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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Feed Energy Evaluation for Growing Pigs
Kil, D.Y. ; Kim, B.G. ; Stein, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1205~1217
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.r.02
Pigs require energy for maintenance and productive purposes, and an accurate amount of available energy in feeds should be provided according to their energy requirement. Available energy in feeds for pigs has been characterized as DE, ME, or NE by considering sequential energy losses during digestion and metabolism from GE in feeds. Among these energy values, the NE system has been recognized as providing energy values of ingredients and diets that most closely describes the available energy to animals because it takes the heat increment from digestive utilization and metabolism of feeds into account. However, NE values for diets and individual ingredients are moving targets, and therefore, none of the NE systems are able to accurately predict truly available energy in feeds. The DE or ME values for feeds are important for predicting NE values, but depend on the growth stage of pigs (i.e., BW) due to the different abilities of nutrient digestion, especially for dietary fiber. The NE values are also influenced by both environment that affects NE requirement for maintenance (
) and the growth stage of pigs that differs in nutrient utilization (i.e., protein vs. lipid synthesis) in the body. Therefore, the interaction among animals, environment, and feed characteristics should be taken into consideration for advancing feed energy evaluation. A more mechanistic approach has been adopted in Denmark as potential physiological energy (PPE) for feeds, which is based on the theoretical biochemical utilization of energy in feeds for pigs. The PPE values are, therefore, believed to be independent of animals and environment. This review provides an overview over current knowledge on energy utilization and energy evaluation systems in feeds for growing pigs.
Identification of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) Gene Interactions in Korean Native Cattle Based on the Multifactor-dimensionality Reduction Method
Oh, Dong-Yep ; Jin, Me-Hyun ; Lee, Yoon-Seok ; Ha, Jae-Jung ; Kim, Byung-Ki ; Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Lee, Jea-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1218~1228
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13058
Fat quality is determined by the composition of fatty acids. Genetic relationships between this composition and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) gene were examined using 513 Korean native cattle. Single and epistatic effects of 7 SNP genetic variations were investigated, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to investigate gene interactions in terms of oleic acid (C18:1), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and marbling score (MS). The g.6850+77 A>G and g.14047 C>T SNP interactions were identified as the statistically optimal combination (C18:1, MUFAs and MS permutation p-values were 0.000, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively) of two-way gene interactions. The interaction effects of g.6850+77 A>G, g.10213 T>C and g.14047 C>T reflected the highest training-balanced accuracy (63.76%, 64.70% and 61.85% respectively) and was better than the individual effects for C18:1, MUFAs and MS. In addition, the superior genotype groups were AATTCC, AGTTCC, GGTCCC, AGTCCT, GGCCCT and AGCCTT. These results suggest that the selected SNP combination of the SCD1 gene and superior genotype groups can provide useful inferences for the improvement of the fatty acid composition in Korean native cattle.
Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh
Joshi, Jyoti ; Salar, R.K. ; Banerjee, Priyanka ; Upasna, S. ; Tantia, M.S. ; Vijh, R.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1229~1236
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12669
India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes.
Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population
Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher ; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn ; Elzo, Mauricio A. ; Suwanasopee, Thanathip ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1237~1246
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13040
The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001) by the considered fixed effects. High grade
cows (3/16B 13/16F) had the highest least squares means (LSM) for LY (
), IY (
), PY (
), YD (
) and LL (
), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses yielded low heritability (
) and repeatability (
) estimates for LL, DP and parameter c. Medium heritability (
) and repeatability (
) estimates were obtained for LY, IY, PY, YD and ln(a). Genetic correlations between LY, IY, PY, YD, ln(a), and LL ranged from 0.59 to 0.99. Spearman's rank correlations between sire estimated breeding values for LY, LL, IY, PY, YD, ln(a) and c were positive (0.67 to 0.99, p<0.001). These results suggested that selection for IY, PY, YD, or LY would genetically improve lactation milk yield in this Ethiopian dairy cattle population.
Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows
Lee, K.H. ; Lee, Y.T. ; Chen, T.C. ; Yeh, C.C. ; Chen, J.Y. ; Liu, L.Y. ; Chi, C.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1247~1254
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13042
The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of
, which was significantly lower than that of the control group,
(p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of
in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group,
(p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows.
