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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality
Li, Yunxiao ; Cabling, Meriam M. ; Kang, H.S. ; Kim, T.S. ; Yeom, S.C. ; Sohn, Y.G. ; Kim, S.H. ; Nam, K.C. ; Seo, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 905~910
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12622
This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer's preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (-0.24) and shear force (-0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed.
Effects of CSN1S2 Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats
Yue, X.P. ; Fang, Q. ; Zhang, X. ; Mao, C.C. ; Lan, X.Y. ; Chen, H. ; Lei, Chuzhao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 911~915
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13018
The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268) and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440) breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats) and daily milk yield (202 goats) were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05).
Development of Genetic Markers for Triploid Verification of the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas
Kang, Jung-Ha ; Lim, Hyun Jeong ; Kang, Hyun-Soek ; Lee, Jung-Mee ; Baby, Sumy ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 916~920
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13108
The triploid Pacific oyster, which is produced by mating tetraploid and diploid oysters, is favored by the aquaculture industry because of its better flavor and firmer texture, particularly during the summer. However, tetraploid oyster production is not feasible in all oysters; the development of tetraploid oysters is ongoing in some oyster species. Thus, a method for ploidy verification is necessary for this endeavor, in addition to ploidy verification in aquaculture farms and in the natural environment. In this study, a method for ploidy verification of triploid and diploid oysters was developed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panels containing primers for molecular microsatellite markers. Two microsatellite multiplex PCR panels consisting of three markers each were developed using previously developed microsatellite markers that were optimized for performance. Both panels were able to verify the ploidy levels of 30 triploid oysters with 100% accuracy, illustrating the utility of microsatellite markers as a tool for verifying the ploidy of individual oysters.
Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese
Luan, Xinhong ; Cao, Zhongzan ; Xu, Wen ; Gao, Ming ; Wang, Laiyou ; Zhang, Shuwei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 921~929
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13083
Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.
Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System
Yamaguchi, Manabu ; Ikeda, Kentaro ; Takenouchi, Naoki ; Higashiyama, Masakazu ; Watanabe, Akira ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 930~934
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13036
The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.
The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet
Vakili, A.R. ; Khorrami, Behzad ; Mesgaran, M. Danesh ; Parand, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 935~944
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12636
Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (
initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N,
-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.
Development of Appropriate Fibrolytic Enzyme Combination for Maize Stover and Its Effect on Rumen Fermentation in Sheep
Bhasker, T. Vijay ; Nagalakshmi, D. ; Rao, D. Srinivasa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 945~951
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12590
In vitro studies were undertaken to develop an appropriate fibrolytic enzymes cocktail comprising of cellulase, xylanase and
-D-glucanase for maize stover with an aim to increase its nutrient utilization in sheep. Cellulase and xylanase added individually to ground maize stover at an increasing dose rates (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 12,800, 25,600, 32,000, 38,400, and 44,800 IU/g DM), increased (p<0.01) the in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro sugar release. The doses selected for studying the combination effect of enzymes were 6,400 to 32,000 IU/g of cellulase and 12,800 to 44,800 IU/g of xylanase. At cellulase concentration of 6,400 IU/g, IVDMD % was higher (p<0.01) at higher xylanase doses (25,600 to 44,800 IU/g). While at cellulase doses (12,800 to 32,000 IU/g), IVDMD % was higher at lower xylanase doses (12,800 and 25,600 IU/g) compared to higher xylanase doses (32,000 to 44,800 IU/g). At cellulase concentration of the 6,400 to 32,000 IU/g, the amount of sugar released increased (p<0.01) with increasing levels of xylanase concentrations except for the concentration of 44,800 IU/g. No effect of
-D-glucanase (100 to 300 IU/g) was observed at lower cellulase-xylanase dose (cellulase-xylanase 12,800 to 12,800 IU/g). Based on the IVDMD, the enzyme combination cellulase-xylanase 12,800 to 12,800 IU/g was selected to study its effect on feed intake and rumen fermentation pattern, conducted on 12 rams (6 to 8 months;
kg body weight) fed 50% maize stover based TMR. The total volatile fatty acids (p<0.01) and ammonia-N concentration was higher in enzyme supplemented group, while no effect was observed on dry matter intake, ruminal pH and total nitrogen concentration.
Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes
Wanapat, Metha ; Pilajun, R. ; Polyorach, S. ; Cherdthong, A. ; Khejornsart, P. ; Rowlinson, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 952~960
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13032
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a
factorial arrangement in a
Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, population of protozoa and fungi, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by cottonseed meal levels (p>0.05). Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.
Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows
Guo, Y.Q. ; Zou, Y. ; Cao, Z.J. ; Xu, X.F. ; Yang, Z.S. ; Li, Shengli ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 961~970
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13059
Eight multiparous Holstein cows (
kg of BW;
DIM) were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW) as replacements for ground corn (GC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated
Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07); however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01). Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01) and ammonia nitrogen (
-N) (p = 0.06) concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02) when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (p = 0.07) and cholesterol (p<0.01) decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08), insulin (p = 0.02) and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites if the cows are fed fiber-sufficient diets.
Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced
Terramoccia, S. ; Bartocci, S. ; Taticchi, A. ; Di Giovanni, S. ; Pauselli, M. ; Mourvaki, E. ; Urbani, S. ; Servili, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 971~980
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12627
Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs
, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs
, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs
MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of
. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (
) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol.
Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs
Loyra-Tzab, Enrique ; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando ; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo ; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 981~986
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13062
The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.
Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite
Wu, Q.J. ; Zhou, Y.M. ; Wu, Y.N. ; Wang, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 987~994
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12545
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.
Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Feeding on the Growth Performance and Meat Fatty Acid Profiles in Broiler: Meta-analysis
Cho, Sangbuem ; Ryu, Chaehwa ; Yang, Jinho ; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda ; Choi, Chang-Weon ; Chae, Jung-Il ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Shim, Kwan-Seob ; Kim, Young Jun ; Choi, Nag-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 995~1002
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13071
The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding on growth performance and fatty acid profiles in thigh meat of broiler chicken was investigated using meta-analysis with a total of 9 studies. Overall effects were calculated by standardized mean differences between treatment (CLA fed) and control using Hedges's adjusted g from fixed and random effect models. Meta-regression was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA levels. Subgroups in the same study were designated according to used levels of CLA, CP levels or substituted oils in diets. The effects on final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were investigated as growth parameters. Total saturated and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations and C16:0, C18:0, C18:2 and C18:3 concentrations in thigh meat of broiler chicken were used as fatty acid profile parameters. The overall effect of CLA feeding on final weight was negative and it was only significant in fixed effect model (p<0.01). Significantly lower weight gain, feed intake and higher feed conversion ratio compared to control were found (p<0.05). CLA feeding on the overall increased total saturated fatty acid concentration in broilers compared to the control diet (p<0.01). Total unsaturated fatty acid concentration was significantly decreased by CLA feeding (p<0.01). As for individual fatty acid profiles, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:3 were increased and C18:2 was significantly decreased by CLA feeding (p<0.01). In conclusion, CLA was proved not to be beneficial for improving growth performance, whereas it might be supposed that CLA is effective modulating n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in thigh meat. However, the economical compensation of the loss from suppressed growth performance and increased saturated fatty acids with the benefit from enhanced n-6/n-3 ratio should be investigated in further studies in order to propose an appropriate use of dietary CLA in the broiler industry.
Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Amino Acid Absorption Mode in Growing Pigs
Zeng, P.L. ; Yan, H.C. ; Wang, X.Q. ; Zhang, C.M. ; Zhu, C. ; Shu, G. ; Jiang, Q.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1003~1011
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12555
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different dietary lysine levels on the apparent nutrient digestibility, the serum amino acid (AA) concentration, and the biochemical parameters of the precaval and portal vein blood in growing pigs. In Experiment 1, 15 noncannulated pigs received diets with different lysine densities (0.65%, 0.95%, and 1.25% lysine) for 13 d. A total collection digestion test was performed, and blood samples were collected from the precaval vein at the end of the experiment. In Experiment 2, four cannulated pigs were fed the same diets of Experiment 1. The experiment used a self-control experimental design and was divided into three periods. On d 5 of each period, at 0.5 h before feeding and hourly up to 8 h after feeding, single blood samples were collected from catheters placed in the portal vein. In Experiment 1, some serum AAs (including lysine), serum urinary nitrogen (SUN), and total protein (TP) concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary lysine levels (p<0.05). Moreover, the 0.65% lysine treatment showed a significant lower apparent digestibility of gross energy, dry matter, crude protein, and phosphorus than the other treatments (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, serum lysine, histidine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, isoleucine (p = 0.0588), triglyceride, and SUN (p = 0.0572) concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary lysine levels (p<0.05). Additionally, almost all of the determined serum AA and total AA concentrations reached their lowest values at 0.5 h before feeding and their highest values at 2 h after feeding (p<0.05). These findings indicate that the greatest absorption of AA occurred at 2 h after feeding and that the dynamic profile of serum AA is affected by the dietary lysine levels. Moreover, when the dietary lysine content was 0.95%, the growing pigs achieved a better nutrient digestibility and serum metabolites levels.
