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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls
Khatun, Marzina ; Kaur, Simarjeet ; Simarjeet, Simarjeet ; Mukhopadhyay, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12413
Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study.
Identification and Function Prediction of Novel MicroRNAs in Laoshan Dairy Goats
Ji, Zhibin ; Wang, Guizhi ; Zhang, Chunlan ; Xie, Zhijing ; Liu, Zhaohua ; Wang, Jianmin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 309~315
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12422
MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous small RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation by directing degradation of mRNAs or facilitating repression of target gene translation. In this study, three small RNA cDNA libraries from the mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats (Capra hircus) were constructed and sequenced, individually. Through Solexa high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we obtained 50 presumptive novel miRNAs candidates, and 55,448 putative target genes were predicted. GO annotations and KEGG pathway analyses showed the majority of target genes were involved in various biological processes and metabolic pathways. Our results discovered more information about the regulation network between miRNAs and mRNAs and paved a foundation for the molecular genetics of mammary gland development in goats.
Discrimination of Korean Native Chicken Lines Using Fifteen Selected Microsatellite Markers
Seo, D.W. ; Hoque, M.R. ; Choi, N.R. ; Sultana, H. ; Park, H.B. ; Heo, K.N. ; Kang, B.S. ; Lim, H.T. ; Lee, S.H. ; Jo, C. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 316~322
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12469
In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and discrimination among five Korean native chicken lines, a total of 86 individuals were genotyped using 150 microsatellite (MS) markers, and 15 highly polymorphic MS markers were selected. Based on the highest value of the number of alleles, the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) for the selected markers ranged from 6 to 12, 0.466 to 0.852, 0.709 to 0.882 and 0.648 to 0.865, respectively. Using these markers, the calculated genetic distance (Fst), the heterozygote deficit among chicken lines (Fit) and the heterozygote deficit within chicken line (Fis) values ranged from 0.0309 to 0.2473, 0.0013 to 0.4513 and -0.1002 to 0.271, respectively. The expected probability of identity values in random individuals (PI), random half-sib (
) and random sibs (
) were estimated at
, respectively, indicating that these markers can be used for traceability systems in Korean native chickens. The unrooted phylogenetic neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed using 15 MS markers that clearly differentiated among the five native chicken lines. Also, the structure was estimated by the individual clustering with the K value of 5. The selected 15 MS markers were found to be useful for the conservation, breeding plan, and traceability system in Korean native chickens.
Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations
Liu, Jian-Bin ; Wang, Fan ; Lang, Xia ; Zha, Xi ; Sun, Xiao-Ping ; Yue, Yao-Jing ; Feng, Rui-Lin ; Yang, Bo-Hui ; Guo, Jian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 323~333
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12500
This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism information content of loci ranged from 0.5213 to 0.7582; the number of effective alleles ranged from 4.0484 to 4.6178; the observed heterozygosity was from 0.5023 to 0.5602 for the practical sample; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.5783 to 0.6464; and Allelic richness ranged from 4.7551 to 8.0693. These results indicated that Chinese Cashmere goat populations exhibited rich genetic diversity. Further, the Wright`s F-statistics of subpopulation within total (FST) was 0.1184; the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 0.0940; and the average gene flow (Nm) was 2.0415. All pairwise FST values among the populations were highly significant (p<0.01 or p<0.001), suggesting that the populations studied should all be considered to be separate breeds. Finally, the clustering analysis divided the Chinese Cashmere goat populations into at least four clusters, with the Hexi and Yashan goat populations alone in one cluster. These results have provided useful, practical, and important information for the future of Chinese Cashmere goat breeding.