Analysis of ENPP2 in the Uterine Endometrium of Pigs Carrying Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Cloned Embryos
Seo, Heewon ; Choi, Yohan ; Yu, Inkyu ; Shim, Jangsoo ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ; Hyun, Sang-Hwan ; Lee, Eunsong ; Ka, Hakhyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1255~1261
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13158
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful tool for animal cloning, but the efficiency of producing viable offspring by SCNT is very low. To improve this efficiency in the production of cloned pigs, it is critical to understand the interactions between uterine function and cloned embryos during implantation. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the establishment of pregnancy in pigs; however, LPA production in the uterine endometrium of pigs carrying SCNT-cloned conceptuses has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated expression of ENPP2, an LPA-generating enzyme, in the uterine endometrium of gilts with conceptuses derived from SCNT during the implantation period. Uterine endometrial tissue and uterine flushing were obtained from gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses and from gilts carrying conceptuses resulting from natural mating on d 12 of pregnancy. Our results demonstrated no difference in the level of ENPP2 mRNA expression in the uterine endometrium between gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses and gilts carrying naturally-conceived conceptuses, but secretion of ENPP2 protein into the uterine lumen did decrease significantly in pigs with SCNT-derived conceptuses. These results indicate that expression and secretion of ENPP2, which are critical for appropriate LPA production and successful pregnancy, are dysregulated in the uterine endometrium of pigs carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses.
Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Male Goats
Nagamine, Itsuki ; Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Kina, Takashi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1262~1275
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12717
Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. Research was conducted to test if dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising male goats. Eighteen male kids were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) and alfalfa hay cubes (2.0 kg/d) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). Klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. Hay intake was measured at 10:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal and the carcass characteristics, the physical and chemical characteristics of loin were analyzed. DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight and size over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. Blood parameter values were similar to those in normal goats. Dressing carcass weight and percentages, and total weight of meat in the AMFG were similar to that in the CFG, but smaller in the TMFG. The compressed meat juice ratio was higher in both the TMFG and AMFG than the CFG. While the fat in corn, Awamori-pressed lees, and Tofu lees contains more than 50% linoleic acid, the loin fat in both the AMFG and TMFG was very low in linoleic acid due to the increase in the content of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. This indicates that feeding on AMF and TMF does not inhibit hydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms. As in the CFG, the total essential and non-essential amino acids in the loin of the AMFG and TMFG were well balanced. Compared to the CFG, the AMFG and TMFG were high in taurine and carnosine. The results indicate dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a feed ingredient for raising male goats.
Effects of Methylcellulose on Cellulolytic Bacteria Attachment and Rice Straw Degradation in the In vitro Rumen Fermentation
Sung, Ha Guyn ; Kim, Min Ji ; Upadhaya, Santi Devi ; Ha, Jong K. ; Lee, Sung Sill ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1276~1281
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13217
An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose on the attachment of major cellulolytic bacteria on rice straw and its digestibility. Rice straw was incubated with ruminal mixture with or without 0.1% methylcellulose (MC). The attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus populations on rice straw was measured using real-time PCR with specific primer sets. Methylcellulose at the level of 0.1% decreased the attachment of all three major cellulolytic bacteria. In particular, MC treatment reduced (p<0.05) attachment of F. succinogenes on rice straw after 10 min of incubation while a significant reduction (p<0.05) in attachment was not observed until 4 h incubation in the case of R. flavefaciens and R. albus. This result indicated F. succinogenes responded to MC more sensitively and earlier than R. flavefaciens and R. albus. Dry matter digestibility of rice straw was subsequently inhibited by 0.1% MC, and there was a significant difference between control and MC treatment (p<0.05). Incubated cultures containing MC had higher pH and lower gas production than controls. Current data clearly indicated that the attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus on rice straw was inhibited by MC, which apparently reduced rice straw digestion.
Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs
Ji, Shoukun ; Xu, Guishan ; Jiang, Chenggang ; Deng, Kaidong ; Tu, Yan ; Zhang, Naifeng ; Ma, Tao ; Lou, Can ; Diao, Qiyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1282~1288
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12634
A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper
thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (
of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper
thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system.
