Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 27, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 27, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 27, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 27, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 27, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 27, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Genetic Analysis of Ultrasound and Carcass Measurement Traits in a Regional Hanwoo Steer Population
Hwang, Jeong Mi ; Cheong, Jae Kyoung ; Kim, Sam Su ; Jung, Bong Hwan ; Koh, Myung Jae ; Kim, Hyeong Cheol ; Choy, Yun Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 457~463
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13543
Ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF), longissimus muscle area (ULMA) and marbling score (UMS) and carcass measurements of carcass weight (CW), backfat thickness (BF), longissimus muscle area (LMA), and marbling score (MS) on 7,044 Hanwoo steers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data from Hanwoo steers that were raised, finished in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do (province) and shipped to slaughter houses during the period from October 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated. Ultrasound measurements were taken at approximately three months before slaughter by an experienced operator using a B-mode real-time ultrasound device (HS-2000, FHK Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with a 3.5 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning was on the left side between 13th rib and the first lumbar vertebrae. All slaughtering processes and carcass evaluations were performed in accordance with the guidelines of beef grading system of Korea. To estimate genetic parameters, multiple trait animal models were applied. Fixed effects included in the models were: the effects of farm, contemporary group effects (year-season at the time of ultrasound scanning in the models for UBF, ULMA, and UMS, and year-season at slaughter in the models for CW, BF, LMA, and MS), the effects of ultrasound technicians as class variables and the effects of the age in days at ultrasound scanning or at slaughtering as linear covariates, respectively for ultrasound and carcass measures. Heritability estimates obtained from our analyses were 0.37 for UBF, 0.13 for ULMA, 0.27 for UMS, 0.44 for CW, 0.33 for BF, 0.36 for LMA and 0.54 MS, respectively. Genetic correlations were strongly positive between corresponding traits of ultrasound and carcass measures. Genetic correlation coefficient between UBF and BF estimate was 0.938, between ULMA and LMA was 0.767 and between UMS and MS was 0.925. These results suggest that ultrasound measurement traits are genetically similar to carcass measurement traits.
Differential Evolution between Monotocous and Polytocous Species
Ahn, Hyeonju ; Kim, Kyu-Won ; Kim, Hyeon Jeong ; Cho, Seoae ; Kim, Heebal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 464~470
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13696
One of the most important traits for both animal science and livestock production is the number of offspring for a species. This study was performed to identify differentially evolved genes and their distinct functions that influence the number of offspring at birth by comparative analysis of eight monotocous mammals and seven polytocous mammals in a number of scopes: specific amino acid substitution with site-wise adaptive evolution, gene expansion and specific orthologous group. The mutually exclusive amino acid substitution among the 16 mammalian species identified five candidate genes. These genes were both directly and indirectly related to ovulation. Furthermore, in monotocous mammals, the EPH gene family was found to have undergone expansion. Previously, the EPHA4 gene was found to positively affect litter size in pigs and supports the possibility of the EPH gene playing a role in determining the number of offspring per birth. The identified genes in this study offer a basis from which the differences between monotocous and polytocous species can be studied. Furthermore, these genes may harbor some clues to the underlying mechanism, which determines litter size and may prove useful for livestock breeding strategies.
Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Porcine Whole Blood and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells under Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Stimulation
Wang, Jiying ; Wang, Yanping ; Wang, Huaizhong ; Hao, Xiaojing ; Wu, Ying ; Guo, Jianfeng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 471~478
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13471
Investigating gene expression of immune cells of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) under polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) stimulation is valuable for understanding the immune response of organism to RNA viruses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a standard method for quantification of gene expression studies. However, the reliability of qRT-PCR data critically depends on proper selection of reference genes. In the study, using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder, we systematically evaluated the gene expression stability of six candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, RPL4, TBP, and PPIA) in samples of whole blood and PBMC with or without poly I:C stimulation. Generally, the six candidate genes performed a similar trend of expression stability in the samples of whole blood and PBMC, but more stably expressed in whole blood than in PBMC. geNorm ranked B2M and PPIA as the best combination for gene expression normalization, while according to NormFinder, TBP was ranked as the most stable reference gene, followed by B2M and PPIA. Comprehensively considering the results from the two programs, we recommended using the geometric mean of the three genes, TBP, PPIA and B2M, to normalize the gene expression of whole blood and PBMC with poly I:C stimulation. Our study is the first detailed survey of the gene expression stability in whole blood and PBMC with or without poly I:C stimulation and should be helpful for investigating the molecular mechanism involved in porcine whole blood and PBMC in response to poly I:C stimulation.