Effects of Hormones on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors in Bovine Spermatozoa
Kim, Sang-Hwan ; Song, Young-Seon ; Hwang, Sue-Yun ; Min, Kwan-Sik ; Yoon, Jong-Taek ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 334~342
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12564
Proteases and protease inhibitors play key roles in most physiological processes, including cell migration, cell signaling, and cell surface and tissue remodeling. Among these, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) pathway is one of the most efficient biosynthetic pathways for controlling the activation of enzymes responsible for protein degradation. This also indicates the association of MMPs with the maturation of spermatozoa. In an attempt to investigate the effect of MMP activation and inhibitors in cultures with various hormones during sperm capacitation, we examined and monitored the localization and expression of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2 and TIMP-3), as well as their expression profiles. Matured spermatozoa were collected from cultures with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and Lutalyse at 1 h, 6 h, 18 h, and 24 h. ELISA detected the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in all culture media, regardless of medium type (FSH-supplemented fertilization Brackett-Oliphant medium (FFBO), LH-supplemented FBO (LFBO), or Lutalyse-supplemented FBO (LuFBO)). TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 expression patterns decreased in LFBO and LuFBO. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in FBO and FFBO progressively increased from 1 h to 24 h but was not detected in LFBO and LuFBO. The localization and expression of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in sperm heads was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. However, MMPs were not detected in the sperm heads. MMP and TIMP expression patterns differed according to the effect of various hormones. These findings suggest that MMPs have a role in sperm viability during capacitation. In conjunction with hormones, MMPs play a role in maintaining capacitation and fertilization by controlling extracellular matrix inhibitors of sperm.
T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage
Lin, Yan ; Wang, Junjun ; Wang, Xiaoqiu ; Wu, Weizong ; Lai, Changhua ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 343~348
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12132
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (Landrace
Large white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets,
cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation
T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of
T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree.
Intake and Performance of Yearling Steers Grazing Guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) Pasture Supplemented with Different Energy Sources
Santana, M.C.A. ; Euclides, V.B.P. ; Mancio, A.B. ; Medeiros, S.R. ; Costa, J.A.R. ; Oliveira, R.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 349~357
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12226
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplements containing different energy sources in relation to mineral supplementation of steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv Tanz
nia) pasture, during the dry season. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of a mineral supplementation and two other supplements, one based on corn seed and the other based on soybean hulls, and provided at 0.8% of body weight. Forty-eight, 12 month-old crossbred steers with an average initial body weight of 267 kg, were assigned to twelve paddocks (1,125 ha) of guineagrass. The animals that were fed with soybean hulls and corn seed presented a greater average daily gain (0.982 and 0.937) when compared with the mineral supplementation. Soybean hulls can be used as a satisfactory food source, replacing corn as an energy source in the supplementation of beef cattle without compromising animal performance.
Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis
Seo, J.K. ; Kim, M.H. ; Yang, J.Y. ; Kim, H.J. ; Lee, C.H. ; Kim, K.H. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 358~365
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12507
A series of in vitro studies were carried out to determine i) the effects of enzyme and formaldehyde treatment on the degradation characteristics of carbohydrate and protein sources and on the synchronicity of these processes, and ii) the effects of synchronizing carbohydrate and protein supply on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in in vitro experiments. Untreated corn (C) and enzyme-treated corn (EC) were combined with soy bean meal with (ES) and without (S) enzyme treatment or formaldehyde treatment (FS). Six experimental feeds (CS, CES, CFS, ECS, ECES and ECFS) with different synchrony indices were prepared. Highly synchronous diets had the greatest dry matter (DM) digestibility when untreated corn was used. However, the degree of synchronicity did not influence DM digestibility when EC was mixed with various soybean meals. At time points of 12 h and 24 h of incubation, EC-containing diets showed lower ammonia-N concentrations than those of C-containing diets, irrespective of the degree of synchronicity, indicating that more efficient utilization of ammonia-N for MPS was achieved by ruminal microorganisms when EC was offered as a carbohydrate source. Within C-containing treatments, the purine base concentration increased as the diets were more synchronized. This effect was not observed when EC was offered. There were significant effects on VFA concentration of both C and S treatments and their interactions. Similar to purine concentrations, total VFA production and individual VFA concentration in the groups containing EC as an energy source was higher than those of other groups (CS, CES and CFS). The results of the present study suggested that the availability of energy or the protein source are the most limiting factors for rumen fermentation and MPS, rather than the degree of synchronicity.
Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis
Keba, Habtamu T. ; Madakadze, I.C. ; Angassa, A. ; Hassen, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 366~377
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12551
We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species` preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists` claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman`s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists` experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with `r` values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (-0.98), ADF (-0.93) and ADL (-0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production.
