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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Identification of Recently Selected Mutations Driven by Artificial Selection in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Lim, Dajeong ; Gondro, Cedric ; Park, Hye Sun ; Cho, Yong Min ; Chai, Han Ha ; Seong, Hwan Hoo ; Yang, Bo Suk ; Hong, Seong Koo ; Chang, Won Kyung ; Lee, Seung Hwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 603~608
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12456
Hanwoo have been subjected over the last seventy years to intensive artificial selection with the aim of improving meat production traits such as marbling and carcass weight. In this study, we performed a signature of selection analysis to identify recent positive selected regions driven by a long-term artificial selection process called a breeding program using whole genome SNP data. In order to investigate homozygous regions across the genome, we estimated iES (integrated Extended Haplotype Homozygosity SNP) for the each SNPs. As a result, we identified two highly homozygous regions that seem to be strong and/or recent positive selection. Five genes (DPH5, OLFM3, S1PR1, LRRN1 and CRBN) were included in this region. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection, we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the iES value of SNPs localized close or within them. We also described the detection of the adaptive evolution at the molecular level for the genes of interest. As a result, this analysis also led to the identification of OLFM3 as having a strong signal of selection in bovine lineage. The results of this study indicate that artificial selection which might have targeted most of these genes was mainly oriented towards improvement of meat production.
Microarray Analysis of Genes Involved with Shell Strength in Layer Shell Gland at the Early Stage of Active Calcification
Liu, Zhangguo ; Zheng, Qi ; Zhang, Xueyu ; Lu, Lizhi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 609~624
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12398
The objective of this study was to get a comprehensive understanding of how genes in chicken shell gland modulate eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification. Four 32-week old of purebred Xianju hens with consistent high or low shell breakage strength were grouped into two pairs. Using Affymetrix Chicken Array, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed on hen's shell gland at 9 h post oviposition. Gene ontology enrichment analysis for differentially expressed (DE) transcripts was performed using the web-based GOEAST, and the validation of DE-transcripts was tested by qRT-PCR. 1,195 DE-transcripts, corresponding to 941 unique genes were identified in hens with strong eggshell compared to weak shell hens. According to gene ontology annotations, there are 77 DE-transcripts encoding ion transporters and secreted extracellular matrix proteins, and at least 26 DE-transcripts related to carbohydrate metabolism or post-translation glycosylation modification; furthermore, there are 88 signaling DE-transcripts. GO term enrichment analysis suggests that some DE-transcripts mediate reproductive hormones or neurotransmitters to affect eggshell quality through a complex suite of biophysical processes. These results reveal some candidate genes involved with eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification which may facilitate our understanding of regulating mechanisms of eggshell quality.
Investigation of MC1R SNPs and Their Relationships with Plumage Colors in Korean Native Chicken
Hoque, M.R. ; Jin, S. ; Heo, K.N. ; Kang, B.S. ; Jo, C. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 625~629
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12581
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is related to the plumage color variations in chicken. Initially, the MC1R gene from 30 individuals was sequenced and nine polymorphisms were obtained. Of these, three and six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, respectively. Among these, three selected SNPs were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 150 individuals from five chicken breeds, which identified the plumage color responding alleles. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree using MC1R gene sequences indicated three well-differentiated different plumage pigmentations (eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino). Also, the genotype analyses indicated that the TT, AA and GG genotypes corresponded to the eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino plumage pigmentations at nucleotide positions 69, 376 and 427, respectively. In contrast, high allele frequencies with T, A and G alleles corresponded to black, red/yellow and white plumage color in 69, 376 and 427 nucleotide positions, respectively. Also, amino acids changes at position Asn23Asn, Val126Ile and Thr143Ala were observed in melanin synthesis with identified possible alleles, respectively. In addition, high haplotype frequencies in TGA, CGG and CAA haplotypes were well discriminated based on the plumage pigmentation in chicken breeds. The results obtained in this study can be used for designing proper breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chicken breeds, as well as for the developing breed identification markers in chicken.
Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management
Safa, S. ; Soleimani, A. ; Heravi Moussavi, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 630~637
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12303
To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (
). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.
Presence of Transcription Factor OCT4 Limits Interferon-tau Expression during the Pre-attachment Period in Sheep
Kim, Min-Su ; Sakurai, Toshihiro ; Bai, Hanako ; Bai, Rulan ; Sato, Daisuke ; Nagaoka, Kentaro ; Chang, Kyu-Tae ; Godkin, James D. ; Min, Kwan-Sik ; Imakawa, Kazuhiko ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 638~645
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12462
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is thought to be the conceptus protein that signals maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. We and others have observed that OCT4 expression persists in the trophectoderm of ruminants; thus, both CDX2 and OCT4 coexist during the early stages of conceptus development. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CDX2 and OCT4 on IFNT gene transcription when evaluated with other transcription factors. Human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells were cotransfected with an ovine IFNT (-654-bp)-luciferase reporter (-654-IFNT-Luc) construct and several transcription factor expression plasmids. Cotransfection of the reporter construct with Cdx2, Ets2 and Jun increased transcription of -654-IFNT-Luc by about 12-fold compared with transfection of the construct alone. When cells were initially transfected with Oct4 (0 h) followed by transfection with Cdx2, Ets2 and/or Jun 24 h later, the expression of -654-IFNT-Luc was reduced to control levels. OCT4 also inhibited the stimulatory activity of CDX2 alone, but not when CDX2 was combined with JUN and/or ETS2. Thus, when combined with the other transcription factors, OCT4 exhibited little inhibitory activity towards CDX2. An inhibitor of the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CREBBP), 12S E1A, reduced CDX2/ETS2/JUN stimulated -654-IFNT-Luc expression by about 40%, indicating that the formation of an appropriate transcription factor complex is required for maximum expression. In conclusion, the presence of OCT4 may initially minimize IFNT expression; however, as elongation proceeds, the increasing expression of CDX2 and formation of the transcription complex leads to greatly increased IFNT expression, resulting in pregnancy establishment in ruminants.
Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake
Tham, Ho Thanh ; Uden, Peter ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 646~653
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12498
Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a
Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients.
Effect of Oral Administration of Intact Casein on Gastrointestinal Hormone Secretion and Pancreatic α-Amylase Activity in Korean Native Steer
Lee, S.B. ; Choi, C.W. ; Jin, Y.C. ; Wang, T. ; Lee, K.H. ; Ku, M.B. ; Hwang, J.H. ; Kim, K.H. ; Vega, R.S.A. ; Lee, H.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 654~660
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12510
Three Korean native steers (
kg) fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a
Latin square design to investigate the influence of oral administration of soluble proteins, intact casein (IC) and acid hydrolyzed casein (AHC), on gastro-intestinal hormone (GIH) secretion in the blood and pancreatic
-amylase activity in the duodenum. Oral treatment consisted of a basic diet (control), IC (C+100% protein), or AHC (C+80% amino acid, 20% peptide) for 21 d. Blood and duodenum samples were collected for measurement of serum GI hormones, and pancreatic
-amylase activity was determined at 900, 1030, 1330, 1630, and 1930 h after feeding on d 21 of treatment. The levels of serum cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin in the IC treatment group were higher compared to the other treatment groups (p<0.05). In addition to the changes in CCK and secretin levels upon IC treatment, the pancreatic
-amylase activity in the duodenum was higher in the IC group compared to the control diet group (p<0.05). The response of serum ghrelin to IC and AHC treatment was in accordance with the response of serum secretin. The level of peptide fragments flowing in the duodenum was higher in the IC treatment group than the other treatment groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that an increase in duodenal CCK and secretin upon IC oral administration increased pancreatic
-amylase secretion. In addition, ghrelin may be associated with GI hormone secretion in Korean native steers.
Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield
Awawdeh, M.S. ; Obeidat, B.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 661~667
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12513
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (
kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Hainanmycin on Protein Degradation and Populations of Ammonia-producing Bacteria In vitro
Wang, Z.B. ; Xin, H.S. ; Wang, M.J. ; Li, Z.Y. ; Qu, Y.L. ; Miao, S.J. ; Zhang, Y.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 668~674
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12589
An in vitro fermentation was conducted to determine the effects of hainanmycin on protein degradation and populations of ammonia-producing bacteria. The substrates (DM basis) for in vitro fermentation consisted of alfalfa hay (31.7%), Chinese wild rye grass hay (28.3%), ground corn grain (24.5%), soybean meal (15.5%) with a forage: concentrate of 60:40. Treatments were the control (no additive) and hainanmycin supplemented at 0.1 (H0.1), 1 (H1), 10 (H10), and 100 mg/kg (H100) of the substrates. After 24 h of fermentation, the highest addition level of hainanmycin decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. The high addition level of hainanmycin (H1, H10, and H100) reduced (p<0.05) branched-chain VFA concentration, the molar proportion of acetate and butyrate, and ratio of acetate to propionate; and increased the molar proportion of propionate, except that for H1 the in molar proportion of acetate and isobutyrate was not changed (p>0.05). After 24 h of fermentation, H10 and H100 increased (p<0.05) concentrations of peptide nitrogen and AA nitrogen and proteinase activity, and decreased (p<0.05)
-N concentration and deaminase activity compared with control. Peptidase activitives were not affected by hainanmycin. Hainanmycin supplementation only inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which is one of the species of low deaminative activity. Hainanmycin supplementation also decreased (p<0.05) relative population sizes of hyper-ammonia-producing species, except for H0.1 on Clostridium aminophilum. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with hainanmycin could improve ruminal fermentation and modify protein degradation by changing population size of ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro; and the addition level of 10 mg/kg appeared to achieve the best results.
Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bazhen on Growth Performances, Serum Traits, Immunity, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Taiwan Country Chickens
Lien, Tu-Fa ; Lin, Kou-Joong ; Yang, Ling-Ling ; Chen, Lih-Geeng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 675~682
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12086
One hundred and sixty Taiwan country chickens (d-old chicks) were randomly assigned into four groups with four replicates and equal sex. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% of Bazhen powder, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex. The study was conducted for 14 wks. Experimental results indicated that Bazhen supplement did not influence feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Compared with control group, the percentage of serum HDL (high-density lipoprotein) linearly increased (p<0.03) and that of VLDL+LDL (very low-density+low-density lipoprotein) linearly decreased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, that 2% Bazhen was significantly different with control group (p<0.05). Chickens fed diets containing 2% Bazhen displayed reduced (p<0.05) serum GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels. The IgG,
-globulin levels and PHA (phytohemagglutinin) skin challenge results in 1% Bazhan supplemented group were higher (p<0.05) than in the control group, the SRBC (sheep red blood cell) and ND (newcastle disease) titers in Bazhen supplemented groups were linear higher (p<0.05) than in the control group. The liver catalase activity and the capacity of scavenging DPPH (
-picrylhydrazyl) radical were linearly increased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, and the 1 and 2% groups were different from the control group (p<0.05). Liver TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) levels in all Bazhen supplemented groups and total glutathione level in the 2% group were reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control group and displayed a linear response (p<0.05). The TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and pH value of the breast muscle after 24 h post-mortem in the Bazhen supplemented groups was linear lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Results from this study demonstrated that Bazhen supplement in chicken had several beneficial effects, including increased SRBC and ND titers, HDL and IgG,
-globulin levels, PHA skin challenge result, decreased VLDL+LDL and GOT levels, and displayed antioxidation effects in serum and carcass meat parameters.
Effects of Resveratrol and Essential Oils on Growth Performance, Immunity, Digestibility and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Challenged Piglets
Ahmed, S.T. ; Hossain, M.E. ; Kim, G.M. ; Hwang, J.A. ; Ji, H. ; Yang, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 683~690
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12683
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of resveratrol and essential oils from medicinal plants on the growth performance, immunity, digestibility, and fecal microbial shedding of weaned piglets. A total of 48 weaned piglets (8 kg initial weight, 28-d-old) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with 3 replications of 4 piglets each. The dietary treatments were NC (negative control; basal diet), PC (positive control; basal diet+0.002% apramycin), T1 (basal diet+0.2% resveratrol), and T2 (basal diet+0.0125% essential oil blend). All piglets were orally challenged with 5 ml culture fluid containing
cfu/ml of Escherichia coli KCTC 2571 and
cfu/ml Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium. The PC group (p<0.05) showed the highest average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) throughout the experimental period, although feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in the T1 group (p>0.05). Serum IgG level was increased in the T1 group, whereas TNF-
levels was reduced in the supplemented groups compared to control (p<0.05). The PC diet improved the dry matter (DM) digestibility, whereas PC and T2 diets improved nitrogen (N) digestibility compared to NC and T1 diets (p<0.05). Fecal Salmonella and E. coli counts were reduced in all treatment groups compared to control (p<0.05). Fecal Lactobacillus spp. count was increased in the T2 group compared to others (p<0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on fecal Bacillus spp. count throughout the entire experimental period. Based on these results, resveratrol showed strong potential as antibiotic alternatives for reversing the adverse effects of weaning stress on growth performance, immunity and microbial environment in E. coli and Salmonella-challenged piglets.
The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets
Zhang, H.Y. ; Yi, J.Q. ; Piao, X.S. ; Li, P.F. ; Zeng, Z.K. ; Wang, D. ; Liu, L. ; Wang, G.Q. ; Han, X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 691~699
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12429
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of
kg were used in a
Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of
kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a
Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of
kg) weaned at
d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and FSBM may be the main factors affecting the performance of early-weaned piglets rather than the increased ME content and SID of AA.
