Kim, D.W. ; Cho, S.B. ; Lee, K. ; Jeon, C.O. ; Lee, Sang-S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 690~700
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11451
The experiment was conducted by in vitro fermentation and bacterial community analysis to investigate the reduction of odorous compounds in response to the use of feed additives (FA) during carbohydrate overload in growing pigs. Soluble starch at 1% (control) and various FA at 0.1% Ginseng meal (FA1); Persimmon leaf (FA2); Gingko nut (FA3) and Oregano lippia (FA4) were added to fecal slurry and incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. In vitro parameters and microbial diversity of the dominant bacteria following fermentation were analyzed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), band cloning and sequencing of the V3 region. Results showed that total gas production increased with the advancement of incubation (p<0.05). pH values of FAs and control groups were decreased except the FA4 group which increased somewhat from 12 to 24 h (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen (
gas concentrations were comparatively lower in both stages in FA4 treatment than in the other groups (p<0.05). Hence,
-N concentrations in liquid phases were increased (p<0.05) from 12 to 24 h, but the trend was lowest in FA4 than in the other groups at both stages. The total VFA production was comparatively lower and butyrate levels were moderate in FA4 group than in the the other groups during both stages (p<0.05). Indirect odor-reducing compounds such as
concentrations were higher in the FA4 and FA3 than in the other groups at 24 h (p<0.05). After fermentation, ten dominant bands appeared, six of which appeared in all samples and four in only the FA4 treated group. The total number of DGGE bands and diversity was higher in the FA4-group compared to other groups. Additionally, similarity indices were lowest (71%) in the FA4, which represented a different bacterial community compared with the other groups. These findings indicate that
and VFA production was minimal, and pH was also better in the FA4 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, the conversion of odor-reducing indirect compounds or their intermediates was higher in the FA4 group in compared to the other groups. FA4 group generated less odorous products and more indirect products by in vitro fermentation at 24 h, and their microbial pattern appeared to differ from that of the other groups. These findings suggest that this particular FA could change the microbial population, which may have a beneficial effect on odor reduction. It is recommended that the oregano lippia may be supplied to growing pigs as FA along with excess carbohydrate sources to reduce the production of odorous compounds.
Effects of Immune Stress on Performance Parameters, Intestinal Enzyme Activity and mRNA Expression of Intestinal Transporters in Broiler Chickens
Feng, Y. ; Yang, X.J. ; Wang, Y.B. ; Li, W.L. ; Liu, Y. ; Yin, R.Q. ; Yao, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 701~707
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11377
Immune stress is the loss of immune homeostasis caused by external forces. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of immune stress on the growth performance, small intestinal enzymes and peristalsis rate, and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two 1-d-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly assigned to four groups for treatment; each group included nine cages with 12 birds per cage. Group 1 = no vaccine (NV); Group 2 = conventional vaccine (CV); group 3 = lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+conventional vaccine (LPS); group 4 = cyclophosphamide (CYP)+conventional vaccine (CYP). The results demonstrated that immune stress by LPS and CYP reduced body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), small intestine peristalsis rate and sIgA content in small intestinal digesta (p<0.05). However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained unchanged during the feeding period. LPS and CYP increased intestinal enzyme activity, relative expression of SGLT-1, CaBP-D28k and L-FABP mRNAs (p<0.05). LPS and CYP injection had a negative effect on the growth performance of healthy broiler chickens. The present study demonstrated that NV and CV could improve growth performance while enzyme activity in small intestine and relative expression of nutrient transporter mRNA of NV and CV were decreased in the conditions of a controlled rational feeding environment. It is generally recommended that broilers only need to be vaccinated for the diseases to which they might be exposed.
Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model
Yang, Zhi Hong ; Gu, Li Juan ; Zhang, Dong Liang ; Li, Zheng ; Li, Jing Jie ; Lee, Mi-Ra ; Wang, Chun Yan ; Wang, Zhen ; Cho, Jeong-Hee ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 708~716
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11246
In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days), the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40) was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.
General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches
Chen, D.H. ; Bao, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 717~724
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11366
Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study.
Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage
Muhlisin, Muhlisin ; Kang, S.M. ; Choi, W.H. ; Lee, K.T. ; Cheong, S.H. ; Lee, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 725~732
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11280
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70%
-MAP) and 30%
-MAP), and were stored at
for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE
, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70%
-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70%
-MAP. The meat with 70%
-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70%
-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70%
-MAP in comparison with 70%
-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70%
-MAP was better than 70%
-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging.
Sex Determination of Cattle Meat by Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification of the DEAD Box Protein (DDX3X/DDX3Y) Gene
Gokulakrishnan, P. ; Kumar, R.R. ; Sharma, B.D. ; Mendiratta, S.K. ; Sharma, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 733~737
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12003
Determination of sex origin of cattle meat by fast and reliable molecular methods is an important measure to ensure correct allocation of export refunds particularly in European countries and also female cattle (cow) slaughter is legally banned in India because of religious beliefs. Based on the DEAD box protein gene located on the X and Y chromosomes, 2 pair of primers were designed and the system of PCR was optimized. Upon PCR amplification, male tissue showed 2 bands, while female tissue resulted in only one band. The accuracy and specificity of the primers was assessed using DNA template extracted from cattle meat of known sex. The protocol was subjected to a blind test and showed 100% concordance, proving its accuracy and reliability.
Management of Reproduction on Small, Medium and Large Rabbit Farms: A Review
Szendro, Zs. ; Szendro, K. ; Zotte, A. Dalle ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 5, 2012, Pages 738~748
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12015
One of the main goals of small, medium and large farms is to improve the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Stocks of lower productivity can be improved by crossing with intensive breeds. A better nutritional status of both foetuses and suckling kits has a positive effect on their later productivity. Overfeeding young females before first mating can lead to conditions of fattiness. Using restricted feeding or higher fibre content in the feed and changing it for a higher level ad libitum feeding about one week prior to first mating leads to longer lifespan and higher productive level. Intensive reproductive rhythm creates a negative energy balance in does : they are unable to consume enough feed (energy) for the nutritional requirements of foetus and lactation, and therefore lose most of their fat reserves. Furthermore, primiparous does also expend energy because they are still growing. Under intensive conditions, the 42-d reproductive rhythm (re-mating 11 days after parturition) is recommended. Under extensive conditions, the 18 or 25-d mating interval with 35 to 42-d weaning could be suitable. On small farms, natural mating is favoured; on large farms AI is commonly employed. The main advantage of AI is the all-in, all-out system. Hormonal (PMSG) treatment is used with AI to increase receptivity on d 11. Frequent and high level PMSG use can lead to higher anti-PMSG antibody rates. Lower level (max. 20 IU) and less frequent PMSG injection or non-hormonal alternative methods (short dam-litter separation, changing nursing method or lighting programs) are recommended for this reason.