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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results
Velayudhan, D.E. ; Kim, I.H. ; Nyachoti, C.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0001R
Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Native Chicken Populations from Myanmar, Thailand and Laos by Using 102 Indels Markers
Maw, A.A. ; Kawabe, Kotaro ; Shimogiri, T. ; Rerkamnuaychoke, W. ; Kawamoto, Y. ; Masuda, S. ; Okamoto, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0212
The genetic diversity of native chicken populations from Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos was examined by using 102 insertion and/or deletion (indels) markers. Most of the indels loci were polymorphic (71% to 96%), and the genetic variability was similar in all populations. The average observed heterozygosities (
) and expected heterozygosities (
) ranged from 0.205 to 0.263 and 0.239 to 0.381, respectively. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst) for all cumulated populations was 0.125, and the Thai native chickens showed higher Gst (0.088) than Myanmar (0.041) and Laotian (0.024) populations. The pairwise Fst distances ranged from 0.144 to 0.308 among populations. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, using Nei's genetic distance, revealed that Thai and Laotian native chicken populations were genetically close, while Myanmar native chickens were distant from the others. The native chickens from these three countries were thought to be descended from three different origins (K = 3) from STRUCTURE analysis. Genetic admixture was observed in Thai and Laotian native chickens, while admixture was absent in Myanmar native chickens.
Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 Genes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Bos grunniens and Lowland Bos taurus
Chen, Ya-bing ; Fu, Mei ; Lan, Dao-liang ; Li, Jian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 20~24
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0413
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) play a pivotal role in regulating cellular hypoxic response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes encoding IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 to improve the current knowledge on their roles in highland Bos grunniens (Yak). We also compared their expression levels in the liver and kidney tissues between yaks and lowland cattle. We obtained full-length 465 bp IGF-1 and 792 bp IGFBP-1, encoding 154 amino acids (AA) IGF-1, and 263 AA IGFBP-1 protein, respectively using reverse transcriptase-polyerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Analysis of their corresponding amino acid sequences showed a high identity between B. grunniens and lowland mammals. Moreover, the two genes were proved to be widely distributed in the examined tissues through expression pattern analysis. Real-time PCR results revealed that IGF-1 expression was higher in the liver and kidney tissues in B. grunniens than in Bos taurus (p<0.05). The IGFBP-1 gene was expressed at a higher level in the liver (p<0.05) of B. taurus than B. grunniens, but it has a similar expression level in the kidneys of the two species. These results indicated that upregulated IGF-1 and downregulated IGFBP-1 are associated with hypoxia adaptive response in B. grunniens.
Evaluation of Inbreeding and Genetic Variability of Five Pig Breeds in Czech Republic
Krupa, Emil ; Zakova, E. ; Krupova, Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 25~36
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0251
The complex analysis of the pedigree records of Czech Landrace (CLA), Czech Large White-dam line (CLWd), Czech Large White-sire line (CLWs), Duroc (DC), and Pietrain (PN) was performed to determine trends of genetic diversity (GD), and to find the main sources of the GD loss. The total size of the pedigree was 132,365, 391,151, 32,913, 13,299, and 7,160 animals in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. Animals born in the years 2011 through 2013 were assumed as the reference population. The average pedigree completeness index for one generation back was 95.9%, 97.4%, 91.2%, 89.8%, and 94.2% for appropriate breeds. Number of ancestors explaining 100% of gene pool was 186, 373, 125, 157, and 37 in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. The relative proportion of inbred animals (58%, 58%, 54%, 47%, and 25%), the average inbreeding (2.7%, 1.4%, 2.5%, 3.6%, and 1.3%) and the average co-ancestry (3.1%, 1.6%, 3.3%, 4.2%, and 3.3%) were found over the past decade in analysed breeds. The expected inbreeding under random mating increased during the last 10 years in CLWs and PN and varied from 1.27% to 3.2%. The effective population size computed on the basis of inbreeding was 76, 74, 50, 35, and 83 in 2012 in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. The shortest generation interval (1.45) was observed for CLWd in sire to son selection pathway. The longest generation interval obtained PN (1.95) in sire to daughter pathway. The average relative GD loss within last generation interval was 7.05%, 4.70%, 9.81%, 7.47%, and 10.46%, respectively. The relative proportion of GD loss due to genetic drift on total GD loss was 85.04%, 84.51%, 89.46%, 86.19%, and 83.68% in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. All breeds were characterized by a high proportion of inbred animals, but the average inbreeding was low. The most vulnerable breeds to loss of GD are DC and PN. Therefore, a breeding program should be more oriented to prevent the increase of GD loss in these breeds.
Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats
Harter, C.J. ; Castagnino, D.S. ; Rivera, A.R. ; Lima, L.D. ; Silva, H.G.O. ; Mendonca, A.N. ; Bonfim, G.F. ; Liesegang, A. ; St-Pierre, N. ; Teixeira, I.A.M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 37~49
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0214
During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (
body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses.
Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using In vitro Rumen Fermentation
Jeong, Chang-Dae ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Kim, Seon-Ho ; Choi, Yeon Jae ; Soriano, Alvin P. ; Cho, Kwang Keun ; Jeon, Che-Ok ; Lee, Sung Sil ; Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 50~57
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0555
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM) and soluble starch (SS) on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts) containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05) gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in
-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest
-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (
) concentrations were observed with time, and
concentrations were higher (p<0.05) with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05) total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA) was higher (p<0.05) in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM) at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1) and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10) bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52), R7 (Selenomonas sp. MCB2), R8 (Selenomonas ruminantium gene) and R9 (Selenomonas ruminantium strain LongY6) were found in samples with higher proportions of SS. Different feed ratios affect rumen fermentation in terms of pH,
, BA, volatile fatty acid and other metabolite concentrations and microbial diversity. Balanced protein and carbohydrate ratios are needed for rumen fermentation.
Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III
Wynn, S. ; Teramura, M. ; Sato, T. ; Hanada, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 58~68
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0418
Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (
= 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition.
Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics
Senturklu, S. ; Landblom, D.G. ; Perry, G.A. ; Petry, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 69~78
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.13.0833
A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for the sale of non-pregnant heifers, was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.004). These data suggest that high breeding efficiency can be attained among March-April born SF and LF virgin heifers when transitioned to a more favorable May-June calving period through the strategic use of grazed and harvested forages resulting in a lower net cost per pregnant SF heifer.
Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder
Park, J.H. ; Kang, S.N. ; Shin, D. ; Shim, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 79~85
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0313
One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.
Determination and Prediction of the Amino Acid Digestibility of Sunflower Seed Meals in Growing Pigs
Liu, J.D. ; Li, Q.Y. ; Zeng, Z.K. ; Li, P. ; Xu, X. ; Wang, H.L. ; Zhang, S. ; Piao, X.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 86~94
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0109
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and amino acid (AA) digestibility of sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and to use this data to develop prediction equations for estimating AA digestibility for growing pigs. Ten SFSM were collected from five provinces in China. Twelve barrows (
), fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into two
Latin square designs. Each of six experimental periods comprised a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The ten test diets contained 50% SFSM as the sole source of AA. Another nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an inert marker in each diet. There was considerable variation (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM in chemical composition (dry matter [DM]). The concentration of CP and ether extract (EE) ranged from 29.33% to 39.09% and 0.88% to 11.33%, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre ranged from 21.46% to 36.42%, 38.15% to 55.40%, and 24.59% to 37.34%, respectively. There was variation among the ten SFSM in apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) for lysine and threonine, which ranged from 63.16 to 79.21 and 55.19% to 72.04% for AID and 67.03% to 82.07% and 61.97% to 77.01% for SID, respectively. The variation in CP and methionine ranged from 60.13% to 74.72% and 74.79% to 88.60% for AID and 66.70% to 79.31% and 77.16% to 90.27% for SID, respectively. Methionine was a good indicator to predict AA digestibility. These results indicate that conventional chemical composition of SFSM was variable (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM (DM). The results of AID, SID and prediction equations could be used to evaluate the digestibility of SFSM in growing pigs.
Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT
) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks
Oh, S.T. ; Zheng, L. ; Kwon, H.J. ; Choo, Y.K. ; Lee, K.W. ; Kang, C.W. ; An, Byoung-Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0473
Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT
) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.
Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs
Li, P. ; Xu, X. ; Zhang, Q. ; Liu, J.D. ; Li, Q.Y. ; Zhang, S. ; Ma, X.K. ; Piao, X.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 102~110
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0161
The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (
) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a
Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p>0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.
Optimal Incorporation Level of Dietary Alternative Phosphate (MgHPO
) and Requirement for Phosphorus in Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus)
Yoon, Tae-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Won, Seung-Gun ; Ra, Chang-Six ; Kim, Jeong-Dae ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 111~119
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0378
A growth trial was conducted to determine the optimal incorporation level of dietary magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP,
), which was manufactured from swine manure and phosphorus (P), required by juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus). Graded MHP of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, and 2.0% monocalcium phosphate (MCP) each was added to the basal diet (control) in lieu of cellulose to become the range of available P (AP) from 0.4% to 0.8% of which diets were designated as control, MHP0.5, MHP1.0, MHP1.5, MHP2.0, and MCP, respectively. Control diet contained fish meal (20%), soybean meal (40%), wheat flour (27%), corn gluten meal (5%), fish oil (2%) and soy oil (2%) as main ingredients. Following a 24 h fasting, 540 fish with a mean body weight of 11.8 g were randomly allotted to 6 groups in triplicate, whereby 18 tanks (
, water volume of 66 L) were prepared. The feeding experiment lasted for 8 weeks. Fish group fed the control diet showed the lowest weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) among treatments. The WG was, however, not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of fish group fed MHP0.5. Fish group fed MHP2.0 showed the highest WG and FE of which values were not significantly different from those of fish groups fed diets MHP1.0 and MHP1.5 as well as MCP (p>0.05) except fish groups fed control and MHP0.5. Aspartate aminotransferase was significantly decreased with an increase in available P, while alanine aminotransferase did not show a significant difference among treatment. The highest inorganic P in plasma was observed in fish fed MHP2.0. From the present results, a second-order regression analysis revealed that the optimal dietary MHP level and the AP requirement were found to be 1.62% and 0.7%, respectively.
Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening
Choi, Kyung-Hoon ; Min, Ji-Young ; Ganesan, Palanivel ; Bae, In-Hyu ; Kwak, Hae-Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 120~126
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0056
This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH)- or red ginseng extract (RGE)-added Asiago cheeses (AC) during ripening at
for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE-added AC (p<0.05). While RGHAC and RGEAC were more yellow and darker with increasing concentrations than that of control (p<0.05), the color was not influenced from the hydrolysis. In texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of RGHAC and RGEAC significantly decreased compared to the control during the ripening (p<0.05). In sensory analysis, bitterness and ginseng flavor and taste scores increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH and RGE during ripening (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of RGH and RGE into cheese slightly influenced the properties of Asiago cheese, and similarities were observed between RGHAC and RGEAC. Thus, the lower concentrations (0.1% to 0.3%) of RGH and RGE added to AC were preferred for color, texture, and sensory during the ripening, therefore, these cheeses would be worth developing commercially.
Effects of Castration on Expression of Lipid Metabolism Genes in the Liver of Korean Cattle
Baik, Myunggi ; Nguyen, Trang Hoa ; Jeong, Jin Young ; Piao, Min Yu ; Kang, Hyeok Joong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 127~134
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0582
Castration induces the accumulation of body fat and deposition of intramuscular fat in Korean cattle, resulting in improved beef quality. However, little is known about the metabolic adaptations in the liver following castration. To understand changes in lipid metabolism following castration, hepatic expression levels of lipid metabolism genes were compared between Korean bulls and steers. Steers had higher (p<0.001) hepatic lipids contents and higher (p<0.01) mRNA levels of lipogenic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. This differential gene expression may, in part, contribute to increased hepatic lipid content following the castration of bulls. However, we found no differences in the hepatic expression levels of genes related to triglyceride synthesis (mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and 2) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, C-4 to C-12 straight chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) between bulls and steers. No differences in gene expression for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, including apolipoprotein B mRNA and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) protein, were observed in the liver although MTTP mRNA levels were higher in steers compared to bulls. In conclusion, FA synthesis may contribute to increased hepatic lipid deposition in steers following castration. However, hepatic lipid metabolism, including triglyceride synthesis, FA oxidation, and VLDL secretion, was not significantly altered by castration. Our results suggest that hepatic lipid metabolism does not significantly contribute to increased body fat deposition in steers following castration.
Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets
Eyng, C. ; Murakami, A.E. ; Santos, T.C. ; Silveira, T.G.V. ; Pedroso, R.B. ; Lourenco, D.A.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 135~142
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0066
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control - macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and interdigital reaction to phytohemagglutinin.
Effects of Bedding Material Composition in Deep Litter Systems on Bedding Characteristics and Growth Performance of Limousin Calves
Meng, J. ; Shi, F.H. ; Meng, Qingxiang ; Ren, L.P. ; Zhou, Z.M. ; Wu, H. ; Zhao, L.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 1, 2015, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0093
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter mixture compositions on bedding system temperature, pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia-N (
-N) content, and the serum physico-chemical parameters and growth indices of calves. Thirty-two Limousin calves (
) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 for each group) according to the bedding system used: i) control with soil only (CTR); ii) mixture with 50% paddy hulls (PH), 30% saw dusts (SD), 10% peat moss (PM) and 10% corn cobs (CC) (TRT1); iii) mixture with 15% PH, 15% SD, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% corn stover (CS) (TRT2); iv) mixture with 30% PH, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% CS (TRT3). The litter material combinations of different treatments were based on the cost of bedding system materials in China. The cost of four treatments from low to high: Control
-N level (271.83 to 894.72 mg/kg) was lowest for TRT1 (p<0.0001) and highest for TRT2 (p<0.0001). The acetate, propionate and butyrate levels were highest for the control group (p<0.0001). In all the groups, the pH value (6.90 to 9.09) increased at the beginning and later remained stable at below 9.09. The temperature of deep litter increased at the first week and reached the maximum (
) on day 38. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (
) levels in the TRT1 group animals (p<0.0001) were lower than those in the control and TRT2 animals. 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodothyronine (
) in the TRT1 group (p = 0.006) was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Cortisol (COR) in the control and TRT1 group was lower (p<0.0001) than that in the TRT2 and TRT3 groups. Corticosterone (CORt) in the control group was higher (p<0.0001) than that in the treatment groups. The findings indicate that the deep litter bedding systems provided better conditions for animal health and growth performance compared with the control system. Furthermore, the litter composition of TRT1 was found to be optimal among the three treatment groups.