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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Benefits of Prepartum Nest-building Behaviour on Parturition and Lactation in Sows - A Review
Yun, Jinhyeon ; Valros, Anna ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1519~1524
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0174
It is well known that prepartum sows have an innate motivation to build a nest before parturition. Under commercial conditions, however, the farrowing crate, which is widely used in modern pig husbandry, inhibits this innate behaviour through the lack of space, materials, or both. Thus, restriction of nest-building behaviour could generate increased stress, resulting in a decrease in maternal endogenous hormones. Hence, it could lead to detrimental effects on farrowing and lactating performance. Here we review interactions between prepartum nest-building behaviour, stress and maternal endogenous hormone levels, and discuss their effects on parturition, lactation, and welfare of sows and offspring.
A Genome-wide Scan for Selective Sweeps in Racing Horses
Moon, Sunjin ; Lee, Jin Woo ; Shin, Donghyun ; Shin, Kwang-Yun ; Kim, Jun ; Choi, Ik-Young ; Kim, Jaemin ; Kim, Heebal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1525~1531
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0696
Using next-generation sequencing, we conducted a genome-wide scan of selective sweeps associated with selection toward genetic improvement in Thoroughbreds. We investigated potential phenotypic consequence of putative candidate loci by candidate gene association mapping for the finishing time in 240 Thoroughbred horses. We found a significant association with the trait for Ral GApase alpha 2 (RALGAP2) that regulates a variety of cellular processes of signal trafficking. Neighboring genes around RALGAP2 included insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1), pallid (PLDN), and Ras and Rab interactor 2 (RIN2) genes have similar roles in signal trafficking, suggesting that a co-evolving gene cluster located on the chromosome 22 is under strong artificial selection in racehorses.
Differential Expression of miR-34c and Its Predicted Target Genes in Testicular Tissue at Different Development Stages of Swine
Zhang, Xiaojun ; Zhao, Wei ; Li, Chuanmin ; Yu, Haibin ; Qiao, YanYan ; Li, Aonan ; Lu, Chunyan ; Zhao, Zhihui ; Sun, Boxing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1532~1536
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0047
To verified the target genes of miR-34c, bioinformatics software was used to predict the targets of miR-34c. Three possible target genes of miR-34c related to spermatogenesis and male reproductive development: zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148), kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) were predicted. Then, the expression of miR-34c and its target genes were detected in swine testicular tissue at different developmental stages by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results suggested that the expression of PDGFRA has the highest negative correlation with miR-34c. Then immunohistochemical staining was done to observe the morphology of swine testicular tissue at 2-days and 3, 4, 5-months of age, which indicated that PDGFRA was mainly expressed in the support cells near the basement membrane during the early development stages of testicular tissue, but that the expression of PDGFRA was gradually reduced in later stages. Therefore, western blot analyzed that the highest expression of PDGFRA was generated in 2-days old testicular tissues and the expression levels reduced at 3 and 4-months old, which correlated with the results of immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, PDGFRA is a target gene of miR-34c.
Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire
Iqbal, Asif ; Kim, You-Sam ; Kang, Jun-Mo ; Lee, Yun-Mi ; Rai, Rajani ; Jung, Jong-Hyun ; Oh, Dong-Yup ; Nam, Ki-Chang ; Lee, Hak-Kyo ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1537~1544
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0752
Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.
Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire
Oh, J.D. ; Kim, E.S. ; Lee, H.K. ; Song, K.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1545~1550
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0425
c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with
and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of
and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs.
Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) and Its Application for Improving the Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) of the Berkshire Pork Quality Traits
Lee, Young-Sup ; Jeong, Hyeonsoo ; Taye, Mengistie ; Kim, Hyeon Jeong ; Ka, Sojeong ; Ryu, Youn-Chul ; Cho, Seoae ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1551~1557
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0287
The missing heritability has been a major problem in the analysis of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). We introduced the traditional genome-wide association study (GWAS) into the BLUP to improve the heritability estimation. We analyzed eight pork quality traits of the Berkshire breeds using GWAS and BLUP. GWAS detects the putative quantitative trait loci regions given traits. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained using GWAS results with p value <0.01. BLUP analyzed with significant SNPs was much more accurate than that with total genotyped SNPs in terms of narrow-sense heritability. It implies that genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of pork quality traits can be calculated by BLUP via GWAS. The GWAS model was the linear regression using PLINK and BLUP model was the G-BLUP and SNP-GBLUP. The SNP-GBLUP uses SNP-SNP relationship matrix. The BLUP analysis using preprocessing of GWAS can be one of the possible alternatives of solving the missing heritability problem and it can provide alternative BLUP method which can find more accurate GEBVs.
Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds
Jian, Wang ; Ke, Yang ; Cheng, Lu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1558~1564
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0526
Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10,
), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10,
)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10,
) and HF87.5% (n = 10,
). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (
) compared to HF100% (
), and their crossbreds both HF50% (
) and HF87.5% (
). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (
) and their crossbred HF50% (
) and HF87.5% (
) than Sahiwal (
) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.
Embryo Aggregation Promotes Derivation Efficiency of Outgrowths from Porcine Blastocysts
Lee, Sang-Goo ; Park, Jin-Kyu ; Choi, Kwang-Hwan ; Son, Hye-Young ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1565~1572
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0462
Porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have become an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic applications and producing transgenic animals. However, despite numerous reports of putative pESC lines, deriving validated pESC lines from embryos produced in vitro remains difficult. Here, we report that embryo aggregation was useful for deriving pESCs from in vitro-produced embryos. Blastocysts derived from embryo aggregation formed a larger number of colonies and maintained cell culture stability. Our derived cell lines demonstrated expression of pluripotent markers (alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog), an ability to form embryoid bodies, and the capacity to differentiate into the three germ layers. A cytogenetic analysis of these cells revealed that all lines derived from aggregated blastocysts had normal female and male karyotypes. These results demonstrate that embryo aggregation could be a useful technique to improve the efficiency of deriving ESCs from in vitro-fertilized pig embryos, studying early development, and deriving pluripotent ESCs in vitro in other mammals.
Effect of Soyabean Isoflavones Exposure on Onset of Puberty, Serum Hormone Concentration and Gene Expression in Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland and Ovary of Female Bama Miniature Pigs
Fan, Juexin ; Zhang, Bin ; Li, Lili ; Xiao, Chaowu ; Oladele, Oso Abimbola ; Jiang, Guoli ; Ding, Hao ; Wang, Shengping ; Xing, Yueteng ; Xiao, Dingfu ; Yin, Yulong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1573~1582
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0185
This study was to investigate the effect of soyabean isoflavones (SIF) on onset of puberty, serum hormone concentration, and gene expression in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary of female Bama miniature pigs. Fifty five, 35-days old pigs were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 11 pigs per treatment. Results showed that dietary supplementation of varying dosage (0, 250, 500, and 1,250 mg/kg) of SIF induced puberty delay of the pigs with the age of puberty of pigs fed basal diet supplemented with 1,250 mg/kg SIF was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Supplementation of SIF or estradiol valerate (EV) reduced (p<0.05) serum gonadotrophin releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone concentration, but increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentration in pigs at 4 months of age. The expression of KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor (KISS1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase (
) was reduced (p<0.01) in SIF-supplemented groups. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary of miniature pigs was reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control when exposed to 250, 1,250 mg/kg SIF and EV. Pigs on 250 mg/kg SIF and EV also showed reduced (p<0.05) expression of cytochrome P450 19A1 compared to the control. Our results indicated that dietary supplementation of SIF induced puberty delay, which may be due to down-regulation of key genes that play vital roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones.
Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers
Fiorentini, Giovani ; Carvalho, Isabela P.C. ; Messana, Juliana D. ; Canesin, Roberta C. ; Castagnino, Pablo S. ; Lage, Josiane F. ; Arcuri, Pedro B. ; Berchielli, Telma T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1583~1591
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0130
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight
) were distributed in a duplicated
Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of
(p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.
Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study
Kwak, W.S. ; Kim, Y.I. ; Lee, S.M. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Choi, D.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1592~1598
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0101
This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05) in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05) concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05) concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers.
Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves
Kara, Cagdas ; Cihan, Huseyin ; Temizel, Mutlu ; Catik, Serkan ; Meral, Yavuz ; Orman, Abdulkadir ; Yibar, Artun ; Gencoglu, Hidir ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1599~1605
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0124
Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG]) at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax) from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were statistically similar (p>0.05) but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI) was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05) than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p<0.05) in EG compared with CG. No differences (p>0.05) in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.
The Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) Supplementation on Nutrient Degradability in Dairy Cows: An In sacco and In vitro Study
Hartemink, Ellen ; Giorgio, Daniela ; Kaur, Ravneet ; Di Trana, Adriana ; Celi, Pietro ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1606~1613
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0206
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Yerba Mate (YM) supplementation on nutrients' degradation, in vitro dry matter disappearance, gas production and rumen ammonia concentration. Three rumen-fistulated Holstein Friesian cows were used for the in situ incubations and provided rumen liquor for in vitro incubations. The inclusion of YM in a control diet (pasture+pellets) affected some in sacco degradation parameters. YM supplementation decreased the effective degradability and degradation rate of pasture crude protein (CP), and it seems to slow down the degradation of pasture neutral detergent fiber. A significant increase of degradation of pasture acid detergent fiber (ADF) was detected after YM inclusion in the control diet. YM supplementation reduced in vitro gas production of pasture and ammonia concentration of pellets. The addition of YM in ruminant diet could decrease ammonia production and increase protein availability for productive purposes. The moderate presence of tannins in YM could have affected the degradation kinetics of pasture CP and ADF and the ammonia production of pellets.
Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets
Lee, Gang Il ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ; Kim, Jong Hyuk ; Kil, Dong Yong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1614~1623
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0216
The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated
Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW],
). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace
Yorkshire; initial BW,
) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE systems. Linear regression indicated that predictability of daily NE intake from the BW of pigs was very low for both French (
, 0.366) and Dutch CVB (
, 0.374) NE systems. In conclusion, increasing NE concentrations in diets increase BW, ADG, G:F, and NE intake per BW gain of early finishing gilts. The BW of early finishing gilts is not a good sole variable for the prediction of daily NE intake.
Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials
Palma, M.N.N. ; Rocha, G.C. ; Valadares Filho, S.C. ; Detmann, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1624~1628
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0068
Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion.
Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer
Piao, Min Yu ; Jo, Cheorun ; Kim, Hyun Joo ; Lee, Hyun Jung ; Kim, Hyun Jin ; Ko, Jong-Youl ; Baik, Myunggi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1629~1640
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0128
This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = -0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination
values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in either loin or rump. In conclusion, it is confirmed that QG is associated with sensory traits but nucleotide contents in beef may not be a major factor determining meat palatability in the present study.
Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions
Wang, X.C. ; Zhang, H.J. ; Wu, S.G. ; Yue, H.Y. ; Wang, J. ; Li, Jie ; Qi, Guang-Hai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1641~1648
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0181
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A
factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.
Monitoring of Chicken RNA Integrity as a Function of Prolonged Postmortem Duration
Malila, Yuwares ; Srimarut, Yanee ; U-chupaj, Juthawut ; Strasburg, Gale ; Visessanguan, Wonnop ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1649~1656
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0167
Gene expression profiling has offered new insights into postmortem molecular changes associated with meat quality. To acquire reliable transcript quantification, high quality RNA is required. The objective of this study was to analyze integrity of RNA isolated from chicken skeletal muscle (pectoralis major) and its capability of serving as the template in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a function of postmortem intervals representing the end-points of evisceration, carcass chilling and aging stages in chicken abattoirs. Chicken breast muscle was dissected from the carcasses (n = 6) immediately after evisceration, and one-third of each sample was instantly snap-frozen and labeled as 20 min postmortem. The remaining muscle was stored on ice until the next rounds of sample collection (1.5 h and 6 h postmortem). The delayed postmortem duration did not significantly affect
), suggesting no altered purity of total RNA. Apart from a slight decrease in the 28s:18s ribosomal RNA ratio in 1.5 h samples (p<0.05), the value was not statistically different between 20 min and 6 h samples (
), indicating intact total RNA up to 6 h. Abundance of reference genes encoding beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), peptidylprolylisomerase A (PPIA) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) as well as meat-quality associated genes (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) were investigated using qPCR. Transcript abundances of ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT, and PPIA were significantly different among all postmortem time points (p<0.05). Transcript levels of PDK4 and PPARD were significantly reduced in the 6 h samples (p<0.05). The findings suggest an adverse effect of a prolonged postmortem duration on reliability of transcript quantification in chicken skeletal muscle. For the best RNA quality, chicken skeletal muscle should be immediately collected after evisceration or within 20 min postmortem, and rapidly preserved by deep freezing.
Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection
Sornplang, Pairat ; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai ; Soikum, Chaiyaporn ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1657~1661
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0359
Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment.
Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves
Chen, Siyu ; Tanaka, Shigefumi ; Ogura, Shin-ichiro ; Roh, Sanggun ; Sato, Shusuke ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1662~1668
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0330
We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (
standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (
) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (
standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (
) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations.