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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
National Genetic Evaluation (System) of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)
Park, B. ; Choi, T. ; Kim, S. ; Oh, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12439
Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae) have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selected through performance and progeny tests. National Hanwoo genetic evaluations are implemented with yearling weight (YW), carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS). Yearling weights and MS are used for selecting young bulls, and EMA, BF, and MS are used for selecting proven bulls. One individual per testing room was used for performance tests, and five individuals per room for progeny tests. Individuals tested were not allowed to graze pasture, but there was enough space for them to move around in the testing room. Feeds including roughages and minerals were fed ad libitum, and concentrates were provided at the rate of about 1.8% of individual weight. Overall means of the traits were
for YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS. Heritabilities estimated in this study were 0.30, 0.30, 0.42, 0.50 and 0.63 in YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS, respectively, which are similar to results from previous research. Yearling weight was 315.54 kg in 1998, and had increased to 355.06 kg in 2011, resulting in about 40 kg of improvement over 13 yrs. YW and CW have improved remarkably over the past 15 yrs. Breeding values between 1996 and 2000 decreased or did not change much, but have moved in a desirable direction since 2001. These improvements correspond with the substantial increase in use of animal models since the late 1990s in Korea. Hanwoo testing programs have practically contributed to the improvement in aspects of quality and quantity. In sum, the current selection system is good enough to accommodate circumstances where fewer sires are used on many more cows. Although progeny tests take longer and cost more, they seem to be appropriate under the circumstances of the domestic market with its higher requirement for better meat quality. Consequently, accumulative data collection, genetic evaluation model development, revision of selection indices, as well as cooperation among farms, associations, National Agricultural Cooperative Federation, universities, research institutes, and government agencies must be applied to the Hanwoo selection program. All these efforts will assist the domestic market to secure a competitive position against imported beef under Free Trade Agreement trade system and will provide farmers with higher profits as well as the public with a higher quality of beef.
Phylogenetic Analysis of a Privately-owned Korean Native Chicken Population Using mtDNA D-loop Variations
Hoque, M.R. ; Choi, N.R. ; Sultana, H. ; Kang, B.S. ; Heo, K.N. ; Hong, S.K. ; Jo, C. ; Lee, Jun-Heon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12459
The use of Korean native chicken is increasing, and the discovery of new genetic resources is very important from both economic and genetic conservation points of view. In this study, mtDNA D-loop sequences from 272 privately-owned Korean native chickens from a Hyunin farm were investigated. Seventeen nucleotide substitutions were identified from the sequence analysis and they were classified as 6 haplotypes. Previously investigated haplotypes in five Korean native chicken populations have been compared with the Hyunin chicken population. The results indicated that two haplotypes, H10 and H15, in the Hyunin chicken population were not previously identified in other Korean native chicken populations, representing 33.09% (90/272) and 1.1% (3/272) of the Hyunin population, respectively. On the other hand, four other haplotypes were identical to those of a previous study of Korean native chicken populations. This result is indicative of conservation strategies of Hyunin chicken populations for expanding the genetic diversity in the Korean native chicken population.
mtDNA Diversity and Phylogenetic State of Korean Cattle Breed, Chikso
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Byun, Mi Jeong ; Kim, Myung-Jick ; Suh, Sang Won ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Lee, Chang Woo ; Jung, Kyoung-Sub ; Kim, Eun Sung ; Yu, Dae Jung ; Kim, Woo Hyun ; Choi, Seong-Bok ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 163~170
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12499
In order to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of the Korean Chikso breed, we determined sequences of mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and performed phylogenetic analysis using 239 individuals from 5 Chikso populations. Five non-synonymous mutations of a total of 15 polymorphic sites were identified among 239 cyt b coding sequences. Thirteen haplotypes were defined, and haplotype diversity was 0.4709 ranging from 0.2577 to 0.6114. Thirty-five haplotypes (C1-C35) were classified among 9 Asia and 3 European breeds. C2 was a major haplotype that contained 206 sequences (64.6%) from all breeds used. C3-C13 haplotypes were Chikso-specific haplotypes. C1 and C2 haplotypes contained 80.5% of cyt b sequences of Hanwoo, Yanbian, Zaosheng and JB breeds. In phylogenetic analyses, the Chikso breed was contained into B. taurus lineage and was genetically more closely related to two Chinese breeds than to Korean brown cattle, Hanwoo. These results suggest that Chikso and Hanwoo have a genetic difference based on the mtDNA cyt b gene as well as their coat color, sufficient for classification as a separate breed.
Post-parturient Disorders and Backfat Loss in Tropical Sows in Relation to Backfat Thickness before Farrowing and Postpartum Intravenous Supportive Treatment
Tummaruk, Padet ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 171~177
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12478
The aim of the present study was to determine the evidence of post-parturient disorders and backfat loss during lactation in sows raised in tropical areas in relation to their backfat thickness before farrowing and postpartum intravenous supportive treatment. Backfat thickness was measured using A-mode ultrasonography at farrowing and weaning (
d) in 70 sows. The sows were divided into three groups according to backfat thickness before farrowing, i.e., 15.0 to 20.0 mm (n = 21), 20.5 to 25.0 mm (n = 35), >25.0 mm (n = 14) and were categorized into two groups according to the postpartum supportive treatment, i.e., control (n = 31) and treatment (n = 39). After farrowing, the sows in treatment group received the same medications as in control sows. Furthermore an intravenous supportive treatment with amino acids and vitamins was administered in treatment groups. Rectal temperature and clinical signs of the sows including vaginal discharge, udder problems and appetite were determined at d 0, 1, 2 and 3 of parturition. It was found that, on average, the backfat thickness was
mm at farrowing and
mm at weaning. The backfat loss and the relative backfat loss during the lactation period were 2.6 mm and 10.6%, respectively. The sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm before farrowing lost less backfat than those with a backfat of 20.5 to 25.0 mm and >25.0 mm (p<0.05). Sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm had a better appetite on d 1 postpartum than sows with a backfat of 20.5 to 25.0 mm (p = 0.020). The percentage of sows losing backfat >10% during lactation were higher in sows with a backfat of >25.0 mm before farrowing (85.7%) than sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm before farrowing (35.0%) (p = 0.008). The percentage of sows with a reduced appetite on d 1 (90.3% vs 71.8%, p = 0.018) and d 2 (61.3% versus 33.3%, p = 0.005) postpartum in the treatment group was lower than the control group. In conclusion, the backfat thickness of sows at farrowing influenced backfat loss during lactation under hot and humid climates. The intravenous supportive treatment of sows with amino acid and vitamins significantly improved the appetite of postpartum sows.
Effect of Glycosaminoglycans on In vitro Fertilizing Ability and In vitro Developmental Potential of Bovine Embryos
Kim, Eun Young ; Noh, Eun Hyung ; Noh, Eun Ji ; Park, Min Jee ; Park, Hyo Young ; Lee, Dong Sun ; Riu, Key Zung ; Park, Se Pill ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 178~188
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12406
The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) present in the female reproductive tract promote sperm capacitation. When bovine sperm were exposed to 10
of one of four GAGs (Chondroitin sulfate, CS; Dermatan sulfate, DS; Hyaluronic acid, HA; Heparin, HP) for 5 h, the total motility (TM), straight-line velocity (VSL), and curvilinear velocity (VCL) were higher in the HP- or HA-treated sperm, relative to control and CS- or DS-treated sperm. HP and HA treatments increased the levels of capacitated and acrosome-reacted sperm over time, compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). In addition, sperm exposed to HP or HA for 1 h before IVF exhibited significantly improved fertilizing ability, as assessed by 2 pronucleus (PN) formation and cleavage rates at d 2. Exposure to these GAGs also enhanced in vitro embryo development rates and embryo quality, and increased the ICM and total blastocyst cell numbers at d 8 after IVF (p<0.05). A real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of pluripotency (Oct 4), cell growth (Glut 5), and anti-apoptosis (Bax inhibitor) genes were significantly higher in embryos derived from HA- or HP-treated sperm than in control or other treatment groups, while pro-apoptotic gene expression (caspase-3) was significantly lower in all GAG treatment groups (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that exposure of bovine sperm to HP or HA positively correlates with in vitro fertilizing ability, in vitro embryo developmental potential, and embryonic gene expression.
Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows
Wang, T. ; Oh, J.J. ; Lim, J.N. ; Hong, J.E. ; Kim, J.H. ; Kim, J.H. ; Kang, H.S. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Lee, H.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12466
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (
), middle (
), and late stages (
) showed significant differences (p<0.05); and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95%) was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.