The Expression of Leptin, Estrogen Receptors, and Vitellogenin mRNAs in Migrating Female Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta: The Effects of Hypo-osmotic Environmental Changes
Choi, Young Jae ; Kim, Na Na ; Shin, Hyun Suk ; Choi, Cheol Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 479~487
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13592
Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis and reproductive function in fish, especially in reproduction. Migrating fish, such as salmonoids, are affected by external environmental factors, and salinity changes are a particularly important influence on spawning migrations. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in salinity affect the expression of leptin, estrogen receptors (ERs), and vitellogenin (VTG) in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The expression and activity of leptin, the expression of ERs and VTG, and the levels of estradiol-
and cortisol increased after the fish were transferred to FW, demonstrating that changes in salinity stimulate the HPG axis in migrating female chum salmon. These findings reveal details about the role of elevated leptin levels and sex steroid hormones in stimulating sexual maturation and reproduction in response to salinity changes in chum salmon.
Effects of Copper and Selenium Supplementation on Performance and Lipid Metabolism in Confined Brangus Bulls
Netto, Arlindo Saran ; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio ; Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro Del ; de Melo, Mariza Pires ; Vilela, Flavio Garcia ; Correa, Lisia Bertonha ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 488~494
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13400
Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on performance, feed efficiency, composition of fatty acids in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, and cholesterol concentration in serum and in LD muscle and enzymes activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The treatments were: i) Control, without copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) supplementation; ii) Se, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite; iii) Cu, 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate; iv) Se/Cu, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate. LD muscle fatty acid composition was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05). The serum concentration of cholesterol was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05), however, the concentration of cholesterol in LD was lower in cattle supplemented with copper and selenium (p<0.05). Oxidized glutathione and reduced glutathione increased (p<0.05) with Cu, Se and Se/Cu supplementation. The supplementation of copper (40 mg/kg DM) and selenium (2 mg/kg DM) altered the metabolism of lipids in confined Brangus cattle, through a decrease in cholesterol deposition in the LD, possibly by changing the ratio between reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione. Copper and selenium supplementation improved animal performance and feed efficiency (p<0.05) when compared to the control group, providing advantages in the production system, while also benefiting consumers by reducing cholesterol concentration in the meat.
Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows
Song, D.J. ; Kang, H.Y. ; Wang, J.Q. ; Peng, H. ; Bu, D.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 495~502
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13522
The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with
as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with
as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH,
-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal
-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.
Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata
Yusuf, A.L. ; Goh, Y.M. ; Samsudin, A.A. ; Alimon, A.R. ; Sazili, A.Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 503~510
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13533
The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).
Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage
Amanullah, S.M. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, H.J. ; Joo, Y.H. ; Kim, S.B. ; Kim, S.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13617
This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3-5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (
, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (
, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants.
Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Korean Native Ducks Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Limiting Amino Acids
Choo, Y.K. ; Kwon, H.J. ; Oh, S.T. ; Kang, C.W. ; Kim, H.K. ; Hong, E.C. ; Heo, K.N. ; Lee, S.K. ; An, B.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 518~523
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13675
There are multiple experiments conducted with male Korean native ducks (KND) to evaluate the optimal levels of limiting amino acids (AA). In Exp. 1, a total of 450 one-d-old male KNDs were divided into five groups with six replicates and fed experimental diets with varying levels of lysine, total sulfur amino acids (TSAA) and threonine (T1, 0.90/0.74/0.70%; T2, 1.00/0.82/0.77%; T3, 1.10/0.90/0.85%; T4, 1.20/0.98/0.93%; T5, 1.30/1.07/1.01%) to 21 d of age. In Exp. 2, one-d-old male KND were received and fed commercial starter diet from hatching to 21 d of age, and then divided into five groups with six replicates and fed one of five diets varying levels of lysine, TSAA, and threonine (T1, 0.73/0.62/0.54%; T2, 0.80/0.68/0.60%; T3, 0.87/0.74/0.65%; T4, 0.94/0.80/0.70%; T5, 1.01/0.86/0.75%) during 22 to 56 d of age, respectively. The BW gain was linearly increased as dietary limiting AA levels increased to 1.20% lysine, 0.98% TSAA and 0.93% threonine. There were no significant differences in feed intake, gain:feed and uniformity among groups. In Exp. 2, the BW gain and gain:feed were not affected by dietary limiting AA levels. There were no significant differences in carcass characteristics and meat quality among groups. The growth performance and carcass characteristics did not show the significant response to increasing dietary limiting AA levels in KND during 22 to 56 d of age. In conclusion, the levels of lysine, TSAA and threonine necessary to maximize growth for starter phase were at least 1.20%, 0.98%, and 0.93%, respectively. On the other hands, KND require relatively low levels of limiting AA for late growth and carcass yield. The dietary levels of 0.73% lysine, 0.62% TSAA and 0.54% threonine appear to be adequate during growing phase.
Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits
Safwat, A.M. ; Sarmiento-Franco, L. ; Santos-Ricalde, R.H. ; Nieves, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 524~529
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13163
Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the
method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.
Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs
Gutzwiller, A. ; Schlegel, P. ; Guggisberg, D. ; Stoll, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 530~536
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13527
factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions.
Cholesterol Removal from Whole Egg by Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin
Jeong, H.J. ; Sun, H. ; Chogsom, C. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 537~542
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13706
This study was carried out to optimize cholesterol removal in whole egg using crosslinked
-CD) and to recycle the
-CD. Various factors for optimizing conditions were concentration of the
-CD, mixing temperature, mixing time, mixing speed and centrifugal speed. In the result of this study, the optimum conditions of cholesterol removal were 25% crosslinked
mixing temperature, 30 min mixing time, 1,200 rpm mixing speed and
centrifugal speed. The recycling was repeated five times. The cholesterol removal was 92.76% when treated with the optimum conditions. After determining the optimum conditions, the recyclable yields of the crosslinked
-CD ranged from 86.66% to 87.60% in the recycling and the percentage of cholesterol removal was over 80% until third recycling. However, the cholesterol removal efficiency was decreased when the number of repeated recycling was increased. Based on the result of this study, it was concluded that the crosslinked
-CD was efficient for cholesterol removal in whole egg, and recycling is possible for only limited repeating times due to the interaction of the
-CD and egg protein.
Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine
Aghwan, Z.A. ; Alimon, A.R. ; Goh, Y.M. ; Nakyinsige, K. ; Sazili, A.Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 543~550
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13545
Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of
were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal) diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control) - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs) detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6), while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the goats of the control group (T1). The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2) than those of control ones (T1). It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.
Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities
Lambertz, C. ; Panprasert, P. ; Holtz, W. ; Moors, E. ; Jaturasitha, S. ; Wicke, M. ; Gauly, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 551~560
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13555
Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (
) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.
Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Wild Argali ISG15 cDNA
Sun, Yanming ; Chen, Kaili ; Shen, Wen ; Cui, Rupeng ; Lu, Haifu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 561~566
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13455
The complete coding sequence of Wild Argali ISG15 cDNA was generated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The ISG15 cDNA was 642 bp with an open reading frame of 474 bp, which encoded a 17.47 kDa protein composed of 157 amino acids. Its amino acid sequence shared 97.9%, 80.8%, 91.4%, 94.3%, 78.3% identity with those of ISG15cDNA from Ovis aries (accession no. NM001009735.1), Capra hircus (accession no. HQ329186.1), Bos taurus (accession no. BC102318.1), Bubalus bubalis (accession no. HM543269.1), and Sus scrofa (accession no. EU647216.1), respectively. The entire coding sequence was inserted into the pET-28a vector and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein corresponded to the expected molecular mass of 25 kDa as judged by SDS-PAGE, and it was detected in the bacterial inclusion bodies. The expressed protein could be purified by
chelate affinity chromatography and the results from the lymphocyte proliferation test showed that the product could stimulate lymphocyte proliferation very well (p<0.05), which further confirmed its biological activity.
Dexamethasone and Acetate Modulate Cytoplasmic Leptin in Bovine Preadipocytes
Yonekur, Shinichi ; Hirota, Shohei ; Tokutake, Yukako ; Rose, Michael T. ; Katoh, Kazuo ; Aso, Hisashi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 567~573
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13559
Hormonal and nutrient signals regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. In rodents, leptin is stored in cytosolic pools of adipocytes. However, not much information is available regarding the regulation of intracellular leptin in ruminants. Recently, we demonstrated that leptin mRNA was expressed in bovine intramuscular preadipocyte cells (BIP cells) and that a cytoplasmic leptin pool may be present in preadipocytes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of cytoplasmic leptin protein in BIP cells during differentiation as well as the effects of various factors added to the differentiation medium on its expression in BIP cells. Leptin mRNA expression was observed only at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, whereas the cytoplasmic leptin concentration was the highest on day 0 and decreased gradually thereafter. Cytoplasmic leptin was detected at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, but not at 4 days after adipogenic induction. The cytoplasmic leptin concentration was reduced in BIP cells at 4 days after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas cytoplasmic leptin was not observed at 8 days after treatment. In contrast, acetate significantly enhanced the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in BIP cells at 8 days after treatment, although acetate alone did not induce adipocyte differentiation in BIP cells. These results suggest that dexamethasone and acetate modulate the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in bovine preadipocytes.
