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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Molecular Characterization of Selected Local and Exotic Cattle Using RAPD Marker
Khatun, M. Mahfuza ; Hossain, Khondoker Moazzem ; Rahman, S.M. Mahbubur ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 751~757
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11331
In order to develop specific genetic markers and determine the genetic diversity of Bangladeshi native cattle (Pabna, Red Chittagong) and exotic breeds (Sahiwal), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using 12 primers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 20 cattle (local and exotic) blood samples and extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Among the random primers three were matched and found to be polymorphic. Genetic relations between cattle's were determined by RAPD polymorphisms from a total of 66.67%. Statistical analysis of the data, estimating the genetic distances between cattle and sketching the cluster trees were estimated by using MEGA 5.05 software. Comparatively highest genetic distance (0.834) was found between RCC-82 and SL-623. The lowest genetic distance (0.031) was observed between M-1222 and M-5730. The genetic diversity of Red Chittagong and Sahiwal cattle was relatively higher for a prescribed breed. Adequate diversity in performance and adaptability can be exploited from the study results for actual improvement accruing to conservation and development of indigenous cattle resources.
Molecular Characterization and Tissue-specific Expression of a Novel FKBP38 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)
Zheng, X. ; Hao, X.Y. ; Chen, Y.H. ; Zhang, X. ; Yang, J.F. ; Wang, Z.G. ; Liu, D.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 758~763
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11398
As a member of a subclass of immunophilins, it is controversial that FKBP38 acts an upstream regulator of mTOR signaling pathway, which control the process of cell-growth, proliferation and differentiation. In order to explore the relationship between FKBP38 and mTOR in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) cells, a full-length cDNA was cloned (GenBank accession number JF714970) and expression pattern was analyzed. The cloned FKBP38 gene is 1,248 bp in length, containing an open reading frame (ORF) from nucleotide 13 to 1,248 which encodes 411 amino acids, and 12 nucleotides in front of the initiation codon. The full cDNA sequence shares 98% identity with cattle, 94% with horse and 90% with human. The putative amino acid sequence shows the higher homology which is 98%, 97% and 94%, correspondingly. The bioinformatics analysis showed that FKBP38 contained a FKBP_C domain, two TPR domains and a TM domain. Psite analysis suggested that the ORF encoding protein contained a leucine-zipper pattern and a Prenyl group binding site (CAAX box). Tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and showed that the FKBP38 expression was detected in all the tested tissues and the highest level of mRNA accumulation was detected in testis, suggesting that FKBP38 plays an important role in goat cells.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters from Longitudinal Records of Body Weight of Berkshire Pigs
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Do, Chang-Hee ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 764~771
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11490
Direct and maternal genetic heritabilities and their correlations with body weight at 5 stages in the life span of purebred Berkshire pigs, from birth to harvest, were estimated to scrutinize body weight development with the records for 5,088 purebred Berkshire pigs in a Korean farm, using the REML based on an animal model. Body weights were measured at birth (Birth), at weaning (Weaning: mean 22.9 d), at the beginning of a performance test (On: mean 72.7 d), at the end of a performance test (Off: mean 152.4 d), and at harvest (Finish: mean 174.3 d). Ordinary polynomials and Legendre with order 1, 2, and 3 were adopted to adjust body weight with age in the multivariate animal models. Legendre with order 3 fitted best concerning prediction error deviation (PED) and yielded the lowest AIC for multivariate analysis of longitudinal body weights. Direct genetic correlations between body weight at Birth and body weight at Weaning, On, Off, and Finish were 0.48, 0.36, 0.10, and 0.10, respectively. The estimated maternal genetic correlations of body weight at Finish with body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, and Off were 0.39, 0.49, 0.65, and 0.90, respectively. Direct genetic heritabilities progressively increased from birth to harvest and were 0.09, 0.11, 0.20, 0.31, and 0.43 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. Maternal genetic heritabilities generally decreased and were 0.26, 0.34, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.10 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. As pigs age, maternal genetic effects on growth are reduced and pigs begin to rely more on the expression of their own genes. Although maternal genetic effects on body weight may not be large, they are sustained through life.