Fermentation Quality of Ensiled Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Affected by Additives
Ho, Thanh Tham ; Ngo, Van Man ; Thomas, Pauly ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 195~201
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12378
A lab-scale ensiling study was carried out to investigate the fermentation quality of water hyacinth (WH) supplemented with molasses, rice bran, as an absorbent, and an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice and their combinations. After wilting the water hyacinths for 7 h to a dry matter (DM) content of 240 to 250 g/kg, the following treatments were applied: i) Control (C), WH only; ii) WH with sugarcane molasses at 40 g/kg WH (CM); iii) WH inoculated with fermented vegetable juice at 10 ml/kg WH (CI); iv) CM and CI (CMI) combined; v) WH with 150 g rice bran/kg WH (CA); vi) CA and CI combined (CAI); vii) CA and CM combined (CAM); and viii) CA, CM and CI combined (CAMI). After application of additives, the differently treated forages were mixed and ensiled in triplicates in 1,500-ml polyethylene jars. After ensiling for 3 d, pH values in all treatments, except C and CI, had decreased to approximately 4.0 and remained low till 14 d. After 56 d, pH had increased between 0.4 to 0.9 pH-units compared to those at 14 d. The ammonia nitrogen (
-N) concentration ranged from an acceptable level in treatment CM (8 g/kg N) to a high
-N value in treatment CMI (16 g/kg N). Lactic acid formation was higher in CI than in all other treatments. Butyric acid contents, which indicate badly fermented silages, were low in all silages (<2 g/kg DM). There were two-way interactions (p-values from <0.001 to 0.045) for almost all fermentation end-products and pH, except for the molasses
inoculant interaction on
-N (p = 0.26). Significant 3-way interactions were found on all observed variables except for weight losses of silages. It is concluded that conserving wilted WH as silage for ruminants may be improved by the addition of molasses or rice bran.
Limiting Concentrate during Growing Period Affect Performance and Gene Expression of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Visfatin in Korean Native Beef Calves
Chang, S.S. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Singh, N.K. ; Kwon, E.G. ; Nejad, J.G. ; Sung, K.I. ; Hong, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 202~210
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12442
This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, plasma profile, and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and visfatin in the liver of Hanwoo beef calves. The purpose of this study was to test that reducing the amount of concentrate would partially be compensated by increasing the intake of forage and by altering the metabolic status. The study utilized 20 Korean native beef calves (Hanwoo; 60 to 70 d of age) divided into two groups of 10 calves each for 158 d. Control group calves received the amount of concentrate as per the established Korean feeding standards for Hanwoo, whereas calves in the restricted group only received half the amount of concentrate as per standard requirements. Good quality forage (Timothy hay) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Since calves were with their dam until 4 months of age in breeding pens before weaning, the intake of milk before weaning was not recorded, however, the concentrate and forage intakes were recorded daily. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on 10 d interval. Blood samples were collected at start and at 50 d interval. On the final day of the experiment, liver biopsies were collected from all animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times, but tended to be higher (p = 0.061) only at final BW in control than restricted group. Total BW gain in the control group was 116.2 kg as opposed to 84.1 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 736 g/d and 532 g/d in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p<0.01). As planned, the calves in the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The plasma variables like total protein and urea were higher (p<0.05) in control than restricted group. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes such as cytosolic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyruvate carboxylase (EC 220.127.116.11), and visfatin measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver biopsies showed higher expression (p<0.05) in restricted group than control. Overall, restricting concentrate severely reduced the growth intensity and affected few plasma indices, and gene expression in liver was increased indicating that restricting concentrate in the feeding schemes during early growth for beef calves is not advocated.
The Ewe's Reproductive Performance, Growth Rate and Carcass Quality of Lambs Kept in a Barn vs Those Kept under an Overhead Shelter
Kuznicka, Ewa ; Rant, Witold ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 211~217
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12451
A herd of polish lowland local sheep was divided into two equal groups: the first group was kept under an overhead shelter, and the second group was kept in a warm barn. The effect of maintenance on ewe's reproductive performance, survival as well as the growth rate of lambs, and their carcasses quality was investigated. The lack of differences in fertility and prolificacy of ewes as well as in the survival and growth rate between the groups confirmed a good adaptation of
ska sheep to low temperature. Harsh environmental conditions did not cause a significant decrease of the body weight growth; however, they brought in an (insignificant) reduction of subcutaneous fat thickness and meatiness of the loin part of a lamb's body. The fat content of carcasses obtained from lambs reared under the overhead shelter was significantly lower, with no differences of meat and bones contribution between the groups.
Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs
Carvalho, G.G.P. ; Garcia, R. ; Pires, A.J.V. ; Silva, R.R. ; Detmann, E. ; Filho, A. Eustaquio ; Ribeiro, L.S.O. ; Carvalho, L.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 218~226
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12504
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa In
s castrated male lambs with a
kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two
Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2
individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs.
Effect of High Phytase Inclusion Rates on Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Not Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus
Dos Santos, Tiago Tedeschi ; Srinongkote, S. ; Bedford, M.R. ; Walk, C.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 227~232
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12445
Phytate is not only an unavailable source of phosphorus (P) for broilers but it also acts as an anti-nutrient, reducing protein and mineral absorption, increasing endogenous losses and reducing broiler performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-nutritional effects of phytate by including high levels of phytase in diets not severely limited in available P. A total of 768 male Arbor Acres broilers were distributed in six treatments of eight replicate pens of 16 birds each consisting of a positive control diet (PC), positive control with 500 FTU/kg phytase, negative control (NC) diet with lower available P and calcium (Ca) levels and the same NC diet with 500, 1,000 or 1,500 FTU/kg phytase. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality were determined at 21 and 35 d of age while foot ash was determined in four birds per pen at 21 d of age. FI, FCR and foot ash where not affected by the lower mineral diets at 21 d of age nor by the enzyme inclusion but broilers fed lower Ca and available P diets had lower BWG. At 35 d of age no difference was observed between broilers fed the positive or NC diets but broilers fed 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg on top of the NC diet had better FCR than broilers fed the positive control diet. When compared to birds fed a diet adequate in P, birds fed the same diet included with 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg of phytase in marginally deficient available P and Ca diets had an improvement of performance. These results support the concept that hydrolysing phytate and reducing the anti-nutritional effects of phytate improves bird performance on marginally deficient diets that were not covering the P requirement of birds.
Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment
Wang, Y.W. ; Ning, D. ; Peng, Y.Z. ; Guo, Y.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 233~240
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12407
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and
-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced organ index, red blood cell counts and hematocrit, enhanced antioxidative capacity of the heart, enhanced liver enzymes activity involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced serum glucose and triglyceride. Therefore, it is suggested that L-carnitine can potentially reduce susceptibility and mortality due to ascites.
Effect of Vitamin Levels and Different Stocking Densities on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Growing Pigs
Zhang, Z.F. ; Li, J. ; Park, J.C. ; Kim, In Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12434
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin levels and stocking densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood characteristics in growing pigs. A
factorial (two vitamin levels, three regimens of stocking densities) arrangement was utilized with 96 pigs (
kg initial body weight and 63 d of age) for 36 d. The pigs were allocated to pens with different stocking density (0.64, 0.48, and 0.38
, respectively). The diets used in this study were a normal diet (based on NRC) and a high level of vitamin diet (2-fold higher than normal diet). The ADG and ADFI of pigs were decreased as the stocking density increased (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). The G/F of pigs was 5% lower in the high vitamin treatment (p = 0.03) as compared with the control treatment. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and N digestibility was negatively affected by the high level of vitamin in diets (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, a significant and negative effect on the ATTD of N was detected in the large groups (linear, p = 0.02). Blood cortisol concentration was increased with increasing stocking density (linear, p = 0.05), and was decreased by high level of vitamin (p = 0.04) at the end of this experiment. Stocking density also caused a linear reduction in WBC concentration (p = 0.05). Our data indicated that the principal effect of stocking density was not reliant on dietary vitamin levels. In conclusion, results indicated that doubling the vitamin supplementation did not improve the growth performance of pigs in high density. However, the blood cortisol concentration was decreased but the ATTD of N digestibility was impaired by high level of vitamin diet.
Effect of Supplementing Organic Selenium on Performance, Carcass Traits, Oxidative Parameters and Immune Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens
Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama ; Prakash, Bhukya ; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha ; Panda, Arun Kumar ; Poonam, Saharia ; Murthy, Orugonda Krishna ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 247~252
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12299
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing various concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400
diet) of organic Se on growth performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency, and relative weight of liver, abdominal fat and ready to cook yields were not affected (p>0.05) by organic Se supplementation to broiler diets. Lipid peroxidation in plasma decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased (p<0.01) linearly with Se concentration in diet. The ratios between heterophyls and lymphocytes and relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen, and thymus), and antibody production to Newcastle disease vaccination were not affected (p>0.05) by Se supplementation to broiler diets. However, the cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio) increased (p<0.01) linearly with dietary Se concentration. The results of the present study indicate that the supplementation of Se did not influence body weight and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of Se increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broiler chickens.
