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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 29, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 29, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 29, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants
Roh, Sang-Gun ; Suzuki, Yutaka ; Gotoh, Takafumi ; Tatsumi, Ryuichi ; Katoh, Kazuo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~15
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.16.0001R
Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.
Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives - A Review
Melo, A.D.B. ; Silveira, H. ; Luciano, F.B. ; Andrade, C. ; Costa, L.B. ; Rostagno, M.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 16~22
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0120
The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP's role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets.
Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker and Association Analysis of Marbling Score in Fas Gene of Hanwoo
Kim, Seung-Chang ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Lee, Ji-Woong ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 23~28
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0812
The Fas (APO-1, TNFRSF6) gene known as a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily was selected for DNA marker development in Korean cattle. It is a cell membrane protein and mediates programmed cell death (apoptosis). We discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Fas gene in order to develop novel DNA markers related to economical traits at the genomic level. The sequences of whole exon and 1 kb range of both front and back of the gene were determined by direct-sequencing methods using 24 cattle. A total of 55 SNPs were discovered and we selected 31 common polymorphic sites considering their allele frequencies, haplotype-tagging status and linkage disequilibrium (LD) for genotyping in larger-scale subjects. The SNPs were confirmed genotype through the SNaPshot method (n = 274) and were examined for a possible genetic association between Fas polymorphisms and marbling score. So, the SNPs that were identified significant are g.30256G>C, g.31474C>A, g.31940A>G, and g.32982G>A. These results suggest that SNPs of Fas gene were associated with intramuscular fat content of meat quality traits in Korean cattle.
Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens
Molee, A. ; Kongroi, K. ; Kuadsantia, P. ; Poompramun, C. ; Likitdecharote, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0029
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.
The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents
Lee, Young-Sup ; Shin, Donghyun ; Lee, Wonseok ; Taye, Mengistie ; Cho, Kwanghyun ; Park, Kyoung-Do ; Kim, Heebal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 36~42
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0476
Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein) have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and the Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher's theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs) in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1%) in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40), collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), netrin 4 (NTN4), neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7), carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2) and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12). These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to
Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken
Cahyadi, Muhammad ; Park, Hee-Bok ; Seo, Dong-Won ; Jin, Shil ; Choi, Nuri ; Heo, Kang-Nyeong ; Kang, Bo-Seok ; Jo, Cheorun ; Lee, Jun-Heon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0193
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.
Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin
Musco, Nadia ; Koura, Ivan B. ; Tudisco, Raffaella ; Awadjihe, Ghislain ; Adjolohoun, Sebastien ; Cutrignelli, Monica I. ; Mollica, Maria Pina ; Houinato, Marcel ; Infascelli, Federico ; Calabro, Serena ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 51~61
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0200
In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content) and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability). The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM]) and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM) and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM), respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins). Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.
Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn
Wang, Huili ; Ning, Tingting ; Hao, Wei ; Zheng, Mingli ; Xu, Chuncheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 62~72
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0319
This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages.
Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production
Vazquez, Ernestina Gutierrez ; Medina, Leonardo Hernandez ; Benavides, Liliana Marquez ; Caratachea, Aureliano Juarez ; Razo, Guillermo Salas ; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala ; Rodriguez, Ruy Ortiz ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0464
The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (
) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at
, and the gas and
production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of
produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of
produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of
produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce
emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total
production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of
emissions during the dry season.
Effects of Elevated Crude Glycerin Concentrations on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Steers
Chanjula, P. ; Raungprim, T. ; Yimmongkol, S. ; Poonko, S. ; Majarune, S. ; Maitreejet, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 80~88
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0219
Twenty crossbred steers (
of initial body weight) were used to assess the effects of a dietary supplementation with crude glycerin (CG) as a substitute for corn grain on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were offered to the experimental animals (5 steers per treatment) for 121 days using randomized complete block design. The steers individually received dietary treatments containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 21% of CG (88.91% pure) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. Weight gain and carcass traits were determined. At the end of the experimental period, the harvest data and carcass characteristics of the steers were recorded, and meat quality was determined. No significant effect of CG inclusion was observed in any of the growth performance and carcass characteristics traits studied. Also, there were no apparent effects of diets (p>0.05) on meat quality (pH, water holding capacity, drip losses, and cooking losses). The study concluded that CG could be used as a substitute for corn grain up to the level of approximately 21% of DM in the diets of finishing steers.
The Differences in Chemical Composition, Physical Quality Traits and Nutritional Values of Horse Meat as Affected by Various Retail Cut Types
Seong, Pil Nam ; Park, Kyoung Mi ; Kang, Geun Ho ; Cho, Soo Hyun ; Park, Beom Young ; Chae, Hyun Seok ; Ba, Hoa Van ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 89~99
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0049
The effects of retail cut type on chemical, quality and nutritional characteristics of horse meat were studied. Jeju female breed horses (n = 9) at 32-mo-old were slaughtered and the carcasses at 24 h post-mortem were fabricated into 10 retail cuts including: tender-loin, loin, strip-loin, shoulder-chuck-roll, shoulder-clod, top-round, outside-round, brisket, short-plate-brisket, and shank. The results revealed that all of parameters (chemical, meat quality and nutritional composition) examined significantly (p<0.05) differed between the cuts. The chemical composition range (minimum to maximum) of cuts was found as such: moisture 65.06% to 71.69%; protein 19.07% to 21.28%; collagen 1.40% to 2.45%; fat 2.56% to 12.14% and cholesterol 55.76 to 79.50 mg/100 g. Shoulder-chuck-roll had the highest pH and water-holding capacity, while top-round had the highest cooking loss. Shear force ranged between the cuts from
. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents ranged between the cuts from 1.52 mg/kg to 2.75 mg/kg, 21.25 mg/kg to 30.85 mg/kg, and 16.51 mg/kg to 40.42 mg/kg, respectively. Additionally, most of the cuts studied showed favorable polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid, n-3/n-6 and essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratios.
Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken
Benli, Hakan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 100~108
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0604
In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers' general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16%) of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although,
value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples.
Ethanol Extracts from Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Act as Natural Antioxidants and Antimicrobial Agents in Uncooked Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage
Kang, Suk-Nam ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 109~118
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0253
The antioxidant potential of mistletoe (Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi; VAL) extract in uncooked pork patties was evaluated. Three concentrations of VAL extract (0.1 [T1], 0.5% [T2] and 1.0% [T3]) along with 0.02% ascorbic acid as a positive control (V) were added to ground pork and pork patties were prepared. Incorporation of VAL extract decreased (p<0.05) the pH of the pork patties throughout the storage time and reduced (p<0.01) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values after day 14 of storage. Total plate counts of the VAL extract-treated samples and V-treated samples were also significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the control (C) throughout the storage period. In addition, odor scores of the VAL extract-treated patties were lower than those of the C- or V-treated samples on 3rd day of the storage period. These results demonstrated that the VAL extract acts as a natural antioxidant in uncooked pork products.
Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages
Yim, Dong-Gyun ; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan ; Chung, Ku-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 119~125
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0180
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (p<0.05). The weight losses were significantly higher in high fat formulations during the first 4 days, whereas those were higher in low fat ones after 10 days of storage (p<0.05). Fat reduction was responsible for an increase in shear force values after 3 days of storage. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (p<0.05). Low fat sausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss.
Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40
Kim, Sung Chan ; Kang, Seung Ha ; Choi, Eun Young ; Hong, Yeon Hee ; Bok, Jin Duck ; Kim, Jae Yeong ; Lee, Sang Suk ; Choi, Yun Jaie ; Choi, In Soon ; Cho, Kwang Keun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 126~133
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0616
A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-
-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli)
. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli
harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine.Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was
, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (
). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters,
of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively.
Effect of Polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice
Han, Jie ; Xu, Yunhe ; Yang, Di ; Yu, Ning ; Bai, Zishan ; Bian, Lianquan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 134~141
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0534
To investigate the role of polysaccharide from Acanthopanax senticosus (ASPS) in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury, 18 mice (at 5 wk of age) were assigned to three groups with 6 replicates of one mouse each. Mice were administrated by oral gavage with or without ASPS (300 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days and were injected with saline or LPS at 15 days. Intestinal samples were collected at 4 h post-challenge. The results showed that ASPS ameliorated LPS-induced deterioration of digestive ability of LPS-challenged mice, indicated by an increase in intestinal lactase activity (45%, p<0.05), and the intestinal morphology, as proved by improved villus height (20.84%, p<0.05) and villus height:crypt depth ratio (42%, p<0.05), and lower crypt depth in jejunum (15.55%, p<0.05), as well as enhanced intestinal tight junction proteins expression involving occludin-1 (71.43%, p<0.05). ASPS also prevented intestinal inflammation response, supported by decrease in intestinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor
(22.28%, p<0.05) and heat shock protein (HSP70) (77.42%, p<0.05). In addition, intestinal mucus layers were also improved by ASPS, as indicated by the increase in number of goblet cells (24.89%, p<0.05) and intestinal trefoil peptide (17.75%, p<0.05). Finally, ASPS facilitated mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (100%, p<0.05) and its receptor (200%, p<0.05) gene. These results indicate that ASPS can prevent intestinal mucosal barrier injury under inflammatory conditions, which may be associated with up-regulating gene mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor.
Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness
Kim, K.H. ; Hosseindoust, A. ; Ingale, S.L. ; Lee, S.H. ; Noh, H.S. ; Choi, Y.H. ; Jeon, S.M. ; Kim, Y.H. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 142~148
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.14.0973
The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows (
) in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16) over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing) and two level of back-fat thickness (<20 or
) at d 107 of gestation. Gestating sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing) 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in sows having back-fat thickness <20 mm than that of sows with
back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (p<0.05) feed intake and shorter (p<0.05) weaning-to-estrus interval than that of sows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (p<0.05) in group housed sows. Group housed sows had lesser (p<0.05) farrowing duration and greater (p<0.05) eating time than that of sows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with
back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.
Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor
Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum ; Mun, Hong-Seok ; Islam, Md. Manirul ; Yoe, Hyun ; Yang, Chul-Ju ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 1, 2016, Pages 149~156
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0221
In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, and Escherichia coli (EC) infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction) at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05). Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05). The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2), and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1) and SE group (day 4) during different experimental periods (p<0.05). The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05). The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5) compared to the control (p<0.05), whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05). Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05). During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z-axis movement was higher in the infected piglets (p<0.05). Overall, the movement of infected piglets was altered, and the acceleration sensor could be successfully employed for monitoring pig activity.