Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 29, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 29, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 29, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review
Choi, Kyoung-Hee ; Lee, Heeyoung ; Lee, Soomin ; Kim, Sejeong ; Yoon, Yohan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 307~314
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0332
Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models.
Identification of a Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Porcine Beta-Defensin-1 Gene
Pruthviraj, D.R. ; Usha, A.P. ; Venkatachalapathy, R.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0638
Porcine beta-defensin-1 (PBD-1) gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of pigs. The peptide encoded by this gene is an antimicrobial peptide that has direct activity against a wide range of microbes. This peptide is involved in the co-creation of an antimicrobial barrier in the oral cavity of pigs. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphisms, if any, in exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) and native Ankamali pigs of Kerala, India. Blood samples were collected from 100 pigs and genomic DNA was isolated using phenol chloroform method. The quantity of DNA was assessed in a spectrophotometer and quality by gel electrophoresis. Exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Subsequent silver staining of the polyacrylamide gels revealed three unique SSCP banding patterns in each of the two exons. The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products. A novel SNP was found in the 5'-UTR region of exon-1 and a SNP was detected in the mature peptide coding region of exon-2. In exon-1, the pooled population frequencies of GG, GT, and TT genotypes were 0.67, 0.30, and 0.03, respectively. GG genotype was predominant in both the breeds whereas TT genotype was not detected in LWY breed. Similarly, in exon-2, the pooled population frequencies of AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 0.50, 0.27, and 0.23, respectively. AA genotype was predominant in LWY pigs whereas GG genotype was predominant in native pigs. These results suggest that there exists a considerable genetic variation at PBD-1 locus and further association studies may help in development of a PCR based genotyping test to select pigs with better immunity.
Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Haplotypes in Yucatan Miniature Pigs Used as Biomedical Model Animal
Choi, Nu-Ri ; Seo, Dong-Won ; Choi, Ki-Myung ; Ko, Na-Young ; Kim, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Il ; Jung, Woo-Young ; Lee, Jun-Heon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 321~326
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0331
The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is called swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), which controls immune responses and transplantation reactions. The SLA is mapped on pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the centromere. In this study, 3 class I (SLA-1, SLA-3, and SLA-2) and 3 class II (DRB1, DQB1, and DQA) genes were used for investigation of SLA haplotypes in Yucatan miniature pigs in Korea. This pig breed is a well-known model organism for biomedical research worldwide. The current study indicated that Korean Yucatan pig population had 3 Class I haplotypes (Lr-4.0, Lr-6.0, and Lr-25.0) and 3 class II haplotypes (Lr-0.5, Lr-0.7, and Lr-0.25). The combinations of SLA class I and II haplotype together, 2 homozygous (Lr-4.5/4.5 and Lr-6.7/6.7) and 3 heterozygous (Lr-4.5/6.7, Lr-4.5/25.25, and Lr-6.7/25.25) haplotypes were identified, including previously unidentified new heterozygous haplotypes (Lr-4.5/4.7). In addition, a new SLA allele typing method using Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer was developed that permitted more rapid identification of SLA haplotypes. These results will facilitate the breeding of SLA homozygous Yucatan pigs and will expedite the possible use of these pigs for the biomedical research, especially xenotransplantation research.
Microsatellite Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Dairy Goats in Thailand
Seilsuth, Somkiat ; Seo, Joo Hee ; Kong, Hong Sik ; Jeon, Gwang Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 327~332
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0270
The genetic relationships between different populations and breeds of exotic dairy goats in Thailand were studied using 12 microsatellite markers. Blood samples were obtained from 211 goats from Department of Livestock Development breeding and research farms: 29 Anglonubian (AN), 21 Alpine (AP), 23 Jamunapari (JAM), 50 Saanen (SN), and 88 Toggenburg (TG). Five of the 12 microsatellite markers were found to be polymorphic. A mean of 7.40 alleles per locus was found, with a range from 5 (SPS115 and ETH225) to 11 (TGLA122). We found 24, 27, 19, 32, and 24 alleles in the AN, AP, JAM, SN, and TG breeds, respectively; 37 alleles were present in all breeds. The mean number of alleles in each population ranged from 3.2 (ETH225 locus) to 7.6 (TGLA122 locus). Genetic variability within the breeds was moderate as evidenced by the mean expected heterozygosity of 0.539. The average observed heterozygosity across the 5 markers in all breeds was 0.529 with the maximum observed at the BM1818 locus (0.772) and the minimum at the ETH225 locus (0.248). The observed and expected heterozygosity for all breeds for the 5 microsatellite markers ranged from 0.419 to 0.772 and 0.227 to 0.792, respectively. On the basis of their means, the TGLA122 and BM1818 loci were the most suitable markers for distinguishing genetic diversity among the goats. The estimated average
value for the breeds ranged from -0.044 (ETH225) to 0.180 (SPS115), while the estimated average
value ranged from 0.021 (SPS115) to 0.104 (ETH10). These results indicated that TGLA122 and BM1818 markers are suitable to be used for aiding conservation and breeding improvement strategies of dairy.
Ontogenetic Expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 Genes and Their Associations with Traits in Two Breeds of Chinese Fat-tailed Sheep
Jiao, Xiao-Li ; Jing, Jiong-Jie ; Qiao, Li-Ying ; Liu, Jian-Hua ; Li, Liu-An ; Zhang, Jing ; Jia, Xia-Li ; Liu, Wen-Zhong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 333~342
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0467
Lipins play dual function in lipid metabolism by serving as phosphatidate phosphatase and transcriptional co-regulators of gene expression. Mammalian lipin proteins consist of lipin1, lipin2, and lipin3 and are encoded by their respective genes Lpin1, Lpin2, and Lpin3. To date, most studies are concerned with Lpin1, only a few have addressed Lpin2 and Lpin3. Ontogenetic expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 and their associations with traits would help to explore their molecular and physiological functions in sheep. In this study, 48 animals with an equal number of males and females each for both breeds of fat-tailed sheep such as Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) were chosen to evaluate the ontogenetic expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 from eight different tissues and months of age by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations between gene expression and slaughter and tail traits were also analyzed. The results showed that Lpin2 mRNA was highly expressed in perirenal and tail fats, and was also substantially expressed in liver, kidney, reproductive organs (testis and ovary), with the lowest levels in small intestine and femoral biceps. Lpin3 mRNA was prominently expressed in liver and small intestine, and was also expressed at high levels in kidney, perirenal and tail fats as well as reproductive organs (testis and ovary), with the lowest level in femoral biceps. Global expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 in GLT both were significantly higher than those in STH. Spatiotemporal expression showed that the highest levels of Lpin2 expression occurred at 10 months of age in two breeds of sheep, with the lowest expression at 2 months of age in STH and at 8 months of age in GLT. The greatest levels of Lpin3 expression occurred at 4 months of age in STH and at 10 months of age in GLT, with the lowest expression at 12 months of age in STH and at 8 months of age in GLT. Breed and age significantly influenced the tissue expression patterns of Lpin2 and Lpin3, respectively, and sex significantly influenced the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Lpin3. Meanwhile, Lpin2 and Lpin3 mRNA expression both showed significant correlations with slaughter and tail traits, and the associations appear to be related with the ontogenetic expression as well as the potential functions of lipin2 and lipin3 in sheep.
Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq
Seo, Minseok ; Lee, Hyun-Jeong ; Kim, Kwondo ; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey ; Jeong, Jin Young ; Park, Sungkwon ; Oh, Young Kyun ; Cho, Seoae ; Kim, Heebal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 343~351
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0525
Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for determining milk production.
Effect of Antioxidant Flavonoids (Quercetin and Taxifolin) on In vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes
Kang, Jung-Taek ; Moon, Joon Ho ; Choi, Ji-Yei ; Park, Sol Ji ; Kim, Su Jin ; Saadeldin, Islam M. ; Lee, Byeong Chun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 352~358
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0341
Quercetin (QT) and taxifolin (TF) are structurally similar plant-derived flavonoids that have antioxidant properties and act as free radical scavengers. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of QT and TF on nuclear maturation of porcine oocytes. Effects of TF at 0, 1, 10, and
on oocyte nuclear maturation (polar body extrusion) were investigated. After incubation for 44 h, there were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups except in the
group which was significantly lower (59.2%, p<0.05) than the other groups (control: >80%). After parthenogenetic activation, further in vitro development of QT- or TF-treated vs control oocytes was investigated. A significantly higher proportion of QT-treated (
) oocytes developed into blastocysts compared to controls (24.3% vs 16.8%, respectively); however, cleavage rate and blastocyst cell number were not affected. The TF-treated group was not significantly different from controls. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in oocytes and embryos in a culture medium supplemented with QT or TF were measured. Both treatment groups had significantly lower (p<0.05) levels of ROS than controls, however GSH levels were different only in QT-treated oocytes. We conclude that exogenous flavonoids such as QT and TF reduce ROS levels in oocytes. Although at high concentration (
) both QT and TF appear to be toxic to oocytes.
Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves
Shahzad, F. ; Abdullah, M. ; Chaudhry, A.S. ; Bhatti, J.A. ; Jabbar, M.A. ; Ahmed, F. ; Mehmood, T. ; Asim, M. ; Ahmed, S. ; Kamran, Z. ; Irshad, I. ; Tahir, M.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 359~364
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0429
The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.
The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen
Heo, Wan ; Kim, Eun Tae ; Cho, Sung Do ; Kim, Jun Ho ; Kwon, Seong Min ; Jeong, Ha Yeon ; Ki, Kwang Seok ; Yoon, Ho Baek ; Ahn, Young Dae ; Lee, Sung Sill ; Kim, Young Jun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 365~371
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0626
This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.
Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen
Wei, Chen ; Lin, Shixin ; Wu, Jinlong ; Zhao, Guangyong ; Zhang, Tingting ; Zheng, Wensi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 372~377
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0322
The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a
Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle.
Effects of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Blood Metabolites and Fatty Acid Profile of Beef during Late Fattening Period in Holstein Steers
Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi ; Lee, Bae-Hun ; Kim, Byong-Wan ; Ohh, Sang-Jip ; Sung, Kyung Il ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 378~383
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0421
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate supplementation on blood metabolites and fatty acid profile of beef from Holstein steers during late fattening period. Fifteen Holstein steers were allotted randomly into two groups including the control (non Cr-Met feeding, NCM, ave. body weight [BW] =
) and the treatment (Cr-Met feeding for 4 months, 4CM, ave.
) group. The feeding amount of Cr-Met to animals was limited to 400 ppb/cow/d and was supplemented to total mixed ration. No difference in blood albumin, alkaline phosphatase, urea-nitrogen, calcium, creatine, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol were observed between the treatment groups (p>0.05). The level of high density lipoprotein was higher in the 4CM group than the NCM group, whereas low density lipoprotein was lower in the 4CM group (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition (caprate, laurate, myristate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, palmitoleate, margarate, cis-11 heptadodecanoate, stearate, oleate, trans-vaccenate, linoleate, cis-11 eicosenoate, docosa hexaenoic acid, and docosa pentaenoic acid) of the beef showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The arachidonic acid level tended to be higher in the 4CM than the NCM group (p = 0.07). Cr-Met had no influence (p>0.05) on the ratio of saturated, unsaturated, unsaturated/saturated, monounsaturated/saturated and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the 4CM group was comparatively higher than the NCM group (p<0.05). This study concluded that feeding Cr-Met supplementation in 400 ppb/d to Holstein steers for 4 months during late fattening period can improve some blood metabolites and beef quality by increasing PUFA and gamma-linoleate compositions of beef.
Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat
Moon, Sun Hee ; Lee, Inyoung ; Feng, Xi ; Lee, Hyun Yong ; Kim, Jihee ; Ahn, Dong Uk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 384~389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0141
A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm
-glucan, 30 ppm
-glucan, and 60 ppm
-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary
-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm
-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm
-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of
-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary
-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat.
Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese
Huang, De-Jia ; Yang, Shyi-Kuen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 390~395
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0236
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (
PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal
PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal
PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal
PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.
Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks
Woyengo, T.A. ; Emiola, I.A. ; Kim, I.H. ; Nyachoti, C.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 396~403
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0299
The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.
The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil
Choi, Seong Ho ; Park, Sung Kwon ; Choi, Chang Weon ; Li, Xiang Zi ; Kim, Kyoung Hoon ; Kim, Won Young ; Jeong, Joon ; Johnson, Bradley J. ; Zan, Linsen ; Smith, Stephen B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 404~412
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0011
We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and
-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (
) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (
) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03). SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04), and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43) gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01)
gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time,
and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05).
gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (
) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03). Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.
Targeted Editing of Myostatin Gene in Sheep by Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases
Zhao, Xinxia ; Ni, Wei ; Chen, Chuangfu ; Sai, Wujiafu ; Qiao, Jun ; Sheng, Jingliang ; Zhang, Hui ; Li, Guozhong ; Wang, Dawei ; Hu, Shengwei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 413~418
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0041
Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Gene knockout of MSTN can result in increasing muscle mass in sheep. The objectives were to investigate whether myostatin gene can be edited in sheep by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in tandem with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs). We designed a pair of TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the coding region of the sheep MSTN gene. The activity of the TALENs was verified by using luciferase single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK 293T cell line. Co-transfection of TALENs and ssODNs oligonucleotides induced precise gene editing of myostatin gene in sheep primary fibroblasts. MSTN gene-edited cells were successfully used as nuclear donors for generating cloned embryos. TALENs combined with ssDNA oligonucleotides provide a useful approach for precise gene modification in livestock animals.
Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L. ; Cruz, Joseph dela ; Yang, Seung-Hak ; Hwang, Seong Gu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 419~427
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0677
There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at
for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of
for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to
) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat shock amelioration among 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through heat shock factor and proteins augmentation and enhanced adipogenic marker expression.
The Effects of Components of Grazing System on Welfare of Fattening Pigs
Tozawa, Akitsu ; Tanaka, Shigefumi ; Sato, Shusuke ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 428~435
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0190
The objective of this study was to clarify the most effective component of grazing for improving welfare of fattening pigs. This study compared welfare indicators of 20 fattening pigs aged 100 to 124 days (the prior period) and 138 to 164 days (the latter period) in an indoor housing system (IS), an outdoor pasturing system (OP), a concrete floor paddock system (CF), a concrete floor paddock system with fresh grass (FG), or a soil floor paddock system (SF). The last three treatments include important components of a grazing system: extra space, grass feed, and soil floor. Behavior, wounds on the body, and performances, measured as average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio, were observed. CF pigs behaved similarly to IS pigs. FG pigs showed higher levels of foraging, chewing and activity. SF pigs engaged in higher levels of foraging, exploring, activity, and rooting, and showed a similar amount of playing behavior as OP pigs. ADG was the same in all treatments at the prior period, and increased in the order FG, IS, CF, SF, and OP at the latter. The behaviors and performance of SF pigs resembled those of OP which seemed to indicate a consistently higher standard of welfare than the other treatments. In conclusion, the existence of a soil floor is the most important component of a pasture for improving the welfare of pigs.
Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers
Kang, H.J. ; Lee, I.K. ; Piao, M.Y. ; Gu, M.J. ; Yun, C.H. ; Kim, H.J. ; Kim, K.H. ; Baik, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 436~443
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0937
Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (
) and minimum (
) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (
, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.
Characteristics of Sawdust and Cocopeat Beddings, and Their Usefulness According to the Fan and Pen Location for Rearing Hanwoo Cattle
Ahn, Gyu Chul ; Jang, Sun Sik ; Lee, Kang Yeon ; Kwak, Wan Sup ; Oh, Young Kyun ; Park, Keun Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2016, Pages 444~454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0672
This study was designed to examine the characteristics of sawdust and cocopeat bedding materials, including physicochemical properties (Exp. I) and on-farm trial (Exp. II). In Exp. I, the proportion of particle size was in the order of sawdust>cocopeat India>cocopeat Vietnam (p<0.05), and cocopeat contained higher proportion of small particles (
) than sawdust, causing a dust production problem. Bulk density was cocopeat India>cocopeat Vietnam>sawdust (p<0.05), thus cocopeat treatments showed 4.4 times higher bedding cost than sawdust. The water absorption rates were 702.0% in cocopeat India, 678.3% in cocopeat Vietnam, and 444.0% in sawdust, showing cocopeat had approximately 1.5 times higher water absorption rate than sawdust. Moisture evaporation rates after 12 h of air blowing (2.00 m/s) were higher (p<0.05) in cocopeat Vietnam (80.4%) than sawdust (71.2%) and cocopeat India (72.8%). In vitro ammonia emissions were higher (p<0.05) in sawdust (
) than cocopeat India (
) and Vietnam (
), and total ammonia emissions were higher (p<0.05) in sawdust (
) than cocopeat India (
) and Vietnam (
). In Exp. II, an on-farm trial was conducted with 48 Hanwoo cattle in 16 pens using the same bedding materials as in Exp. I, with fan (blowing 2.00 m/s) and no fan treatments, and feed bunk side (FB) and water supply side (WS) within a pen (4.5 m,
, length). Beddings were replaced with fresh bedding materials when moisture concentrations were over 65%. No interactions among treatments were detected for moisture concentration and increment rates, and ammonia concentrations, but a significant effect was observed (p<0.01) for each of the treatments. Both concentrations and increment rate of moisture were higher (p<0.01) in the beddings without fan than with fan. Moisture concentrations and increment rate within a pen were also higher (p<0.01) in FB than WS. Thus, the whole no-fan-FB and sawdust-fan-FB were replaced with fresh bedding material between 4 to 5 experimental weeks. The ammonia concentrations and pH of beddings were not significantly different among treatments. Therefore, using cocopeat bedding with a blowing fan can extend twice the bedding utilization period, and WS within a pen showed twice the bedding-life compared to FB. Despite the outstanding characteristics of cocopeat compared with sawdust, using cocopeat as an alternative for sawdust bedding is not recommended for cattle management, considering it has 4.4 times higher bedding cost and a dust production problem.