Changes in Microbial Diversity, Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics in the Rumen in Response to Medicinal Plant Extracts
Kim, Eun Tae ; Moon, Yea Hwang ; Min, Kwan-Sik ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Sam Churl ; Ahn, Seung Kyu ; Lee, Sung Sill ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1289~1294
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13072
This study evaluated the in vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts on ruminal methanogenesis, four different groups of methanogens and ruminal fermentation characteristics. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Licorice and mugwort extracts (Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Artemisia capillaris, 0.5% and 1% of total substrate DM, respectively), previously used as folk remedies, were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with buffered-rumen fluid. Total gas production in Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment was not significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) while total gas production in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment was lower than that of the control. Artemisia capillaris extract and Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract reduced
emission by 14% (p<0.05) and 8% (p<0.05), respectively. Ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased by 18% in the medicinal plant extracts treatments. Medicinal plant extracts also affected the order Methanobacteriales community. Methanobacteriales diversity decreased by 35% in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment and 30% in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment. The order Methanomicrobiales population decreased by 50% in the 0.5% of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment. These findings demonstrate that medicinal plant extracts have the potential to inhibit in vitro ruminal methanogenesis.
Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw
Gunun, P. ; Wanapat, M. ; Anantasook, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1295~1303
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13094
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of
were randomly assigned according to a
Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal
-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.
Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content
Li, Yanbing ; Nishino, Naoki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1304~1312
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13175
The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages.
Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks
Sheng, Q.K. ; Yang, L.Q. ; Zhao, H.B. ; Wang, X.L. ; Wang, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1313~1319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2012.12700
This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet.
Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs
Zhang, H.Y. ; Piao, X.S. ; Li, P. ; Yi, J.Q. ; Zhang, Q. ; Li, Q.Y. ; Liu, J.D. ; Wang, G.Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1320~1328
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13200
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of
were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of
) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated
Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of
) weaned at
were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2.5% Prosin and 2.5% Protide diets than the pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). Villus height in jejunum and ileum, and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum were higher (p<0.05) in pigs fed CON, 2.5% Prosin and 2.5% Protide diets compared with the 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets. Pigs fed CON diet had greater villus height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum than the pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). In conclusion, although Prosin and Protide contained lower ME content and SID of AA than fish meal, Prosin and Protide replacing 50% of fish meal in diet with identical nutrient levels could obtain similar performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.
The Relationship between Farmers' Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms
Kilic, I. ; Bozkurt, Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1329~1338
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13124
In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers' perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers' perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers' characteristics, our observations, and farmers' expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers' perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers' perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare.
Efficacy of Tomato Powder as Antioxidant in Cooked Pork Patties
Kim, I.S. ; Jin, S.K. ; Yang, M.R. ; Chu, G.M. ; Park, J.H. ; Rashid, R.H.I. ; Kim, J.Y. ; Kang, S.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1339~1346
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13079
This study was carried out to determine the effects of tomato powder (TP) on cooked pork patties during storage at
in the dark. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of TP extract were 26.22 mg gallic acid/100 g and 3.52 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. The extract of TP showed a potential antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (
). Pork patties were manufactured with 0.25% (T1), 0.5% (T2), 0.75% (T3) and 1.0% (T4) TP in a basic formula (C). The pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of T2, T3 and T4 patties were lower (p<0.05) than the C patties during storage. Increased concentration of TP in meat patties decreased (p<0.05) the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total plate count (TPC) values at d 7 of storage. Tomato treated-patties had lower (p<0.05) values for lightness (
), but higher (p<0.05) values for redness (
) and yellowness (
) at d 3 and 7 of storage compared with the C. In the case of sensory evaluation, the scores of colour, flavour and overall acceptability of T3 and T4 patties were higher (p<0.05) than those of the C patty after 3 or 7 days of storage.
Perspective of Membrane Technology in Dairy Industry: A Review
Kumar, Pavan ; Sharma, Neelesh ; Ranjan, Rajeev ; Kumar, Sunil ; Bhat, Z.F. ; Jeong, Dong Kee ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 26, issue 9, 2013, Pages 1347~1358
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13082
Membrane technology has revolutionized the dairy sector. Different types of membranes are used in the industry for various purposes like extending the shelf life of milk without exposure to heat treatment, standardization of the major components of milk for tailoring new products as well increasing yield and quality of the dairy products, and concentrating, fractionation and purification of milk components especially valuable milk proteins in their natural state. In the cheese industry, membranes increase the yield and quality of cheese and control the whey volume, by concentrating the cheese milk. With the advancement of newer technology in membrane processes, it is possible to recover growth factor from whey. With the introduction of superior quality membranes as well as newer technology, the major limitation of membranes, fouling or blockage has been overcome to a greater extent.