Expression, Purification, and Characteristic of Tibetan Sheep Breast Lysozyme Using Pichia pastoris Expression System
Li, Jianbo ; Jiang, Mingfeng ; Wang, Yong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 574~579
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13529
A lysozyme gene from breast of Tibetan sheep was successfully expressed by secretion using a-factor signal sequence in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris GS115. An expression yield and specific activity greater than 500 mg/L and 4,000 U/mg was obtained. Results at optimal pH and temperature showed recombinant lysozyme has higher lytic activity at pH 6.5 and
. This study demonstrates the successful expression of recombinant lysozyme using the eukaryotic host organism P. pastoris paving the way for protein engineering. Additionally, this study shows the feasibility of subsequent industrial manufacture of the enzyme with this expression system together with a high purity scheme for easy high-yield purification.
Bacillus subtilis Protects Porcine Intestinal Barrier from Deoxynivalenol via Improved Zonula Occludens-1 Expression
Gu, Min Jeong ; Song, Sun Kwang ; Park, Sung Moo ; Lee, In Kyu ; Yun, Cheol-Heui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 580~586
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13744
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) forming the barrier for the first-line of protection are interconnected by tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ alteration results in impaired barrier function, which causes potentially excessive inflammation leading to intestinal disorders. It has been suggested that toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands and some bacteria enhance epithelial barrier function in humans and mice. However, no such study has yet to be claimed in swine. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Bacillus subtilis could improve barrier integrity and protection against deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced barrier disruption in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). We found that B. subtilis decreased permeability of TJ and improved the expression of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin during the process of forming TJ. In addition, ZO-1 expression of IPEC-J2 cells treated with B. subtilis was up-regulated against DON-induced damage. In conclusion, B. subtilis may have potential to enhance epithelial barrier function and to prevent the cells from DON-induced barrier dysfunction.
Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System
Clark, C.E.F. ; Kwinten, N.B.P. ; van Gastel, D.A.J.M. ; Kerrisk, K.L. ; Lyons, N.A. ; Garcia, S.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 587~591
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13435
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.
Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries
Patra, Amlan Kumar ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 592~599
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13342
This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-
-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME) increased by 54.3% (61.5 to
annually) from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR) was noted for goat (2.0%), followed by buffalo (1.57%) and swine (1.53%). Global EME is projected to increase to
by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3%) between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%), followed by buffalo (1.55%), swine (1.28%), sheep (1.25%) and cattle (0.70%). In India, total EME was projected to grow by
in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM) increased from
in 1961 to
in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%), and is projected to grow to
by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from
(with an AGR of 1.57%) in this period, which could increase to
in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be
in 2050 from
in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11%) from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23%) for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%), swine (9.57%) and sheep (7.40%), and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%), buffalo (13.7%) and goat (5.4%). The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010) than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach
-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.
Effects of Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on the Biochemical Methane Potential of Piggery Slaughterhouse Wastes
Yoon, Young-Man ; Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Shin, Kook-Sik ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 27, issue 4, 2014, Pages 600~607
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2013.13537
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I ratio) on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability (
) of different piggery slaughterhouse wastes, such as piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. These wastes were sampled from a piggery slaughterhouse located in Kimje, South Korea. Cumulative methane production curves for the wastes were obtained from the anaerobic batch fermentation having different S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. BMP and anaerobic biodegradabilities (
) of the wastes were calculated from cumulative methane production data for the tested conditions. At the lowest S/I ration of 0.1, BMPs of piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were determined to be 0.799, 0.848, and
, respectively, which were above the theoretical methane potentials of 0.539, 0.644, and
for blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content, respectively. However, BMPs obtained from the higher S/I ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were within the theoretical range for all three types of waste and were not significantly different for the different S/I ratios tested. Anaerobic biodegradabilities calculated from BMP data showed a similar tendency. These results imply that, for BMP assay in an anaerobic reactor, the S/I ratio of anaerobic reactor should be above 0.1 and the inoculum should be sufficiently stabilized to avoid further degradation during the assay.