Optimal Design for Marker-assisted Gene Pyramiding in Cross Population
Xu, L.Y. ; Zhao, F.P. ; Sheng, X.H. ; Ren, H.X. ; Zhang, L. ; Wei, C.H. ; Du, L.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 772~784
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11239
Marker-assisted gene pyramiding aims to produce individuals with superior economic traits according to the optimal breeding scheme which involves selecting a series of favorite target alleles after cross of base populations and pyramiding them into a single genotype. Inspired by the science of evolutionary computation, we used the metaphor of hill-climbing to model the dynamic behavior of gene pyramiding. In consideration of the traditional cross program of animals along with the features of animal segregating populations, four types of cross programs and two types of selection strategies for gene pyramiding are performed from a practical perspective. Two population cross for pyramiding two genes (denoted II), three population cascading cross for pyramiding three genes(denoted III), four population symmetry (denoted IIII-S) and cascading cross for pyramiding four genes (denoted IIII-C), and various schemes (denoted cross program-A-E) are designed for each cross program given different levels of initial favorite allele frequencies, base population sizes and trait heritabilities. The process of gene pyramiding breeding for various schemes are simulated and compared based on the population hamming distance, average superior genotype frequencies and average phenotypic values. By simulation, the results show that the larger base population size and the higher the initial favorite allele frequency the higher the efficiency of gene pyramiding. Parents cross order is shown to be the most important factor in a cascading cross, but has no significant influence on the symmetric cross. The results also show that genotypic selection strategy is superior to phenotypic selection in accelerating gene pyramiding. Moreover, the method and corresponding software was used to compare different cross schemes and selection strategies.
Effect of Peripheral Administration of Kisspeptin-10 on Dynamic LH Secretion in Prepubertal Ewes
Wang, Jun ; Sun, Lei ; Zhang, Tao ; Zhou, Haizhu ; Lou, Yujie ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 785~788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11390
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of kisspeptin-10 on LH secretion in prepubertal ewes. In experiment 1, prepubertal ewes fitted with indwelling jugular catheters were randomly assigned to receive 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg of kisspeptin-10 dissolved in saline, and serial blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 180 min to analyze the response curves of LH after injection. In experiment 2, prepubertal ewes fitted with indwelling jugular catheters were injected with 0 or 1 mg of kisspeptin-10 dissolved in saline and the injection was repeated 3 times at 1 h interval and serial blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 210 min to analyze the response curves of LH after injection. The results showed that single intravenous administration of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg of kisspeptin-10 all could significantly increased LH secretion in prepubertal ewes, and the effect of 1 and 2 mg of kisspeptin-10 on LH secretion was higher than that of 0.5 mg group. The results also showed that repeated intravenous administration of kisspeptin-10 could effectively increase LH secretion and repeated administration did not influence the effect of kisspeptin-10 on LH secretion in prepubertal ewe. In conclusion, the present study indicated that single or repeated intravenous administration of kisspeptin-10 could effectively increase LH secretion in prepubertal ewes.
Phosphorylation Status of RNA Polymerase II Carboxyl-terminal Domain in Porcine Oocytes and Early Embryos
Oqani, Reza K. ; Zhang, Jin Yu ; Lee, Min-Gu ; Diao, Yun Fei ; Jin, Dong-Il ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 789~793
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11396
Fertilization of the oocyte commences embryogenesis during which maternally inherited mRNAs are degraded and the embryonic genome is activated. Transcription of embryonic mRNA is initiated by embryonic genome activation (EGA). RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) is responsible for the synthesis of mRNAs and most small nuclear RNAs, and consists of 12 subunits, the largest of which characteristically harbors a unique C-terminal domain (CTD). Transcriptional activity of RNA Pol II is highly regulated, in particular, by phosphorylation of serine residues in the CTD. Here, we have shown the presence of RNA Pol II CTD phosphoisoforms in porcine oocytes and preimplantation embryos. The distribution pattern as well as phosphorylation dynamics in germinal vesicles and during embryogenesis differed in developmental stages with these isoforms, indicating a role of RNA Pol II CTD phosphorylation at the serine residue in transcriptional activation during both oocyte growth and embryonic genome activation. We additionally examined the effects of the RNA Pol II inhibitor,
-amanitin, on embryo development. Our results show that inhibition of polymerase, even at very early stages and for a short period of time, dramatically impaired blastocyst formation. These findings collectively suggest that the functionality of maternal RNA Pol II, and consequently, expression of early genes regulated by this enzyme are essential for proper embryo development.
Polymorphysims of CYP17-I Gene in the Exons Were Associated with the Reproductive Endocrine of Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Ma, R.Q. ; He, F. ; Wen, H.S. ; Li, J.F. ; Mu, W.J. ; Liu, M. ; Zhang, Y.Q. ; Hu, J. ; Qun, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 794~799
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11489
The cytochrome P450c17-I (CYP17-I) is one of the enzymes critical to gonadal development and the synthesis of androgens. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within the coding region of the CYP17-I gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). They were SNP1 (c.C445T) located in exon2 and SNP2 (c.T980C (p.Phe307Leu)) located in exon5. Four physiological indices, which were serum testosterone (T), serum
), Hepatosomatic index (HSI), and Gonadosomatic index (GSI), were studied to examine the effect of the two SNPs on the reproductive endocrines of Japanese flounder. Multiple comparisons revealed that CT genotype of SNP1 had a much lower T level than CC genotype (p<0.05) and the GSI of individuals with CC genotype of SNP2 was higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05). Four diplotypes were constructed based on the two SNPs and the diplotype D3 had a significantly lower T level and GSI. In conclusion, the two SNPs were significantly associated with reproductive traits of Japanese flounder.
Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw
Su, Yanjing ; Zhao, Guoqi ; Wei, Zhenwu ; Yan, Changjie ; Liu, Sujiao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 800~805
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11409
Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.
Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro
Kim, E.T. ; Kim, C.H. ; Min, K.S. ; Lee, S.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 806~811
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11447
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with
gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at
for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.
Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor
Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam ; Kamra, Devki Nandan ; Agarwal, Neeta ; Chaudhary, Chandra ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 812~817
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11383
Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01) methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM) in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01) gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed reduced (p<0.05) only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01) also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to
cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro methane emissions.
Transgenic Expression of MsHsp23 Confers Enhanced Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in Tall Fescue
Lee, Ki-Won ; Choi, Gi-Jun ; Kim, Ki-Yong ; Ji, Hee-Jung ; Park, Hyung-Soo ; Kim, Yong-Goo ; Lee, Byung-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 818~823
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12034
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool season forage plant that is not well suited to extreme heat, salts, or heavy metals. To develop transgenic tall fescue plants with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, we introduced an alfalfa Hsp23 gene expression vector construct through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of the transgene were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Under normal growth conditions, there was no significant difference in the growth of the transgenic plants and the non-transgenic controls. However, when exposed to various stresses such as salt or arsenic, transgenic plants showed a significantly lower accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances than control plants. The reduced accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances indicates that the transgenic plants possessed a more efficient reactive oxygen species-scavenging system. We speculate that the high levels of MsHsp23 proteins in the transgenic plants protect leaves from oxidative damage through chaperon and antioxidant activities. These results suggest that MsHsp23 confers abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tall fescue and may be useful in developing stress tolerance in other crops.
Effect of Cattle Breed on Meat Quality, Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acids in China
Xie, Xiangxue ; Meng, Qingxiang ; Cui, Zhenliang ; Ren, Liping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 824~831
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11462
The objective was to compare meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acids of Limousin (LIM), Simmtental (SIM), Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC) and Jinnan (JN) offered the same diet in China. After finishing, eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughter at 18.5 months old. Longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle was taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Breed had little effect on most of meat and fat color parameters except for Hue and
in which QC had lower values. LIM showed higher pH (24 h) and better water holding capacity than other breeds. LIM showed the lowest dry matter content but the highest crude protein. LX and LIM had higher percentage and density of red muscle fiber than other breeds. Lipid oxidations were significantly lower in LIM than in QC, with the LX, SIM and JN having the intermediate values. Compared to other four breeds, QC provided the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, LIM scored better on most of meat quality characteristics; however, local breeds such as LX and QC also had better muscle fiber characteristics and better fatty acids composition.
Effects of Catechins and Wheat Bran on the Beef Color in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers
Kim, Do-Hyung ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Jang, Sun-Sik ; Kwon, Eung-Gi ; Seo, Yong-Joo ; Ok, Ji-Un ; Park, Keun-Kyu ; Lee, Sung-Sill ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 832~838
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11494
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of catechins and wheat bran on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat color using forty-eight Hanwoo steers. Each steer was randomly assigned to one of four treatments. Treatments were as follows: control, catechins, wheat bran, and catechins+wheat bran (CW). At the end of the feeding trial, blood samples were collected for analysis of hemoglobin and iron concentration, and then steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Catechins, wheat bran, and CW had no effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Percentage of myoglobin in M. longissimus dorsi was not affected by treatments. Percentage of oxymyoglobin was increased (p<0.05) by CW and maintained at the highest level (p<0.05) for CW during meat display time up to 24 h. Percentage of metmyoglobin was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW between 5 and 24 h during display time. Although blood iron concentration was not affected by treatments, total concentration of muscle iron was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW compared with that of other treatments. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CW may provide good protection against oxidation of myoglobin, and might be an effective dietary supplement for improving meat color in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers.
Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens
Guo, X.Y. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 839~844
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11468
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown) were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually). The experimental treatments were: i) L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii) LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii) LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv) S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05). The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05). The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05). The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Collectively，the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.
Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat
Takahashi, H. ; Rikimaru, K. ; Kiyohara, R. ; Yamaguchi, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 845~851
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11517
To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596x (
= 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation.
Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source
Park, In-Kyung ; Lee, Jae-Koo ; Cho, Jaie-Soon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 852~860
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11501
An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular
-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20
-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0-6.5 and
. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at
, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for
-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-
-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by
, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by
-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20
-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.
Chemical Characterization and Water Holding Capacity of Fibre-rich Feedstuffs Used for Pigs in Vietnam
Ngoc, T.T.B. ; Len, N.T. ; Lindberg, J.E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 861~868
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11294
During two years, four samples per year were collected in Vietnam from rice bran, cassava residue, brewer's grain, tofu residue, soybean meal, coconut cake, sweet potato vines and water spinach for chemical analysis and assessment of water holding capacity (WHC). The selected feedstuffs represent fibre-rich plant sources and agro-industry co-products commonly used in pig feeding in Vietnam. The content (g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied between feedstuffs and ranged from 21 to 506 for CP, from 14 to 118 for EE and from 197 to 572 for NSP. Cassava residue had a high starch content of 563 g/kg DM, while sweet potato vines, water spinach, coconut cake and soybean meal had a high content of sugars (63-71 g/kg DM). The content of individual neutral sugars varied between feed ingredients, with the highest content of arabinose, galactose and glucose in tofu residue, the highest content of xylose in brewer's grain and the highest content of mannose in coconut cake. The content of uronic acid was high for cassava residue, tofu residue, sweet potato vines and water spinach (57-88 g/kg DM). The content of soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP) was positively correlated (
= 0.82) to the WHC. The content (g/kg DM) of CP, NDF, neutral sugars, total NSP, total NCP, S-NCP and total dietary fibre in tofu residue, water spinach and coconut cake varied (p<0.05) between years. In conclusion, diet formulation to pigs can be improved if the variation in chemical composition of the fibre fraction and in WHC between potential feed ingredients is taken into account.
Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Kim, Dong-Kyu ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Seo, Joo-Young ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 869~879
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11470
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO), 5% linseed oil (LO), 5% soybean oil (SO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX), no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP), 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO), and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC), respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g) were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than that of other treatments after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Dietary inclusion of vegetable oils reduced n-3 HUFA contents in the dorsal muscle and liver of fish. The n-3 HUFA contents in tissues of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets were higher than those of fish fed other diets, except for the LL-HP and LL-HC diets. Hardness, gel strength, chewiness and cohesiveness values of dorsal muscle in fish were significantly affected by dietary lipid source. The results of this study indicate that fish oil in fish meal based diets for sub-adult olive flounder could be replaced by soybean oil and linseed oil without negative effects on growth and feed utilization.
Dietary Carob Pods on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs
Kotrotsios, Nikolaos ; Christaki, Efterpi ; Bonos, Eleftherios ; Paneri, Panagiota Florou ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 880~885
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11521
In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.
Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics
Yonezawa, Tomohiro ; Takahashi, Asahi ; Imai, Satomi ; Okitsu, Aya ; Komiyama, Sonomi ; Irimajiri, Mami ; Matsuura, Akihiro ; Yamazaki, Atusi ; Hodate, Koich ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 886~894
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11380
Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (
m for every two sows) or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (
m for every sow) were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509) and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640) in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (
ng/ml, 30 min after treatment), although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (
ng/ml, 30 min after treatment). When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (
), which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (
). Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important for animal welfare. Moreover, the outdoor housing system might change muscle characteristics and improve pork bitterness, flavor, and color. These changes may be preferred by consumers, increasing the sale of these meats.
Differential Proteome Analysis of Breast and Thigh Muscles between Korean Native Chickens and Commercial Broilers
Liu, Xian De ; Jayasena, Dinesh D. ; Jung, Yeon-Kuk ; Jung, Samooel ; Kang, Bo-Seok ; Heo, Kang-Nyeong ; Lee, Jun-Heon ; Jo, Cheo-Run ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 25, issue 6, 2012, Pages 895~902
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11374
The Korean native chickens (Woorimotdak
, KNC) and commercial broilers (Ross, CB) show obvious differences in meat flavor after cooking. To understand the contribution of protein and peptide for meat flavor, 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 16 protein spots were differentially expressed in the breast and thigh meat between the two breeds. A total of seven protein spots were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for breast meat. Among them three protein spots (TU39149, TU40162 and TU39598) showed increases in their expressions in KNC while other four protein spots (BU40125, BU40119, BU40029 and BU39904) showed increases in CB. All nine protein spots that were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for thigh meat showed increases in their expression in KNC. Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM 1), myosin heavy chain (MyHC), heat shock protein B1 (HSP27), cytochrome c reductase (Enzyme Q), Glyoxylase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNA MTase 3) were identified as the main protein spots by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These results can provide valuable basic information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in meat quality, especially the meat flavour.