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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World
Mwai, Okeyo ; Hanotte, Olivier ; Kwon, Young-Jun ; Cho, Seoae ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 911~921
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0002R
At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Pork Belly Components in Yorkshire Pigs
Kang, H.S. ; Lopez, B.M. ; Kim, T.H. ; Kim, H.S. ; Kim, S.H. ; Nam, K.C. ; Seo, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 922~925
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0678
This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters for pork belly traits and muscles in Yorkshire pigs. Each pork belly was cut into nine parts perpendicular to the thoracic vertebrae (6th to 14th). Traits of belly muscles including the deep pectoral, latissimus dorsi, cutaneous trunci, rectus abdominis, external and internal abdominal oblique from 382 purebred pigs were recorded and analyzed using SAS Package (9.1) and Derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood methods. Heritability estimates for belly traits ranged from 0.27 to 0.49, while they were 0.12 to 0.66 for belly muscles. Moderate to high heritability estimates were noted in belly weight (0.33), belly length (0.28), and belly width (0.49). In belly muscles, the latissimus dorsi and deep pectoral, which are located only in the 6th to 9th vertebrae sections, were found to have heritability estimates ranging from 0.21 to 0.29 and 0.23 to 0.35, respectively. Strong heritability estimates were observed in the 7th to 13th sections of cutaneous trunci muscle ranging from 0.42 to 0.66. Genetic correlations of latissimus dorsi m. with belly length were positive (0.50), while cutaneous trunci m. with belly weight also revealed a positive relationship that ranged from 0.35 to 0.47. The estimated genetic parameters indicate that belly weight can be improved by genetic selection. Differences in the levels of heritability occurred among various parameters of Yorkshire pork belly, which should be considered when performing selection to improve pork belly quality. Moreover, these results can provide valuable information that can be used as the basis for further investigations to improve pork belly.
Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)
Li, Yi ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 926~935
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0077
The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a
approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.
Whole Genome Association Study to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Behavior in Sapsaree Dog (Canis familiaris)
Ha, J.H. ; Alama, M. ; Lee, D.H. ; Kim, J.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 936~942
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0941
The purpose of this study was to characterize genetic architecture of behavior patterns in Sapsaree dogs. The breed population (n=8,256) has been constructed since 1990 over 12 generations and managed at the Sapsaree Breeding Research Institute, Gyeongsan, Korea. Seven behavioral traits were investigated for 882 individuals. The traits were classified as a quantitative or a categorical group, and heritabilities (
) and variance components were estimated under the Animal model using ASREML 2.0 software program. In general, the
estimates of the traits ranged between 0.00 and 0.16. Strong genetic (
) and phenotypic (
) correlations were observed between nerve stability, affability and adaptability, i.e. 0.9 to 0.94 and 0.46 to 0.68, respectively. To detect significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for the behavioral traits, a total of 134 and 60 samples were genotyped using the Illumina 22K CanineSNP20 and 170K CanineHD bead chips, respectively. Two datasets comprising 60 (Sap60) and 183 (Sap183) samples were analyzed, respectively, of which the latter was based on the SNPs that were embedded on both the 22K and 170K chips. To perform genome-wide association analysis, each SNP was considered with the residuals of each phenotype that were adjusted for sex and year of birth as fixed effects. A least squares based single marker regression analysis was followed by a stepwise regression procedure for the significant SNPs (p<0.01), to determine a best set of SNPs for each trait. A total of 41 SNPs were detected with the Sap183 samples for the behavior traits. The significant SNPs need to be verified using other samples, so as to be utilized to improve behavior traits via marker-assisted selection in the Sapsaree population.
Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Pregnancy Rate of Murrah Buffaloes under Subtropical Climate
Dash, Soumya ; Chakravarty, A.K. ; Sah, V. ; Jamuna, V. ; Behera, R. ; Kashyap, N. ; Deshmukh, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 943~950
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0825
Heat stress has adverse effects on fertility of dairy animals. Decline in fertility is linearly associated with an increase in combination of both temperature and humidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature humidity index (THI) and the pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes in a subtropical climate. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors viz., sire, parity, period of calving and age group at first calving were found non-significant on pregnancy rate. The effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001) on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes calved for first time and overall pregnancy rate. The threshold THI affecting the pregnancy rate was identified as THI 75. The months from October to March showed THI<75 and considered as non heat stress zone (NHSZ), while months from April to September were determined as heat stress zone (HSZ) with
. The lowest overall pregnancy rate (0.25) was obtained in July with THI 80.9, while the highest overall pregnancy rate (0.59) was found in November with THI 66.1. May and June were identified as critical heat stress zone (CHSZ) within the HSZ with maximum decline (-7%) in pregnancy rate with per unit increase in THI. The highest overall pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.45 in NHSZ with THI value 56.7 to 73.2. The pregnancy rate was found to have declined to 0.28 in HSZ with THI 73.5 to 83.7. However, the lowest pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.27 in CHSZ with THI value 80.3 to 81.6.
Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes
Thao, N.T. ; Wanapat, M. ; Kang, S. ; Cherdthong, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 951~957
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0878
Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a
Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.
Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb
Jiang, Hongqin ; Wang, Zhenzhen ; Ma, Yong ; Qu, Yanghua ; Lu, Xiaonan ; Luo, Hailing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 958~965
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0887
Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.
Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment
Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Nagamine, Itsuki ; Kamata, Yasuhiro ; Niino, Noriko ; Taniyama, Yoshihiko ; Kinjo, Kazuhide ; Matayoshi, Ayano ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 966~975
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0890
Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment (
, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment (
, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment.
Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers
Fiorentini, Giovani ; Lage, Josiane F. ; Carvalho, Isabela P.C. ; Messana, Juliana D. ; Canesin, Roberta. C. ; Reis, Ricardo A. ; Berchielli, Telma T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 976~986
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0893
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of
) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index.
Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Profiles of Weaned Pigs
Seo, J. ; Kim, W. ; Kim, J. ; Kim, J.K. ; Kim, S.C. ; Jang, Y. ; Jang, K. ; Kim, K. ; Kim, B. ; Park, S. ; Park, I. ; Kim, M.K. ; Seo, K.S. ; Kim, H.B. ; Kim, I.H. ; Seo, S. ; Song, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 987~992
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0842
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs. A total of 88 weaned pigs (
body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (4 pigs/pen; 11 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (sex as a block). The dietary treatments were a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 3-phase feeding program with declining diet complexity and with phases of 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Blood was collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen before weaning and on d 7 after weaning. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 29 to 35 after weaning. Fecal samples were collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were growth performances, digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy, white and red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, and incidence of diarrhea. The PKE increased average daily gain (ADG) (246 vs 215 g/d; p = 0.06) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (470 vs 343 g/d; p<0.05) and decreased gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) (0.522 vs 0.628 g/g; p<0.05) during phase 2 compared with CON, but did not affect growth performance during phase 1 and 3. During overall experimental period, PKE increased ADG (383 vs 362 g/d; p = 0.05) and ADFI (549 vs 496 g/d; p<0.05) compared with CON, but did not affect G:F. However, no differences were found on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy between CON and PKE. The PKE reduced frequency of diarrhea (15% vs 25%; p = 0.08) for the first 2 wk after weaning compared with CON. Similarly, PKE decreased white blood cells (8.19 vs
; p = 0.07), red blood cells (2.92 vs
; p = 0.09), and packed cell volume (11.1% vs 12.6%; p = 0.06) on d 7 after weaning compared with CON. In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers to nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs.
Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed
Radwan, Lamiaa M. ; Galal, A. ; Shemeis, A.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 993~998
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0847
Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible (
to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate (
) than that based on shell thickness alone (
). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer (
not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score (
) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction.
