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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 28, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 28, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 28, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 28, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 28, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 28, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review
Choi, Ki Young ; Lee, Tae Kwon ; Sul, Woo Jun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1217~1225
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0026
Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.
Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield in First-Lactation Holstein Friesian in Ethiopia: A Lactation Average vs Random Regression Test-Day Model Analysis
Meseret, S. ; Tamir, B. ; Gebreyohannes, G. ; Lidauer, M. ; Negussie, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1226~1234
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0173
The development of effective genetic evaluations and selection of sires requires accurate estimates of genetic parameters for all economically important traits in the breeding goal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative performance of the traditional lactation average model (LAM) against the random regression test-day model (RRM) in the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for Holstein Friesian herds in Ethiopia. The data used consisted of 6,500 test-day (TD) records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013. Co-variance components were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method under single trait animal model. The estimate of heritability for first-lactation milk yield was 0.30 from LAM whilst estimates from the RRM model ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 for the different stages of lactation. Genetic correlations between different TDs in first-lactation Holstein Friesian ranged from 0.37 to 0.99. The observed genetic correlation was less than unity between milk yields at different TDs, which indicated that the assumption of LAM may not be optimal for accurate evaluation of the genetic merit of animals. A close look at estimated breeding values from both models showed that RRM had higher standard deviation compared to LAM indicating that the TD model makes efficient utilization of TD information. Correlations of breeding values between models ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for different group of sires and cows and marked re-rankings were observed in top sires and cows in moving from the traditional LAM to RRM evaluations.
SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Cashmere Goat Skin
Wang, Lele ; Zhang, Yanjun ; Zhao, Meng ; Wang, Ruijun ; Su, Rui ; Li, Jinquan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1235~1243
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0172
The goat Capra hircus is one of several economically important livestock in China. Advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of several single nucleotide variation markers associated with genes affecting economic traits. Validation of single nucleotide variations in a whole-transcriptome sequencing is critical for understanding the information of molecular genetics. In this paper, we aim to develop a large amount of convinced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Cashmere goat through transcriptome sequencing. In this study, the transcriptomes of Cashmere goat skin at four stages were measured using RNA-sequencing and 90% to 92% unique-mapped-reads were obtained from total-mapped-reads. A total of 56,231 putative SNPs distributed among 10,057 genes were identified. The average minor allele frequency of total SNPs was 18%. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were conducted to analyze the genes containing SNPs. Our follow up biological validation revealed that 64% of SNPs were true SNPs. Our results show that RNA-sequencing is a fast and efficient method for identification of a large number of SNPs. This work provides significant genetic resources for further research on Cashmere goats, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies.
The Outcomes of Selection in a Closed Herd on a Farm in Operation
Do, ChangHee ; Yang, ChangBeom ; Choi, JaeGwan ; Kim, SiDong ; Yang, BoSeok ; Park, SooBong ; Joo, YoungGuk ; Lee, SeokHyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1244~1251
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0962
A herd of Berkshire pigs was established in 2003 and subjected to selection without introduction of any genetic resources until 2007. The complete pedigree, including 410 boars and 916 sows, as well as the records from 5,845 pigs and 822 litters were used to investigate the results obtained from the selections. The index of selection for breeding values included days to 90 kg (D90kg), backfat thickness (BF) and number of piglets born alive (NBA). The average inbreeding coefficients of pigs were found to be 0.023, 0.008, 0.013, 0.025, 0.026, and 0.005 from 2003 to 2007, respectively. The genetic gains per year were 12.1 g, -0.04 mm, -3.13 days, and 0.181 head for average daily gain (ADG), BF, D90kg, and NBA, respectively. Breeding values of ADG, BF and D90kg were not significantly correlated with inbreeding coefficients of individuals, except for NBA (-0.21). The response per additional 1% of inbreeding was 0.0278 head reduction in NBA. The annual increase of inbreeding was 0.23% and the annual decrease in NBA due to inbreeding was 0.0064 head. This magnitude could be disregarded when compared with the annual gain in NBA (0.181 head). These results suggest that inbreeding and inbreeding depression on ordinary farms can be controlled with a proper breeding scheme and that breeding programs are economical and safe relative to the risks associated with importation of pigs.
Estimation of Growth Curves and Suitable Slaughter Weight of the Liangshan Pig
Luo, Jia ; Lei, Huaigang ; Shen, Linyuan ; Yang, Runlin ; Pu, Qiang ; Zhu, Kangping ; Li, Mingzhou ; Tang, Guoqing ; Li, Xuewei ; Zhang, Shunhua ; Zhu, Li ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1252~1258
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0010
The Liangshan pig is a traditional Chinese small-sized breed; it has a relatively long feeding period and low meat production ability but superior meat quality. This study utilized three non-linear growth models (Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, and logistic) to fit the growth curve of Liangshan pigs from an unselected, random-bred pig population and estimate the pigs most suitable slaughter weight. The growth development data at 20 time points of 275 Liangshan pigs (from birth to 250 d) were collected. To analyze the relative gene expression related to development, seven slaughter weight phases (50, 58, 66, 74, 82, 90, and 98 kg) (20 pigs per phase) were examined. We found that the Liangshan pig growth curve fit the typical S-curve well and that their growth turning point was 193.4 days at a weight of 62.5 kg, according to the best fit Von Bertalanffy model based on the goodness of fit criteria. Furthermore, we estimated that the most suitable slaughter weight was 62.5 to 74.9 kg based on the growth curve and the relative expression levels of growth-related genes.
Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations
Wasana, Nidarshani ; Cho, GwangHyun ; Park, SuBong ; Kim, SiDong ; Choi, JaeGwan ; Park, ByungHo ; Park, ChanHyuk ; Do, ChangHee ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1259~1265
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0034
The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd) 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling rates while improving herd health and maintaining high yielding dairy cows.
Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows
Zou, Yang ; Yang, Zhanshan ; Guo, Yongqing ; Li, Shengli ; Cao, Zhijun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1266~1273
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0934
The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete
Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (
; p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.
Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage
Kim, Dong Hyeon ; Amanullah, Sardar M. ; Lee, Hyuk Jun ; Joo, Young Ho ; Kim, Sam Churl ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1274~1280
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0106
This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage.
The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages
Soycan-Onenc, Sibel ; Koc, Fisun ; Coskuntuna, Levent ; Ozduven, M. Levent ; Gumus, Tuncay ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1281~1287
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0122
This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (
) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The
amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids.
Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature
Salinas-Chavira, J. ; Arzola, C. ; Gonzalez-Vizcarra, V. ; Manriquez-Nunez, O.M. ; Montano-Gomez, M.F. ; Navarrete-Reyes, J.D. ; Raymundo, C. ; Zinn, R.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1288~1295
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0061
In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (
) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI) (linear effect, p<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) (linear effect, p = 0.01). There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (
) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a
Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08), increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09), and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07) and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09). It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.
Effects of Supplementing Brown Seaweed By-products in the Diet of Holstein Cows during Transition on Ruminal Fermentation, Growth Performance and Endocrine Responses
Hong, Z.S. ; Kim, E.J. ; Jin, Y.C. ; Lee, J.S. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Lee, H.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1296~1302
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0235
This study was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing brown seaweed by-products (BSB) in the diet of ruminants on ruminal fermentation characteristics, growth performance, endocrine response, and milk production in Holstein cows. In Experiment 1, the effects of different levels (0%, 2%, and 4% of basal diet as Control, 2% BSB, 4% BSB, respectively) of BSB were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h in vitro batch culture rumen fermentation. The pH tended to be higher for the higher level of BSB supplementation, with the pH at 12 h being significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control. The concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower at 3, 9, 12, and 24 h incubation (p<0.05) compared with the control, and tended to be low at other incubation times. Volatile fatty acid concentration appeared to be minimally changed while lower values were observed with 4% BSB treatment at 24 h (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, effects of levels (0%, 2%, and 4%) of BSB on growth performance, endocrine responses and milk production were studied with Holstein dairy cows during transition. Dry matter intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected by BSB supplementation. The concentration of plasma estrogen for the control, 2% BSB and 4% BSB after three months of pregnancy were 55.7, 94.1, and 72.3 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.08). Although the differences of progesterone levels between BSB treatments and the control were minimal, the concentration in 4% BSB treatment increased to 157.7% compared with the initial level of the study. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels were also higher after both three months and eight months of pregnancy than the initial level at the beginning of the study. In addition, BSB treatments during one month after delivery did not affect daily milk yield and composition. In conclusion, the present results indicate that supplementation of BSB did not compromise ruminal fermentation, and animal performance at lower levels and hence may have potential to be used as a safe feed ingredient in dairy cows.
Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)
Park, Jaehyun ; Jeon, Byongtae ; Kang, Sungki ; Oh, Mirae ; Kim, Myonghwa ; Jang, Seyoung ; Park, Pyojam ; Kim, Sangwoo ; Moon, Sangho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1303~1308
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0535
This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001), and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.
Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets
do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortez ; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina ; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia ; de Souza, Kennyson Alves ; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa ; Perotto, Daniel ; Moletta, Jose Luiz ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1309~1316
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0021
In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66
animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers.
Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation
Bhuiyan, M.M. ; Iji, P.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1317~1326
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0915
This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.
Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs
Adebiyi, A.O. ; Ragland, D. ; Adeola, O. ; Olukosi, O.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1327~1334
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0914
The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars (
) with average initial body weight of
were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated
Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.
Validation of Prediction Equations of Energy Values of a Single Ingredient or Their Combinations in Male Broilers
Alvarenga, R.R. ; Rodrigues, P.B. ; Zangeronimo, M.G. ; Oliveira, E.C. ; Mariano, F.C.M.Q. ; Lima, E.M.C. ; Garcia, A.A.P. Jr ; Naves, L.P. ; Nardelli, N.B.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1335~1344
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0339
A set of prediction equations to estimate the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of individual ingredients and diets used in the poultry feed industry was evaluated. The AMEn values of three energy ingredients (maize, sorghum and defatted maize germ meal), four protein ingredients (soybean meal, maize gluten meal 60% crude protein, integral micronized soy and roasted whole soybean) and four diets (three containing four feedstuffs, complex diets, and one containing only corn-soybean meal, basal diet) were determined using a metabolism assay with male broilers from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35, and 36 to 42 days old. These values were compared to the AMEn values presented in the tables of energy composition or estimated by equation predictions based on chemical composition data of feedstuffs. In general, the equation predictions more precisely estimated the AMEn of feedstuffs when compared to the tables of energy composition. The equation AMEn (dry matter [DM] basis) = 4,164.187+51.006 ether extract (% in DM basis)-197.663 ash-35.689 crude fiber (% in DM basis)-20.593 neutral detergent fiber (% in DM basis) (
) was the most applicable for the prediction of the energy values of feedstuffs and diets used in the poultry feed industry.
Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs
Choi, H.B. ; Jeong, J.H. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, Y. ; Kwon, H. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1345~1353
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0802
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs (
) with an initial body weight (BW)
were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% (
) without detrimental effects on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.
Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity
Khoa, D.V.A. ; Wimmers, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1354~1361
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0734
The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417
animals of a resource population (DUMI:
) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future.
Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure
Cho, Sungback ; Hwang, Okhwa ; Park, Sungkwon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 28, issue 9, 2015, Pages 1362~1370
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0078
This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.