Growth Performance, Plasma Fatty Acids, Villous Height and Crypt Depth of Preweaning Piglets Fed with Medium Chain Triacylglycerol
Chwen, Loh Teck ; Foo, Hooi Ling ; Thanh, Nguyen Tien ; Choe, D.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 700~704
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12561
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks
Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza ; Seidavi, Alireza ; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw ; Laudadio, Vito ; Tufarelli, Vincenzo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 705~710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12633
This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.
Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe
Chen, Yong ; Luo, Hailing ; Liu, Xueliang ; Wang, Zhenzhen ; Zhang, Yuwei ; Liu, Kun ; Jiao, Lijuan ; Chang, Yanfei ; Zuo, Zhaoyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 711~715
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12556
To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW) of
kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2), 4 h/d (G4), 8 h/d (G8) and 12 h/d (G12) access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05) increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05) decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.
Variation of Meat Quality Parameters Due to Conformation and Fat Class in Limousin Bulls Slaughtered at 25 to 27 Months of Age
Guzek, Dominika ; Glabska, Dominika ; Pogorzelski, Grzegorz ; Kozan, Karolina ; Pietras, Jacek ; Konarska, Malgorzata ; Sakowska, Anna ; Glabski, Krzysztof ; Pogorzelska, Ewelina ; Barszczewski, Jerzy ; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 716~722
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12525
The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age of animal, hot carcass weight, pH, conformation and fat class on basic beef quality attributes (tenderness, sarcomere length, basic chemical composition, marbling and colour) in a group of purebred animals. The object of the study was beef of Limousin bulls (25 to 27 months, hot carcass weight -
kg, "U" conformation class, "2"-"3" fat class). Analysed cuts were Infraspinatus muscle from the blade and Longissimus dorsi muscle from the cube roll and the striploin. Tenderness was analysed with universal testing machine, colour - chromometer analysis, sarcomere length - microscopic method, basic chemical composition - near-infrared spectroscopy and marbling - computer image analysis. No differences in tenderness and sarcomere length were observed within the age groups of Limousin bulls (age of 25, 26, 27 months) (p>0.05). Moisture (p = 0.0123) and fat (p = 0.0250) content were significantly different for meat of animals slaughtered at the age of 25 and 27 months. No influence of pH value on tenderness was observed, but at the same time, influence on sarcomere length (p = 0.039) and
component of colour (0.045) was found. For "U" conformation class, in subclasses, as well as for fat classes "2"-"3", there were no differences in tenderness, sarcomere length and colour components. Higher fat content was observed in the higher fat class, rather than in lower, however this feature was not associated with marbling.
Quality Assessment of Longissimus and Semitendinosus Muscles from Beef Cattle Subjected to Non-penetrative and Penetrative Percussive Stunning Methods
Sazili, A.Q. ; Norbaiyah, B. ; Zulkifli, I. ; Goh, Y.M. ; Lotfi, M. ; Small, A.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 723~731
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12563
This study provides a comparative analysis of the effects of pre-slaughter penetrative and non-penetrative stunning and post-slaughter stunning on meat quality attributes in longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in heifers. Ten animals were assigned to each of four treatment groups: i) animals were subjected to conventional Halal slaughter (a clean incision through the structures at the front of the upper neck - the trachea, oesophagus, carotid arteries and jugular veins) and post-cut penetrating mechanical stun within 10 to 20 s of the neck cut (Unstunned; US); ii) high power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (HPNP); iii) low power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (LPNP); and iv) penetrative stunning using a captive bolt pistol followed by the neck cut (P). For each carcass, muscle samples were removed within 45 min of slaughter, portioned and analysed for pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), tenderness (WBS), lipid oxidation (TBARS) and color, over a two week storage period. Stunning did not affect pH and cooking loss. Significant differences in water holding capacity, tenderness, lipid oxidation and color were present at different storage time points. HPNP stunning resulted in lower WHC and color values, particularly lightness (
), higher TBARS values and peak force values compared with those stunned using LPNP, P and US. These adverse effects on quality were mostly encountered in the ST muscle. In conclusion, the meat quality achieved using P, LPNP and US treatments was comparable, and no treatment stood out as considerably better than another.
Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review
Jayasena, Dinesh D. ; Ahn, Dong Uk ; Nam, Ki Chang ; Jo, Cheorun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 5, 2013, Pages 732~742
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12619
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable "warmed over flavour" in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of
-tocopherol in chicken meat.