The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers
Ball, M.E.E. ; Owens, B. ; McCracken, K.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 378~385
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12180
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed rate of 40 compared to 640 seeds/
. It was concluded that the type of wheat sample and environmental growing conditions significantly affects bird performance when fed wheat-based diets.
Evaluation of Anti-SE Bacteriophage as Feed Additives to Prevent Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in Broiler
Kim, K.H. ; Lee, G.Y. ; Jang, J.C. ; Kim, J.E. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 386~393
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12138
This experiment was conducted to evaluate anti-Salmonella enteritidis (anti-SE) bacteriophage as feed additives to prevent Salmonella enteritidis in broilers. The experimental diets were formulated for 2 phases feeding trial, and 3 different levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of anti-SE bacteriophage were supplemented in basal diet. The basal diet was regarded as the control treatment. A total of 320 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were allotted by randomized complete block (RCB) design in 8 replicates with 10 chicks per pen. All birds were raised on rice hull bedding in ambient controlled environment and free access to feed and water. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at terminal period among treatments (p>0.05). Relative weights of liver, spleen, abdominal fat and tissue muscle of breast obtained from each anti-SE bacteriophage treatment were similar to control, with a slightly higher value in anti-SE bacteriophage 0.2%. In addition, a numerical difference of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and LDL cholesterol level was observed in the 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage application even though blood profiles were not significantly affected by supplemented levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p>0.05). In the result of a 14 d record after Salmonella enteritidis challenge of 160 birds from 4 previous treatments, mortality was linearly decreased with increasing anti-SE bacteriophage level (p<0.05), and Salmonella enteritidis concentration in the cecum was decreased with increasing levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p<0.05). Based on the results of this study, it is considered that supplementation of 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage may not cause any negative effect on growth, meat production, and it reduces mortality after Salmonella enteritidis challenge. These results imply to a possible use of anti-SE bacteriophage as an alternative feed additive instead of antibiotics in broilers diet.
Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens
El-Senousey, H.K. ; Fouad, A.M. ; Yao, J.H. ; Zhang, Z.G. ; Shen, Q.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 394~400
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12430
A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary
-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed intake (AFI), average daily gain (ADG), final live body weight (BW) and carcass weight (p<0.05), while no difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was detected among chickens fed with and without ALA. Abdominal fat weight significantly decreased (p<0.05) for broilers fed 800 and 1200 ppm ALA. However when calculated as the percentage of carcass weight there was no significant difference between control and ALA treatments. Meat quality measurements showed that dietary ALA regulated postmortem glycolysis and improved meat quality as evidenced by increased muscle pH and decreased drip loss of meat (p<0.05). Although ALA did not change the tenderness of meat as indicated by meat shear force, dietary ALA decreased collagen content and mRNA expression of COL3A1 gene (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that dietary ALA may contribute to the improvement of meat quality in broilers.
Determining of the Effect of Lysine:calorie Ratio on Growth Performance and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Growing Barrows and Gilts in Hot Season and Cool Season in a Commercial Environment
Zhang, Z.F. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 401~407
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12444
Two experiments were conducted to determine an optimum Lys:calorie ratio (g of total dietary Lys/Mcal of DE) for growing barrows and gilts in cool and hot seasons in a commercial environment. In Exp. 1, 96 barrows and 96 gilts were randomly allocated in 1 of 4 dietary treatments (2.7, 3.0, 3.3, 3.6 g of Lys/Mcal of DE). Each treatment had 12 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 34 d in the cool season (March 12th to April 15th). Diets were based on corn-wheat-soybean meal. Lys:calorie ratio were attained by adjusting the amount of corn and soybean and supplementation of crystalline Lys. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake were increased (p<.05) as dietary Lys:calorie ratio increased. The BUN concentration on d 34 for barrows, and BUN change for barrows and gilts linearly increased (p<0.05) in response to increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio. For gilts, back fat was decreased and then increased (Quadratically, p<0.05) as increasing dietary lys:calorie ratio. Exp. 2 had a similar design as Exp. 1 with the exception that Exp. 2 was conducted in hot season (June 30th to September 11th) for 42 d. Diet of Exp. 2 was the same as Exp. 1. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake increased (p<0.05) as dietary Lys:calorie increased. On d 42, the BUN concentration increased (p<0.05) in response to the increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio. In conclusion, dietary Lys:calorie ratio of 2.7 g of Lys/Mcal of DE could satisfy the requirement of 25 to 50 kg growing pigs. Increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio could increase BUN concentration in growing pigs.
Use of Vitamin D
and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality
Garcia, Ana Flavia Quiles Marques ; Murakami, Alice Eiko ; Do Amaral Duarte, Cristiane Regina ; Ospina Rojas, Ivan Camilo ; Picoli, Karla Paola ; Puzotti, Maira Mangili ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 408~415
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12455
The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet,
, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed
when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of
, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.
Effects of Dietary Olive Oil on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters, Serum Characteristics, and Fatty Acid Composition of Breast and Drumstick Meat in Broilers
Zhang, Z.F. ; Zhou, T.X. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 416~422
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12486
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary olive oil on growth performance, carcass parameters, serum characteristics, and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat in broiler chickens. A total of 480 broilers were randomly allotted into three dietary treatments, including T (basal diet, 5% tallow), O1 (2% olive oil+3% tallow), and O2 (5% olive oil). During d 0 to 21, broilers fed the diet supplemented with 5% olive oil showed lower (p<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) compared with those fed the T diet. Serum triglyceride concentration was reduced (p<0.05), while high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) in the O2 treatment group compared with the T and O1 treatment groups. The addition of olive oil to the diets induced a reduction (p<0.05) in the total saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents in breast and drumstick meat, and increased (p<0.05) the total unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) contents and USFA/SFA ratios. In conclusion, a diet with 5% olive oil could decrease BWG and FI of broilers during the starter period (wk 0 to 3), and cause an increase in the serum HDL-cholesterol level, while decreasing the serum triglyceride concentration. Furthermore, USFA level and USFA/SFA ratios in breast and drumstick meat were increased by dietary supplementation of 2 or 5% olive oil.
Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Real-time qRT-PCR Analysis of Zi Geese (Anser anser domestica) Gene Expression
Ji, Hong ; Wang, Jianfa ; Liu, Juxiong ; Guo, Jingru ; Wang, Zhongwei ; Zhang, Xu ; Guo, Li ; Yang, Huanmin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 423~432
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12417
Zi geese (Anser anser domestica) belong to the white geese and are excellent layers with a superior feed-to-egg conversion ratio. Quantitative gene expression analysis, such as Real-time qRT-PCR, will provide a good understanding of ovarian function during egg-laying and consequently improve egg production. However, we still don`t know what reference genes in geese, which show stable expression, should be used for such quantitative analysis. In order to reveal such reference genes, the stability of seven genes were tested in five tissues of Zi geese. Methodology/Principal Findings: The relative transcription levels of genes encoding hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1),
-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (SDH), 28S rRNA (28S) and 18S rRNA (18S) have been quantified in heart, liver, kidney, muscle and ovary in Zi geese respectively at different developmental stages (1 d, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months). The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. Conclusions: The expression of 28S in heart, GAPDH in liver and ovary, ACTB in kidney and HPRT1 in muscle are the most stable genes as identified by the three different analysis methods. Thus, these genes are recommended for use as candidate reference genes to compare mRNA transcription in various developmental stages of geese.
Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems
Song, J.I. ; Park, K.H. ; Jeon, J.H. ; Choi, H.L. ; Barroga, A.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 433~442
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11515
This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The
concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig`s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to
during summer and 17.9 to
during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to
. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to
. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to housing system during both summer and winter but not of airspeed. The ideal air velocity measurement favored the EPH and therefore can be appropriate for the Korean environment. Further emphasis on its cost effectiveness will be the subject of future investigations.
A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review
Lian, Ting ; Wang, Linjie ; Liu, Yiping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2013, Pages 443~454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12365
Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock`s skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further.