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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 29, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 29, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 29, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Random Regression Models Are Suitable to Substitute the Traditional 305-Day Lactation Model in Genetic Evaluations of Holstein Cattle in Brazil
Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck ; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo ; Costa, Claudio Napolis ; Neto, Jose Braccini ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 759~767
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0498
The aim of this study was to compare two random regression models (RRM) fitted by fourth (
) and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (
) with a lactation model (LM) for evaluating Holstein cattle in Brazil. Two datasets with the same animals were prepared for this study. To apply test-day RRM and LMs, 262,426 test day records and 30,228 lactation records covering 305 days were prepared, respectively. The lowest values of Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and estimates of the maximum of the likelihood function (-2LogL) were for
. Heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY) was 0.23 (
), 0.24 (
), and 0.21 (LM). Heritability, additive genetic and permanent environmental variances of test days on days in milk was from 0.16 to 0.27, from 3.76 to 6.88 and from 11.12 to 20.21, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between test days ranged from 0.20 to 0.99. Permanent environmental correlations between test days were between 0.07 and 0.99. Standard deviations of average estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 305MY from
were from 11% to 30% higher for bulls and around 28% higher for cows than that in LM. Rank correlations between RRM EBVs and LM EBVs were between 0.86 to 0.96 for bulls and 0.80 to 0.87 for cows. Average percentage of gain in reliability of EBVs for 305-day yield increased from 4% to 17% for bulls and from 23% to 24% for cows when reliability of EBVs from RRM models was compared to those from LM model. Random regression model fitted by fourth order Legendre polynomials is recommended for genetic evaluations of Brazilian Holstein cattle because of the higher reliability in the estimation of breeding values.
Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities
Kim, Jin Soo ; Yang, Xiaojian ; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 768~774
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0907
The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p<0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle
Singh, Ajay ; Singh, Avtar ; Singh, Manvendra ; Prakash, Ved ; Ambhore, G.S. ; Sahoo, S.K. ; Dash, Soumya ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 775~781
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0643
A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.
Computational Prediction of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease MicroRNAs in Domestic Animals
Wang, Hai Yang ; Lin, Zi Li ; Yu, Xian Feng ; Bao, Yuan ; Cui, Xiang-Shun ; Kim, Nam-Hyung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 782~792
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0413
As the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two of the main health concerns for the elderly population. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers of infectious, genetic, and metabolic diseases in humans but they have not been well studied in domestic animals. Here we describe a computational biology study in which human AD- and PD-associated miRNAs (ADM and PDM) were utilized to predict orthologous miRNAs in the following domestic animal species: dog, cow, pig, horse, and chicken. In this study, a total of 121 and 70 published human ADM and PDM were identified, respectively. Thirty-seven miRNAs were co-regulated in AD and PD. We identified a total of 105 unrepeated human ADM and PDM that had at least one 100% identical animal homolog, among which 81 and 54 showed 100% sequence identity with 241 and 161 domestic animal miRNAs, respectively. Over 20% of the total mature horse miRNAs (92) showed perfect matches to AD/PD-associated miRNAs. Pigs, dogs, and cows have similar numbers of AD/PD-associated miRNAs (63, 62, and 59). Chickens had the least number of perfect matches (34). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses suggested that humans and dogs are relatively similar in the functional pathways of the five selected highly conserved miRNAs. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for better understanding the miRNA-AD/PD associations in domestic animals, and provides guidance to generate domestic animal models of AD/PD to replace the current rodent models.
Testicular Characteristics and the Block to Spermatogenesis in Mature Hinny
Han, Hongmei ; Wang, Aihong ; Liu, Liming ; Zhao, Gaoping ; Su, Jie ; Wang, Biao ; Li, Yunxia ; Zhang, Jindun ; Wu, Baojiang ; Sun, Wei ; Hu, Shuxiang ; Li, Shuyu ; Zhao, Lixia ; Li, Xihe ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 793~800
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0670
Most hinnies (female donkey
male horse) and mules (female horse
male donkey) are sterile with few reports of equine fertile hybrids. The main cause of this sterility is thought to be a meiotic block to spermatogenesis and oogenesis. This study compared the developmental features of the testes and a histological analyses of spermatogenesis in a male hinny with those of a normal, fertile stallion and Jack donkey. Hinny testes showed a thicker tunica albuginea, fewer blood vessels and more connective tissue in the testis parenchyma than those of the stallion and Jack donkey. Although the mean number of seminiferous tubules was significantly higher in stallion and hinny than Jack donkey (p<0.01), the mean proportion of seminiferous tubules was lower in the hinny (p<0.01) which resulted in a smaller diameter of seminiferous tubules. The mean number of spermatogonia and spermatocytes per unit area were significantly lower in hinny testis (p<0.01) and no spermatids or mature spermatozoa cells were found during immunofluorescent analyses. These results indicated that defects in seminiferous tubule development and structure occur in the testis of hinnies. Furthermore, most spermatogonia and spermatocytes cease development in synapsis during mid-meiosis of spermatocytes, which results in a block to spermatogenesis that prevents the formation of spermatids and matured spermatozoa during meiosis in male hinnies.
Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress
Zhu, W. ; Zhang, B.X. ; Yao, K.Y. ; Yoon, I. ; Chung, Y.H. ; Wang, J.K. ; Liu, J.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 801~806
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0440
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (
), parity (
) and day in milk (
). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/ dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.
Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production
Nguyen, S.H. ; Li, L. ; Hegarty, R.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 807~813
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0641
Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as
) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary nitrate as the addition of nitrate in the defaunated heifers resulted in 86% reduction in methane production in vitro.
Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats
Wang, Lizhi ; Wang, Zhisheng ; Zou, Huawei ; Peng, Quanhui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 814~822
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0414
This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight
) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a
Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at
from 8:00 to 20:00 and at
from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p<0.01). HS reduced plasma flux rate of milk goats (p<0.01), but the plasma flux rate increased when the animal was under the conditions of the thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). The VE supplementation lowered dairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the control and YC treatment in rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p>0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.
Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle
Manriquez, O.M. ; Montano, M.F. ; Calderon, J.F. ; Valdez, J.A. ; Chirino, J.O. ; Gonzalez, V.M. ; Salinas-Chavira, J. ; Mendoza, G.D. ; Soto, S. ; Zinn, R.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 823~829
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0062
Eight Holstein steers (
body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous
Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (
) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected (
). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration were not affected (
) by corn processing method. Compared with dry rolled corn, steam-flaked corn-based diets resulted in decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.02). It is concluded that at 7% or 14% straw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH.
Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese
Chang, S.C. ; Lin, M.J. ; Zhuang, Z.X. ; Huang, S.Y. ; Lin, T.Y. ; Jea, Y.S. ; Fan, Y.K. ; Lee, T.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 830~837
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0613
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light.
Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa
Sole, M. ; Pena, F. ; Domenech, V. ; Clemente, I. ; Polvillo, O. ; Valera, M. ; Verona, J.C. ; Rubi, M. ; Molina, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 838~844
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0583
This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and
), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.
Characteristics and Gel Properties of Gelatin from Goat Skin as Influenced by Alkaline-pretreatment Conditions
Mad-Ali, Sulaiman ; Benjakul, Soottawat ; Prodpran, Thummanoon ; Maqsood, Sajid ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 845~854
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0784
Characteristics and properties of gelatin from goat skin pretreated with NaOH solutions (0.50 and 0.75 M) for various times (1 to 4 days) were investigated. All gelatins contained
-chains as the predominant component, followed by
-chain. Gelling and melting temperatures of those gelatins were
, respectively. Gel strength of gelatins increased as NaOH concentration and pretreatment time increased (p<0.05). Pretreatment for a longer time yielded gelatin with a decrease in
-value but an increase in
-value. Pretreatment of goat skin using 0.75 M NaOH for 2 days rendered the highest yield (15.95%, wet weight basis) as well as high gel strength (222.42 g), which was higher than bovine gelatin (199.15 g). Gelatin obtained had the imino acid content of 226 residues/1,000 residues and the gelatin gel had a fine and ordered structure. Therefore, goat skin gelatin could be used as a potential replacer of commercial gelatin.
Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens
Chen, Yulian ; Qiao, Yan ; Xiao, Yu ; Chen, Haochun ; Zhao, Liang ; Huang, Ming ; Zhou, Guanghong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 855~864
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0840
The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and influence the consumption of different chicken meat.
Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat
Baek, Ki Ho ; Utama, Dicky Tri ; Lee, Seung Gyu ; An, Byoung Ki ; Lee, Sung Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 865~871
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.1050
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05). The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05). CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05). However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05) because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05); furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05) among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05) over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks
Ohh, Mi-hyang ; Kim, Seongjin ; Pak, Sok Cheon ; Chee, Kew-mahn ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 872~878
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.1020
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.
Effects of Weaning and Spatial Enrichment on Behavior of Turkish Saanen Goat Kids
Tolu, Cemil ; Gokturk, Semra ; Savas, Turker ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 879~886
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0597
As is in all economic activities, the highest yield per unit area is the main goal in animal production, while addressing the temperamental needs of animals often is ignored. Animal welfare is not only an ethical fact; it also has an economic value. Spatial environmental enrichment contributes positively to animal welfare by addressing their behavioral and mental requirements. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of weaning and spatial environmental arrangements on behaviors of goat-kids. Experimental groups were arranged in structured and unstructured spatial environments. Roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge, and wood block were placed in the structured environment. No equipment was placed in the unstructured environment and paddock sides were enclosed with an iron sheet to prevent bipedal stance and to provide environmental isolation. In the study 10 male and 10 female Turkish Saanen goat kids were used in each group. Spatial environmental arrangements did not have significant impacts on the growth performance of kids (p>0.05). All objects in the structured group were accepted by the kids. Average use ratios of roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge and wood block were observed as 19.3%, 14.0%, 12.6%, 3.8%, and 0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences between before- and after-weaning in use of all objects except for underneath bridge (
). Concentrate feed consumption, locomotion, and resting behaviors in kids showed significant differences by structural group and growth period. Roughage consumption was similar between groups, while it differed by growth period (
). Interaction frequency was significantly higher in structured group (p = 0.0023). Playing behavior significantly differentiated based on the growth period rather than on groups (
). Playing behavior significantly decreased after weaning. Abnormal oral activity was significantly higher in the structured group before weaning (
). Despite there being no installations facilitating climbing and bipedal stance, the kids of the unstructured group were able to exhibit 1/3 as much bipedal stance behavior as the kids of the structured group through leaning over slippery paddock wall or over their groupmates. Bipedal stance behavior of unstructured group was similar before and after weaning, while bipedal stance behavior before weaning was about 2 times that of after weaning in structured group. It was concluded that unstructured environmental arrangement limited the behavior repertoire of the goat kids.
Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens
Li, Xiang ; Chen, Donghua ; Li, Jianhong ; Bao, Jun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 887~894
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0576
This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.
Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program
Kang, Ok-Deuk ; Yun, Young-Min ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 895~900
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.1068
The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.
Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection
Lin, M.J. ; Chang, S.C. ; Lin, T.Y. ; Cheng, Y.S. ; Lee, Y.P. ; Fan, Y.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 29, issue 6, 2016, Pages 901~907
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.15.0456
The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (
) and 4 to 6 weeks (
) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (
) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.