Effects of Enzyme Complex Supplementation to a Paddy-based Diet on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Meat-type Ducks
Kang, P. ; Hou, Y.Q. ; Toms, Derek ; Yan, N.D. ; Ding, B.Y. ; Gong, Joshua ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12479
Paddy rice is rarely used as a feed because of its high fiber content. In this study, two experiments were conducted to study the effects of supplementing an enzyme complex consisting of xylanase, beta-glucanase and cellulase, to paddy-based diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility in meat-type ducks. In the both experiments, meat-type ducks (Cherry Valley) were randomly assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 was a basal diet of corn-soybean; treatment 2 was a basal diet of corn-paddy-soybean; treatment 3, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean basal diet at levels of 0.5 g/kg diet; and treatment 4, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean diet at levels of 1.0 g/kg diet. The results showed that the enzyme complex increased the ADG, and decreased the ADFI and F/G significantly (p<0.05) in the ducks, and the ADFI for the ducks fed the corn-paddy-soybean diet showed no difference compared to the ducks fed corn-soybean diets at all stages of the experiment (p<0.05). When corn was partially replaced by paddy, the digestibility of CP and NDF was decreased and increased, respectively (p<0.05), and the level of enzyme complex had a significant effect on both CP and NDF digestibility (p<0.05). As for the AME, addition of enzyme complex increased it significantly (p<0.05), but both diet types and levels of enzyme complex had no effect (p>0.05). The outcome of this research indicates that the application of enzyme complex made up of xylanase, beta-glucanase, and cellulase, in the corn-paddy-soybean diet, can improve performance and nutrition digestibility in meat-type ducks.
Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens
Oh, S.T. ; Zheng, L. ; Shin, Y.K. ; An, B.K. ; Kang, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 260~265
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12487
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens.
Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on In vitro Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison
Alam, M.J. ; Mamuad, L.L. ; Kim, S.H. ; Jeong, C.D. ; Sung, H.G. ; Cho, S.B. ; Jeon, C.O. ; Lee, K. ; Lee, Sang Suk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 266~274
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12511
The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1%) added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA) were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1), persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2), ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3), and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4). Total gas production, pH, ammonianitrogen (
-N), hydrogen sulfide (
), nitrite-nitrogen (
-N), nitrate-nitrogen (
-N), sulfate (
), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in
. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05) propionate production but increased (p<0.05) the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3), II (Con and FA1), and III (FA4). Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T), Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T) were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production.
The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls
Sobczuk-Szul, Monika ; Wronski, Marek ; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia ; Mochol, Magdalena ; Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz ; Nogalski, Zenon ; Pogorzelska-Przybylek, Paulina ; Purwin, Cezary ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 275~281
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12371
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White
Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 (
) and conjugated linoleic acid (
). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 (
) and C20:5 (
). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties.
Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef
Cheng, Jen-Hua ; Ockerman, Herbert W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 282~286
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12419
Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. The results show that there was no significant difference between chemical compositions and cooking yields when comparing non-electrically stimulated and electrically stimulated roast beef. Moreover, electrical stimulation had no significant effect on oxidative stability and off-flavor problems of precooked roast beef as evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory test (warmed-over aroma and warmed-over flavor). However, there was an increased undesirable WOF and a decrease in tenderness for both ES and Non-ES treatments over refrigerated storage time. Electrical stimulation did cause reactions of amino acids or other compounds to decrease the desirable beef flavor in re-cooked meat.
Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages
Park, J.H. ; Kang, S.N. ; Shin, D. ; Hur, I.C. ; Kim, I.S. ; Jin, Sang Keun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 287~294
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12438
Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color
and whiteness (W), and an increase in color
of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color
of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.
Chemical Composition and Meat Quality Attributes of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania
Shija, Dismas S. ; Mtenga, Louis A. ; Kimambo, Abiliza E. ; Laswai, Germana H. ; Mushi, Daniel E. ; Mgheni, Dynes M. ; Mwilawa, Angello J. ; Shirima, Eligy J.M. ; Safari, John G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 2, 2013, Pages 295~302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12432
The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of
kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (
) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa.