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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 29, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 29, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 29, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle
Cho, C.I. ; Alam, M. ; Choi, T.J. ; Choy, Y.H. ; Choi, J.G. ; Lee, S.S. ; Cho, K.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 607~614
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0308
The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of
types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first lactation. Genetic variances for studied traits tended to decrease during the earlier stages of lactation, which were followed by increases in the middle and decreases further at the end of lactation. With regards to the fitness of the models and the differential genetic parameters across the lactation stages, we could estimate genetic parameters more accurately from RRMs than from lactation models. Therefore, we suggest using RRMs in place of lactation models to make national dairy cattle genetic evaluations for milk production traits in Korea.
mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues
Zhang, Jing ; Jing, Jiong-Jie ; Jia, Xia-Li ; Qiao, Li-Ying ; Liu, Jian-Hua ; Liang, Chen ; Liu, Wen-Zhong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 615~623
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0090
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.
Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Seong-Su ; Kim, Seung Chang ; Choi, Seong-Bok ; Kim, Su-Hyun ; Lee, Chang Woo ; Jung, Kyoung-Sub ; Kim, Eun Sung ; Choi, Young-Sun ; Kim, Sung-Bok ; Kim, Woo Hyun ; Cho, Chang-Yeon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 624~630
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0692
Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds.
Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Chinese Indigenous Sheep with Different Tail Types and an Analysis of Phylogenetic Evolution in Domestic Sheep
Fan, Hongying ; Zhao, Fuping ; Zhu, Caiye ; Li, Fadi ; Liu, Jidong ; Zhang, Li ; Wei, Caihong ; Du, Lixin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 631~639
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0473
China has a long history of sheep (Ovis aries [O. aries]) breeding and an abundance of sheep genetic resources. Knowledge of the complete O. aries mitogenome should facilitate the study of the evolutionary history of the species. Therefore, the complete mitogenome of O. aries was sequenced and annotated. In order to characterize the mitogenomes of 3 Chinese sheep breeds (Altay sheep [AL], Shandong large-tailed sheep [SD], and small-tailed Hulun Buir sheep [sHL]), 19 sets of primers were employed to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of each breed. The sizes of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the sHL, AL, and SD breeds were 16,617 bp, 16,613 bp, and 16,613 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genomes were deposited in the GenBank database with accession numbers KP702285 (AL sheep), KP981378 (SD sheep), and KP981380 (sHL sheep) respectively. The organization of the 3 analyzed sheep mitochondrial genomes was similar, with each consisting of 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and 8 tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand, whereas the rest of the mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the 3 analyzed mitogenomes was biased toward A and T. We constructed a phylogenetic tree using the complete mitogenomes of each type of sheep to allow us to understand the genetic relationships between Chinese breeds of O. aries and those developed and utilized in other countries. Our findings provide important information regarding the O. aries mitogenome and the evolutionary history of O. aries inside and outside China. In addition, our results provide a foundation for further exploration of the taxonomic status of O. aries.
Optimization of Swine Breeding Programs Using Genomic Selection with ZPLAN+
Lopez, B.M. ; Kang, H.S. ; Kim, T.H. ; Viterbo, V.S. ; Kim, H.S. ; Na, C.S. ; Seo, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 640~645
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0842
The objective of this study was to evaluate the present conventional selection program of a swine nucleus farm and compare it with a new selection strategy employing genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) as the selection criteria. The ZPLAN+ software was employed to calculate and compare the genetic gain, total cost, return and profit of each selection strategy. The first strategy reflected the current conventional breeding program, which was a progeny test system (CS). The second strategy was a selection scheme based strictly on genomic information (GS1). The third scenario was the same as GS1, but the selection by GEBV was further supplemented by the performance test (GS2). The last scenario was a mixture of genomic information and progeny tests (GS3). The results showed that the accuracy of the selection index of young boars of GS1 was 26% higher than that of CS. On the other hand, both GS2 and GS3 gave 31% higher accuracy than CS for young boars. The annual monetary genetic gain of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 10%, 12%, and 11% higher, respectively, than that of CS. As expected, the discounted costs of genomic selection strategies were higher than those of CS. The costs of GS1, GS2 and GS3 were 35%, 73%, and 89% higher than those of CS, respectively, assuming a genotyping cost of $120. As a result, the discounted profit per animal of GS1 and GS2 was 8% and 2% higher, respectively, than that of CS while GS3 was 6% lower. Comparison among genomic breeding scenarios revealed that GS1 was more profitable than GS2 and GS3. The genomic selection schemes, especially GS1 and GS2, were clearly superior to the conventional scheme in terms of monetary genetic gain and profit.
Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa
Prapaiwan, N. ; Tharasanit, T. ; Punjachaipornpol, S. ; Yamtang, D. ; Roongsitthichai, A. ; Moonarmart, W. ; Kaeoket, K. ; Manee-in, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 646~651
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0572
Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.
Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index
Estrada-Angulo, A. ; Aguilar-Hernandez, A. ; Osuna-Perez, M. ; Nunez-Benitez, V.H. ; Castro-Perez, B.I. ; Silva-Hidalgo, G. ; Contreras-Perez, G. ; Barreras, A. ; Plascencia, A. ; Zinn, R.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 652~658
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0300
) were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter) contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG) which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment), with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was
(severe heat stress). There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70) by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2%) higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04), dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01) and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01). Supplemental SANG did not affect (
) carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight) of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02) and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02). Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02), parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03) and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05) than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn-based diets. Improvement in energetic efficiency may have been mediated, in part, by anti-inflammatory effects of supplemental SANG and corresponding enhancement of nutrient uptake.
Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle
Liu, Y.F. ; Sun, F.F. ; Wan, F.C. ; Zhao, H.B. ; Liu, X.M. ; You, W. ; Cheng, H.J. ; Liu, G.F. ; Tan, X.W. ; Song, E.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 659~665
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0445
The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (
) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle.
Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season
Murillo, M. ; Herrera, E. ; Ruiz, O. ; Reyes, O. ; Carrete, F.O. ; Gutierrez, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 666~673
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0435
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (
initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (
) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (
-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). However, acetate concentrations decreased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Liquid dilution rate increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation but ruminal liquid volume decreased (p<0.05). On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that CDDGS supplementation enhanced the productive performance of cattle grazing native rangeland without negatively affecting forage intake, glucose and urea-nitrogen blood concentrations, ruminal degradation and ruminal fermentation patterns.
Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or without Yeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens
Shang, Q.H. ; Yang, Z.B. ; Yang, W.R. ; Li, Z. ; Zhang, G.G. ; Jiang, S.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 674~680
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0165
This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins.
A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers
Cheng, K. ; Niu, Y. ; Zheng, X.C. ; Zhang, H. ; Chen, Y.P. ; Zhang, M. ; Huang, X.X. ; Zhang, L.L. ; Zhou, Y.M. ; Wang, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 681~688
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0819
The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-
-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-
-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-
-tocopherol or DL-
-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of
-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (p<0.05). In the thigh,
-tocopherol content was also enhanced by vitamin E inclusion, and this effect was more pronounced in the natural vitamin E group (p<0.05). Vitamin E supplementation increased the redness of breast (p<0.05). In the contrast, the inclusion of synthetic vitamin E decreased lightness of thigh (p<0.05). Dietary vitamin E inclusion reduced drip loss at 24 h of thigh muscle (p<0.05), and this effect was maintained for drip loss at 48 h in the natural vitamin E group (p<0.05). Broilers given diet supplemented with vitamin E showed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the breast (p<0.05). Additionally, natural rather than synthetic vitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (p<0.05). Neither natural nor synthetic vitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular
-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.
Effect of L- or DL-methionine Supplementation on Nitrogen Retention, Serum Amino Acid Concentrations and Blood Metabolites Profile in Starter Pigs
Tian, Q.Y. ; Zeng, Z.K. ; Zhang, Y.X. ; Long, S.F. ; Piao, X.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 689~694
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0730
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of either L-methionine (L-Met) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) to diets of starter pigs on nitrogen (N) balance, metabolism, and serum amino acid profile. Eighteen crossbred (
) barrows weighing
were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 pigs per treatment. The diets included a basal diet (Met-deficient diet) containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestibility Met with all other essential nutrients meeting the pig's requirements. The other two diets were produced by supplementing the basal diet with 0.12% DL-Met or L-Met. The experiment lasted for 18 days, consisting of a 13-day adaptation period to the diets followed by a 5-day experimental period. Pigs were fed ad libitum and free access to water throughout the experiment. Results showed that the supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met improved N retention, and serum methionine concentration, and decreased N excretion compared with basal diet (p<0.01). The N retention of pigs fed diets supplemented with the same inclusion levels of DL-Met or L-Met were not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, on equimolar basis DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources for starter pigs.
Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry
Muhlisin, Muhlisin ; Utama, Dicky Tri ; Lee, Jae Ho ; Choi, Ji Hye ; Lee, Sung Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 695~701
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0256
This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.
Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel
Rajkumar, V. ; Verma, Arun K. ; Patra, G. ; Pradhan, S. ; Biswas, S. ; Chauhan, P. ; Das, Arun K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 702~708
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0454
Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.
Quality Characteristics and Composition of the Longissimus Muscle from Entire and Castrate Elk in Korea
Kim, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Kwan-Woo ; Park, Seong-Bok ; Kim, Myung-Jick ; Yim, Dong-Gyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 709~715
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0582
The objective of the research was to determine the chemical composition as well as the physicochemical properties of the longissimus muscle from Korean entire and castrate elk. Twelve elk stags were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were equally divided into castrated and non-castrated (entire) males, and slaughtered at 5 year of age. It was found that entire elk, in comparison with castrate elk, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p<0.05). Compared with entire males, the castrates had lower pH and shear force values (p<0.05). However, castrates had higher
values compared with entires (p<0.05). An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the muscles of entire and castrate elk had the most abundant concentrations of the following fatty acids: palmitic acid (C16:0) of the saturated fatty acid, and oleic acid (C18:1n-9) of the unsaturated fatty acid. The entire elk contains higher proportions of linoleic acid (C18:3n6), eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) (p<0.05). Cholesterol content in elk was not affected by castration. The predominant free amino acid was glutamic acid related to umami taste. It is apparent that the castrate animals carried higher content of histidine, isoleucine, and leucine than those of the entire group (p<0.05). In this study, it was concluded that venison quality of elk is affected by castration and these results can provide fundamental information for venison production.
Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs
Sheng, Q.K. ; Zhou, K.F. ; Hu, H.M. ; Zhao, H.B. ; Zhang, Y. ; Ying, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 716~721
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0478
This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat
, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium,
-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and
-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.
Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)
Muhlisin, Muhlisin ; Song, Chang Soo ; Rhee, Yong Joon ; Song, Young Han ; Lee, Sung Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 722~730
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0303
The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio.
The Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-2 on the Tight Junction and Barrier Function in IPEC-J2 Cells through Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Protein Kinase B-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway
Yu, Changsong ; Jia, Gang ; Deng, Qiuhong ; Zhao, Hua ; Chen, Xiaoling ; Liu, Guangmang ; Wang, Kangning ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 731~738
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0415
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is important for intestinal barrier function and regulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins, but the intracellular mechanisms of action remain undefined. The purpose of this research was to determine the protective effect of GLP-2 mediated TJ and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stressed IPEC-J2 cells and to test the hypothesis that GLP-2 regulate TJ and TER through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells. Wortmannin and LY294002 are specific inhibitors of PI3K. The results showed that
LPS stress decreased TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) mRNA, proteins expressions (p<0.01) respectively. GLP-2 (100 nmol/L) promote TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1, and zo-1 mRNA, proteins expressions in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells (p<0.01) respectively. In normal cells, both wortmannin and LY294002, PI3K inhibitors, prevented the mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and mTOR increase induced by GLP-2 (p<0.01) following with the significant decreasing of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1 mRNA and proteins expressions and TER (p<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicated that GLP-2 can promote TJ's expression and TER in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells and GLP-2 could regulate TJ and TER through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis
Lee, Joon H. ; Choi, Hong L. ; Heo, Yong J. ; Chung, Yoon P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 739~746
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0404
A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was
and 74% in summer and
and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to
) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to
(very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>
leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to
. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to
) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (
). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was hard to identify because of the low
value. However, the farms that provided a relatively large floor space (1.27 to
) during the winter period showed d-SW was significantly and negatively affected by FSA.
Changes in Salivary Cortisol Concentration in Horses during Different Types of Exercise
Kang, Ok-Deuk ; Lee, Wang-Shik ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 747~752
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.16.0009
This study aimed to estimate the change of stress level in horses based on cortisol concentration levels in their saliva. A total of 61 horses were divided into the following three groups: i) tourist riding experience (TR, n = 23); ii) resting group (RR, n = 14); and iii) horse-riding education (ER, n = 24). The saliva samples of TR and ER groups were taken using plain cotton Salivettes four times a day: at 07:00 (basal), 11:00 (Exercise 1, after 1-hour exercise in the morning), 14:00 (Exercise 2, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon), and 16:00 (Exercise 3, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon). The saliva samples of RR were measured at the same time. The samples were analyzed using the SAS program general linear model procedure. In a percentage relative to the base value, cortisol levels in Exercise 3 were confirmed to decrease in all groups as compared to the basal value percentage in the following sequence: ER>TR>RR. The highest peak was confirmed in Exercise 2 (approximately 131%) of RR group and the lowest peak appeared in Exercise 3 (approximately 52%) of ER group. Therefore, resting without any particular exercise can also increase the stress level of horses. Thus, it is better to exercise, as exercise can reduce the stress level, even in cases when riders are clumsy or lack appropriate horse-riding experience. The results of the present study are useful to equestrian center owners and educational riding instructors in that they provide a meaningful insight into a better horse management.
Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement
Kim, Eunjong ; Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Won, Seunggun ; Ahn, Heekwon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2016, Pages 753~758
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0875
Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg
VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.