The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs
Upadhaya, S.D. ; Kim, S.C. ; Valientes, R.A. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 999~1005
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0066
Bacillus-based feed additive was evaluated for its efficacy on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emission, and the consumption of time and amount of water for cleaning the pen of growing finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs (
) were used in a 16-wk feeding trial. Pigs were randomly distributed into 1 of 2 treatments on the basis of body weight and sex. There were 12 replicate pens per treatment, with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments were CON which was basal diet, and T1 which was CON+62.5 ppm microbial feed additive that provided
of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. During the weeks 0 to 6, average daily gain (ADG) in T1 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON, but no improvement in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) was noted. During 6 to 16 weeks, no difference (p>0.05) was noted in growth performance. However, ADG was improved (p<0.05) and overall ADFI tended (p = 0.06) to improve in T1 compared with CON. At week 6, the co-efficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) nitrogen (N) was increased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. Fecal
emission was decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON, at the end of 6th and 15th weeks. The time and water consumed for washing the pens were decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. In conclusion, supplementation with Bacillus-based feed additive could improve the overall growth performances, increase the CATTD of DM and decrease the fecal
content and the time and water consumed in washing the pens for growing-finishing pigs.
Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress
Zhu, Y.Z. ; Cheng, J.L. ; Ren, M. ; Yin, L. ; Piao, X.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1006~1013
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0119
Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high
-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at
and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens.
Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs
Kwon, W.B. ; Kim, B.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1014~1019
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0275
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of
-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a
Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a
factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental
-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and
-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental
-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of
-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs.
Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops
Gao, Tian ; Li, Jiaolong ; Zhang, Lin ; Jiang, Yun ; Yin, Maowen ; Liu, Yang ; Gao, Feng ; Zhou, Guanghong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1020~1027
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0918
The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h) on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD) and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP) solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05) compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05), whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.
Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat
Chumngoen, Wanwisa ; Tan, Fa-Jui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1028~1037
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0275
Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.
Effects of Mixing on the Aggressive Behavior of Commercially Housed Pigs
Rhim, Shin-Jae ; Son, Seung-Hun ; Hwang, Hyun-Su ; Lee, Jae-Kang ; Hong, Joon-Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1038~1043
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0907
In this study, we investigated the effects of mixing on the aggressive behavior of commercially housed pigs. The behavioral patterns of 36 groups of pigs (a total of 360 animals) were observed over 3 consecutive days directly after weaning (
days of age), and 25 and 50 days later with the aid of video technology. Fight latency and total duration and frequency of fighting were significantly different among the age groups. The aggressive behaviors decreased in 75-day old pigs if compared to 25- and 50-day old animals. Moreover, dominance index (DI) was higher in 25-day old and lower in 75-day old pigs. A comparison of dominant (DI>0) and submissive (DI<0) pigs showed significant differences (p<0.05) for major aggressive behaviors in all age groups. Dominant pigs were involved in more aggressive interactions, had longer fights, and initiated more fights than submissive pigs. Post-mixing aggressive behavior was altered by previous experience of mixing. Aggressive behavior and DI are suitable methods for analyzing the effects of mixing on commercially housed growing pigs.
Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics
Islam, M.R. ; Clark, C.E.F. ; Garcia, S.C. ; Kerrisk, K.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1044~1052
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0387
The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as 'moderate'; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as 'high') and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary return trip from parlour to paddock) and every one hour increase in MI, respectively. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm increased milk yield by up to 1.5 kg/cow/d, thereby reducing loss by up to $0.5/cow/d (c.f. the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd scenario). Thus, it was concluded that the successful integration of grazeable CFS with pasture has the potential to improve financial performance compared to the pasture only, large herd, AMS.
Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen
Lee, Eun Young ; Oh, Min Hwan ; Yang, Seung-Hak ; Yoon, Tae Han ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 7, 2015, Pages 1053~1060
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0679
In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min) and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of
was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of
was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.