Effects of Dietary Thiazolidinedione Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intramuscular Fat and Related Genes mRNA Abundance in the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Finishing Pigs
Chen, X. ; Feng, Y. ; Yang, W.J. ; Shu, G. ; Jiang, Q.Y. ; Wang, X.Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1012~1020
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12722
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with thiazolidinedione (TZD) on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. In Experiment 1, 80 castrated finishing pigs (Large White
Landrace, BW = 54.34 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments with 5 replicates of 8 pigs each. The experimental pigs in the 2 groups were respectively fed with a diet with or without a TZD supplementation (15 mg/kg). In Experiment 2, 80 castrated finishing pigs (Large White
Landrace, BW = 71.46 kg) were divided into 2 treatments as designed in Experiment 1, moreover, carcass evaluations were performed. The results from Experiment 1 showed that TZD supplementation could significantly decreased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) during 0 to 28 d, without impairing the average daily gain (ADG) (p>0.05). In Experiment 2, the ADG was significantly increased by TZD supplementation during 14 to 28 d and 0 to 28 d (p<0.05) and the feed:gain ratio (F:G) was significantly decreased by TZD supplementation during 0 to 28 d (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, TZD group had significantly higher serum triglyceride (TG) concentration at 28h and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 14 d (p<0.05). Moreover, there was an apparent improvement in the marbling score (p<0.10) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.10) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in pigs treated by TZD supplementation. Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that pigs of TZD group had higher mRNA abundance of
coactivator 1 (PGC-1) (p<0.05) and fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) (p<0.05) than pigs of control group. Taken together, these results suggested that dietary TZD supplementation could improve growth performance and increase the IMF content of finishing pigs through regulating the serum parameters and genes mRNA abundance involved in fat metabolism.
Effects of Dietary Chromium Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition, Meat Colour and Expression of the Colour-related Gene Myoglobin of Growing-finishing Pigs
Li, Y.S. ; Zhu, N.H. ; Niu, P.P. ; Shi, F.X. ; Hughes, C.L. ; Tian, G.X. ; Huang, R.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1021~1029
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13012
To investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) as Cr methionine (CrMet) on growth performance, carcass traits, pork quality, meat colour and expression of meat colour-related genes in growing-finishing pigs, 189 crossbred Duroc
Yorkshire) growing-finishing pigs (male, castrated, average initial BW
kg) were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Dietary treatments per kg of feed were as follows: 0 (CT), 0.3 mg/kg (T1), 0.6 mg/kg (T2) and 0.9 mg/kg (T3) Cr (in the form of CrMet; as-fed basis), and each treatment was replicated five times with 8 to 10 pigs per replicate pen. During the 28 d of the experiment, both the ADG and the ADFI increased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of dietary Cr increased. The F/G ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05). As dietary Cr increased, loin muscle areas (linear, p = 0.013) and average backfat thickness (linear, p = 0.072) decreased. Shear force (linear, p = 0.070) and Commission Internationale de I'
clairage (CIE) redness (quadratic, p = 0.028) were increased. In addition, CIE Lightness (quadratic, p = 0.053) were decreased as dietary Cr increased. As dietary Cr increased, total myglobin (Mb) content (quadratic, p = 0.015) and the mb mRNA levels (quadratic, p = 0.046) in longissimus muscles of pigs were up-regulated. In conclusion, supplementation of dietary Cr improved growth and meat colour, but increased shear force and decreased IMF reduced palatability of longissimus muscles. Moreover, the increasing total Mb content and mb mRNA levels indicated that CrMet dietary supplementation may improve meat colour via up-regulating expression of the mb gene.
Automatic Detection of Cow's Oestrus in Audio Surveillance System
Chung, Y. ; Lee, J. ; Oh, S. ; Park, D. ; Chang, H.H. ; Kim, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1030~1037
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12628
Early detection of anomalies is an important issue in the management of group-housed livestock. In particular, failure to detect oestrus in a timely and accurate way can become a limiting factor in achieving efficient reproductive performance. Although a rich variety of methods has been introduced for the detection of oestrus, a more accurate and practical method is still required. In this paper, we propose an efficient data mining solution for the detection of oestrus, using the sound data of Korean native cows (Bos taurus coreanea). In this method, we extracted the mel frequency cepstrum coefficients from sound data with a feature dimension reduction, and use the support vector data description as an early anomaly detector. Our experimental results show that this method can be used to detect oestrus both economically (even a cheap microphone) and accurately (over 94% accuracy), either as a standalone solution or to complement known methods.
Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines
Jayasena, Dinesh D. ; Jung, Samooel ; Kim, Hyun Joo ; Bae, Young Sik ; Yong, Hae In ; Lee, Jun Heon ; Kim, Jong Geun ; Jo, Cheorun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1038~1046
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12684
With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The
values of breast and thigh meat, but not the
values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5'-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.
Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace) Pigs with Different Coat Colors
Hur, S.J. ; Jeong, T.C. ; Kim, G.D. ; Jeong, J.Y. ; Cho, I.C. ; Lim, H.T. ; Kim, B.W. ; Joo, S.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1047~1053
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13005
Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig
Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.