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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 10, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Flexible Transmission Expansion Planning for Integrating Wind Power Based on Wind Power Distribution Characteristics
Wang, Jianxue ; Wang, Ruogu ; Zeng, Pingliang ; You, Shutang ; Li, Yunhao ; Zhang, Yao ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 709~718
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.709
Traditional transmission planning usually caters for rated wind power output. Due to the low occurrence probability of nominal capacity of wind power and huge investment in transmission, these planning methods will leads to low utilization rates of transmission lines and poor economic efficiency. This paper provides a novel transmission expansion planning method for integrating large-scale wind power. The wind power distribution characteristics of large-scale wind power output and its impact on transmission planning are analyzed. Based on the wind power distribution characteristics, this paper proposes a flexible and economic transmission planning model which saves substantial transmission investment through spilling a small amount of peak output of wind power. A methodology based on Benders decomposition is used to solve the model. The applicability and effectiveness of the model and algorithm are verified through a numerical case.
Field Implementation of Voltage Management System (VMS) into Jeju Power System in Korea
Shin, Jeonghoon ; Nam, Suchul ; Song, Jiyoung ; Lee, Jaegul ; Han, Sangwook ; Ko, Baekkyung ; An, Yongho ; Kim, Taekyun ; Lee, Byungjun ; Baek, Seungmook ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 719~728
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.719
This paper presents the results of field tests on Voltage Management System (VMS) using hybrid voltage control, which utilizes coordinated controls of various reactive power resources such as generators, FACTS and switched shunt devices to regulate the pilot bus voltage in a voltage control area. It also includes the results of performance test on RTDS-based test bed in order to validate the VMS before installing it in Jeju power system. The main purpose of the system is adequately to regulate the reactive power reserve of key generators in a normal condition with coordination of discrete shunt devices such as condensers and reactors so that the reserves can avoid voltage collapse in emergency state in Jeju system. Field tests in the automatic mode of VMS operation are included in steady-states and transient states. Finally, by the successful operation of VMS in Jeju power system, the VMS is proved to effectively control system voltage profiles in steady-state condition, increase system MVAR reserves and improve system reliability for pre- and post-contingency.
Algorithm for Fault Detection and Classification Using Wavelet Singular Value Decomposition for Wide-Area Protection
Lee, Jae-Won ; Kim, Won-Ki ; Oh, Yun-Sik ; Seo, Hun-Chul ; Jang, Won-Hyeok ; Kim, Yoon Sang ; Park, Chul-Won ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 729~739
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.729
An algorithm for fault detection and classification method for wide-area protection in Korean transmission systems is proposed. The modeling of 345-kV and 765-kV Korean power system transmission networks using the Electro Magnetic Transient Program - Restructured Version (EMTP-RV) is presented and the algorithm for fault detection and classification in transmission lines is developed. The proposed algorithm uses the Wavelet Transform (WT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The Singular value of Approximation coefficient (SA) and part Sum of Detail coefficient (SD) are introduced. The characteristics of the SA and SD at the fault conditions are analyzed and used in the algorithm for fault detection and classification. The validation of the proposed algorithm is verified by various simulation results.
Comparison of the Operational Speed of Hard-wired and IEC 61850 Standard-based Implementations of a Reverse Blocking Protection Scheme
Mnguni, Mkhululi Elvis Siyanda ; Tzoneva, Raynitchka ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 740~754
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.740
This paper focuses on the reverse blocking busbar protection scheme with aim to improve the speed of its operation and at the same time to increase operational reliability, flexibility and stability of the protection during external and internal faults by implementation of the extended functionality provided by the IEC61850 standard-based protective Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). The practical implementation of the scheme by the use of IEC 61850 standard communication protocol is investigated. The proposed scheme is designed for a radial type of a distribution network and is modeled and simulated in the DigSILENT software environment for various faults on the busbar and its outgoing feeders. A laboratory test bench is built using three ABB IEDs 670 series that are compliant with the IEC 61850 standard, CMC 356 Omicron test injection device, PC, MOXA switch, and a DC power supplier. Two types of the reverse blocking signals between the IEDs in the test bench are considered: hard wired and Ethernet communication by using IEC 61850 standard GOOSE messages. Comparative experimental study of the operational trip response speeds of the two implementations for various traffic conditions of the communication network shows that the performance of the protection scheme for the case of Ethernet IEC 61850 standard-based communication is better.
Methods for Adding Demand Response Capability to a Thermostatically Controlled Load with an Existing On-off Controller
Jin, Young Gyu ; Yoon, Yong Tae ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 755~765
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.755
A thermostatically controlled load (TCL) can be one of the most appropriate resources for demand response (DR) in a smart grid environment. DR capability can be effectively implemented in a TCL with various intelligent control methods. However, because traditional on-off control is still a commonly used method in a TCL, it is useful to develop a method for adding DR capability to the TCL with an existing on-off controller. As a specific realization of supervisory control for implementing DR capability in the TCL, two methods are proposed - a method involving the changing of a set point and a method involving the paralleling of an identified system without delay. The proposed methods are analyzed through the simulations with an electric heater for different power consumption levels in the on-state. Considerable cost benefit can be achieved with the proposed methods when compared with the case without DR. In addition, the observations suggest that a medium power consumption level, instead of the maximum power, in the on-state should be used for consistently obtaining the cost benefit without severe temperature deviation from the specified temperature range for DR.
Development of Fault Detector for Series Arc Fault in Low Voltage DC Distribution System using Wavelet Singular Value Decomposition and State Diagram
Oh, Yun-Sik ; Han, Joon ; Gwon, Gi-Hyeon ; Kim, Doo-Ung ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 766~776
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.766
It is well known that series arc faults in Low Voltage DC (LVDC) distribution system occur at unintended points of discontinuity within an electrical circuit. These faults can make circuit breakers not respond timely due to low fault current. It, therefore, is needed to detect the series fault for protecting circuits from electrical fires. This paper proposes a novel scheme to detect the series arc fault using Wavelet Singular Value Decomposition (WSVD) and state diagram. In this paper, the fault detector developed is designed by using three criterion factors based on the RMS value of Singular value of Approximation (SA), Sum of the absolute value of Detail (SD), and state diagram. LVDC distribution system including AC/DC and DC/DC converter is modeled to verify the proposed scheme using ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) software. EMTP/MODELS is also utilized to implement the series arc model and WSVD. Simulation results according to various conditions clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Analysis of Induction Motor-pump System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator for Agricultural Irrigation in Southeastern Anatolian Region of Turkey
Gumus, Bilal ; Yakut, Yurdagul Bentesen ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 777~785
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.777
In agricultural systems, significant amount of energy is consumed during irrigation periods. Therefore operating irrigation systems with electrical energy produced by solar energy is very important. It is be possible to operate irrigation systems which have small-pump power like drip-irrigation with electrical energy produced by solar energy. Electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels can vary from the estimated value due to environmental factors. Consequently analysis of a real system`s performance is important. Thus, more correct projections can be made for the systems which will be designed. In this study, induction motor-pump mechanism for drip-irrigation system is operated with photovoltaic generator. Solar energy capacity of the established system is evaluated by measurements in irrigation periods. By means of simulations, power values produced by system and gained from the actual system are compared. Additionally the performance of induction motor is analyzed with the help of the driver system that increases the efficiency and controls the motor. As regards of results, design values of the drip-irrigation systems fed with solar energy in Southeastern Anatolian Regions of Turkey are obtained. Performance results of induction motor controlled with driver are also provided.
Complementary Power Control of the Bipolar-type Low Voltage DC Distribution System
Byeon, Gilsung ; Hwang, Chul-Sang ; Jeon, Jin-Hong ; Kim, Seul-Ki ; Kim, Jong-Yul ; Kim, Kisuk ; Ko, Bokyung ; Kim, Eung-Sang ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 786~794
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.786
In this paper, a new power control strategy for the bipolar-type low voltage direct current (LVDC) distribution system is being proposed. The dc distribution system is considered as an innovative system according to the increase of dc loads and dc output type distribution energy resources (DERs) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems and energy storage systems (ESS). Since the dc distribution system has many advantages such as feasible connection of DERs, reduction of conversion losses between dc output sources and loads, no reactive power issues, it is very suitable solution for new type buildings and residences interfaced with DERs and ESSs. In the bipolar-type, if it has each grid-interfaced converter, both sides (upper, lower-side) can be operated individually or collectively. A complementary power control strategy using two ESSs in both sides for effective and reliable operation is proposed in this paper. Detailed power control methods of the host controller and local controllers are described. To verify the performances of the proposed control strategy, simulation analysis using PSCAD/EMTDC is being performed where the results show that the proposed strategy provides efficient operations and can be applied to the bipolar-type dc distribution system.
An Adaptive Autoreclosure Scheme with Reference to Transient Stability for Transmission Lines
Heo, Jeong-Yong ; Oh, Yun-Sik ; Seo, Hun-Chul ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 795~803
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.795
Autoreclosure provides a means of improving power transmitting ability and system stability. Conventional reclosure adopts the fixed dead time interval strategy, where the reclosure is activated after a time delay to restore the system to normal as quickly as possible without regard to the system conditions. However, these simple techniques cannot provide optimal operating performance. This paper presents an adaptive autoreclosure algorithm including variable dead time, optimal reclosure, phase-by-phase reclosure and emergency extended equal-area criterion (EEEAC) algorithm in order to improve system stability. The reclosure algorithm performs the operations that are attuned to the power system conditions. The proposed adaptive reclosure algorithm is verified and tested using ATP/EMTP MODELS, and the simulation results show that the system oscillations are reduced and the transient stability is enhanced by employing the proposed adaptive reclosure algorithm.
An Optimal Procedure for Sizing and Siting of DGs and Smart Meters in Active Distribution Networks Considering Loss Reduction
Sattarpour, T. ; Nazarpour, D. ; Golshannavaz, S. ; Siano, P. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 804~811
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.804
The presence of responsive loads in the promising active distribution networks (ADNs) would definitely affect the power system problems such as distributed generations (DGs) studies. Hence, an optimal procedure is proposed herein which takes into account the simultaneous placement of DGs and smart meters (SMs) in ADNs. SMs are taken into consideration for the sake of successful implementing of demand response programs (DRPs) such as direct load control (DLC) with end-side consumers. Seeking to power loss minimization, the optimization procedure is tackled with genetic algorithm (GA) and tested thoroughly on 69-bus distribution test system. Different scenarios including variations in the number of DG units, adaptive power factor (APF) mode for DGs to support reactive power, and individual or simultaneous placing of DGs and SMs have been established and interrogated in depth. The obtained results certify the considerable effect of DRPs and APF mode in determining the optimal size and site of DGs to be connected in ADN resulting to the lowest value of power losses as well.
A Faulty Synchronous Machine Model for Efficient Interface with Power System
Amangaldi Koochaki ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 812~819
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.812
This paper presents a new approach for simulating the internal faults of synchronous machines using distributed computing and Large Change Sensitivity (LCS) analysis. LCS analysis caters for a parallel solution of 3-phase model of a faulted machine within the symmetrical component-based model of interconnected network. The proposed method considers dynamic behavior of the faulty machine and connected system and tries to accurately solve the synchronous machine’s internal fault conditions in the system. The proposed method is implemented in stand-alone FORTRAN-based phasor software and the results have been compared with available recordings from real networks and precisely simulated faults by use of the ATP/EMTP as a time domain software package. An encouraging correlation between the simulation results using proposed method, ATP simulation and measurements was observed and reported. The simplified approach also enables engineers to quickly investigate their particular cases with a reasonable precision.
A Congestion Management Approach Using Probabilistic Power Flow Considering Direct Electricity Purchase
Wang, Xu ; Jiang, Chuan-Wen ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 820~831
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.820
In a deregulated electricity market, congestion of the transmission lines is a major problem the independent system operator (ISO) would face. Rescheduling of generators is one of the most practiced techniques to alleviate the congestion. However, not all generators in the system operate deterministically and independently, especially wind power generators (WTGs). Therefore, a novel optimal rescheduling model for congestion management that accounts for the uncertain and correlated power sources and loads is proposed. A probabilistic power flow (PPF) model based on 2m+1 point estimate method (PEM) is used to simulate the performance of uncertain and correlated input random variables. In addition, the impact of direct electricity purchase contracts on the congestion management has also been studied. This paper uses artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to solve the complex optimization problem. The proposed algorithm is tested on modified IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 57-bus system to demonstrate the impacts of the uncertainties and correlations of the input random variables and the direct electricity purchase contracts on the congestion management. Both pool and nodal pricing model are also discussed.
Short-term Electric Load Forecasting Based on Wavelet Transform and GMDH
Koo, Bon-Gil ; Lee, Heung-Seok ; Park, Juneho ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 832~837
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.832
The group method of data handling (GMDH) algorithm has proven to be a powerful and effective way to extract rules or polynomials from an electric load pattern. However, because it is nonstationary, the load pattern needs to be decomposed using a discrete wavelet transform. In addition, if a load pattern has a complicated curve pattern, GMDH should use a higher polynomial, which requires complex computing and consumes a lot of time. This paper suggests a method for short-term electric load forecasting that uses a wavelet transform and a GMDH algorithm. Case studies with the proposed algorithm were carried out for one-day-ahead forecasting of hourly electric loads using data during the years 2008-2011. To prove the effectiveness of our proposed approach, the results were evaluated and compared with those obtained by Holt-Winters method and artificial neural network. Our suggested method resulted in better performance than either comparison group.
A Study on the Control Method of Customer Voltage Variation in Distribution System with PV Systems
Kim, Byung-ki ; Choi, Sung-sik ; Wang, Yong-peel ; Kim, Eung-sang ; Rho, Dae-seok ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 838~846
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.838
This paper deals with the modified modeling of PV system based on the PSCAD/EMTDC and optimal control method of customer voltages in real distribution system interconnected with the photovoltaic (PV) systems. In order to analyze voltage variation characteristics, the specific modeling of PV system which contains the theory of d-q transformation, current-control algorithm and sinusoidal PWM method is being required. However, the conventional modeling of PV system can only perform the modeling of small-scale active power of less than 60 [kW]. Therefore, this paper presents a modified modeling that can perform the large-scale active power of more than 1 [MW]. And also, this paper proposes the optimal operation method of step voltage regulator (SVR) in order to solve the voltage variation problem when the PV systems are interconnected with the distribution feeders. From the simulation results, it is confirmed that this paper is effective tool for voltage analysis in distribution system with PV systems.
Coordinated Control Strategy and Optimization of Composite Energy Storage System Considering Technical and Economic Characteristics
Li, Fengbing ; Xie, Kaigui ; Zhao, Bo ; Zhou, Dan ; Zhang, Xuesong ; Yang, Jiangping ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 847~858
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.847
Control strategy and corresponding parameters have significant impacts on the overall technical and economic characteristics of composite energy storage systems (CESS). A better control strategy and optimized control parameters can be used to improve the economic and technical characteristics of CESS, and determine the maximum power and stored energy capacity of CESS. A novel coordinated control strategy is proposed considering the coordination of various energy storage systems in CESS. To describe the degree of coordination, a new index, i.e. state of charge coordinated response margin of supercapacitor energy storage system, is presented. Based on the proposed control strategy and index, an optimization model was formulated to minimize the total equivalent cost in a given period for two purposes. The one is to obtain optimal control parameters of an existing CESS, and the other is to obtain the integrated optimal results of control parameters, maximum power and stored energy capacity for CESS in a given period. Case studies indicate that the developed index, control strategy and optimization model can be extensively applied to optimize the economic and technical characteristics of CESS. In addition, impacts of control parameters are discussed in detail.
Analysis for Evaluating the Impact of PEVs on New-Town Distribution System in Korea
Choi, Sang-Bong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 859~864
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.859
This paper analyzes the impact of Plug-in Electric vehicles(PEVs) on power demand and voltage change when PEVs are connected to the domestic distribution system. Specifically, it assesses PEVs charging load by charging method in accordance with PEVs penetration scenarios, its percentage of total load, and voltage range under load conditions. Concretely, we develop EMTDC modelling to perform a voltage distribution analysis when the PEVs charging system by their charging scenario was connected to the distribution system under the load condition. Furthermore we present evaluation algorithm to determine whether it is possible to adjust it such that it is in the allowed range by applying ULTC when the voltage change rate by PEVs charging scenario exceed its allowed range. Also, detailed analysis of the impact of PEVs on power distribution system was carried out by calculating existing electric power load and additional PEVs charge load by each scenario on new-town in Korea to estimate total load increases, and also by interpreting the subsequent voltage range for system circuits and demonstrating conditions for countermeasures. It was concluded that total loads including PEVs charging load on new-town distribution system in Korea by PEVs penetration scenario increase significantly, and the voltage range when considering ULTC, is allowable in terms of voltage tolerance range up to a PEVs penetration of 20% by scenario. Finally, we propose the charging capacity of PEVs that can delay the reinforcement of power distribution system while satisfying the permitted voltage change rate conditions when PEVs charging load is connected to the power distribution system by their charging penetration scenario.
An Analytical Solution for Voltage Stability Studies Incorporating Wind Power
Lin, Yu-Zhang ; Shi, Li-Bao ; Yao, Liang-Zhong ; Ni, Yi-Xin ; Qin, Shi-Yao ; Wang, Rui-Ming ; Zhang, Jin-Ping ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 865~876
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.865
Voltage stability is one of the most critical security issues which has not yet been well resolved to date. In this paper, an analytical method called PQ plane analysis with consideration of the reactive power capability of wind turbine generator and the wake effect of wind farm is proposed for voltage stability study. Two voltage stability indices based on the proposed PQ plane analysis method incorporating the uncertainties of load-increasing direction and wind generation are designed and implemented. Cases studies are conducted to investigate the impacts of wind power incorporation with different control modes. Simulation results demonstrate that the constant voltage control based on reactive power capability significantly enhances voltage stability in comparison of the conventional constant power factor control. Some meaningful conclusions are obtained.
Voltage Stability Prediction on Power System Network via Enhanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Artificial Neural Network
Lim, Zi-Jie ; Mustafa, Mohd Wazir ; Jamian, Jasrul Jamani ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 877~887
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.877
Rapid development of cities with constant increasing load and deregulation in electricity market had forced the transmission lines to operate near their threshold capacity and can easily lead to voltage instability and caused system breakdown. To prevent such catastrophe from happening, accurate readings of voltage stability condition is required so that preventive equipment and operators can execute security procedures to restore system condition to normal. This paper introduced Enhanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to estimate the voltage stability condition which utilized Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) to indicate how far or close is the power system network to the collapse point when the reactive load in the system increases because reactive load gives the highest impact to the stability of the system as it varies. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) had been combined with the ANN to form the Enhanced Hybrid PSO-ANN (EHPSO-ANN) algorithm that worked accurately as a prediction algorithm. The proposed algorithm reduced serious local minima convergence of ANN but also maintaining the fast convergence speed of PSO. The results show that the hybrid algorithm has greater prediction accuracy than those comparing algorithms. High generalization ability was found in the proposed algorithm.
Towards Cyber Security Risks Assessment in Electric Utility SCADA Systems
Woo, Pil Sung ; Kim, Balho H. ; Hur, Don ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 888~894
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.888
This paper presents a unified model based assessment framework to quantify threats and vulnerabilities associated with control systems, especially in the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. In the past, this system was primarily utilized as an isolated facility on a local basis, and then it started to be integrated with wide-area networks as the communication technology would make rapid progress. The introduction of smart grid, which is an innovative application of digital processing and communications to the power grid, might lead to more and more cyber threats originated from IT systems. However, an up-to-date power system often requires the real-time operations, which clearly implies that the cyber security would turn out to be a complicated but also crucial issue for the power system. In short, the purpose of this paper is to streamline a comprehensive approach to prioritizing cyber security risks which are expressed by the combination of threats, vulnerabilities, and values in the SCADA components.
Transmission Network Expansion Planning Using Reliability and Economic Assessment
Kim, Wook-Won ; Son, Hyun-Il ; Kim, Jin-O ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 895~904
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.895
This paper presents a probabilistic approach of reliability evaluation and economic assessment for solving transmission network expansion planning problems. Three methods are proposed for TNEP, which are reorganizing the existing power system focused on the buses of interest, selecting candidates using modified system operating state method with healthy, marginal and at-risk states, and finally choosing the optimal alternative using cost-optimization method. TNEP candidates can be selected based on the state reliability such as sufficient and insufficient indices, as proposed in this paper. The process of economic assessment involves the costs of construction, maintenance and operation, congestion, and outage. The case studies are carried out with modified IEEE-24 bus system and Jeju island power system expansion plan in Korea, to verify the proposed methodology.
Space-vector PWM Techniques for a Two-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Considering a Reduction in Switching Losses
Lin, Hai ; Zhao, Fei ; Kwon, Byung-il ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 905~915
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.905
Two PWM techniques using space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) are proposed for a two-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driven by a two-phase eight-switch inverter. A two-phase motor with two symmetric stator windings is usually driven by a two-phase four-, six-, or eight-switch inverter. Compared with a four- and six-switch inverter, a two-phase eight-switch inverter can achieve larger power output. For two-phase motor drives, the SVPWM technique achieves more efficient DC bus voltage utilization and less harmonic distortion of the output voltage. For a two-phase PMSM fed by a two-phase eight-switch inverter under a normal SVPWM scheme, each of the eight PWM trigger signals for the inverter have to be changed twice in a cycle, causing a higher PWM frequency. Based on the normal SVPWM scheme, two effective SVPWM schemes are investigated in order to reduce the PWM frequency by rearranging four comparison values, while achieving the same function as the normal PWM scheme. A detailed explanation of the normal and two proposed SVPWM schemes is illustrated in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed schemes achieve a better steady performance with lower switching losses compared with the normal scheme.
A New Random PWM Technique for Conducted-EMI Mitigation on Cuk Converter
Krishnakumar, C. ; Muhilan, P. ; Sathiskumar, M. ; Sakthivel, M. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 916~924
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.916
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is a system to system or environment to system phenomenon. The literature survey proved that the Randomized Pulse Width Modulation (RPWM) technique is a promising technique to reduce EMI. A new Constant Trailing Edge, Randomized Pulse Width Modulation (CTERPWM) technique is proposed in this paper. The effect of the proposed RPWM technique for mitigation of conducted-EMI on Cuk converter operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) is simulated and tested. In this paper, the analytical expressions for the Power Spectral Density (PSD) are derived for the proposed RPWM technique and are validated by experimental measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed RPWM technique on the mitigation of conducted-EMI is verified comparing simulation and experimental results and it is identified that both the results are almost similar with allowable experimental deviations. The comparative investigation proves that the proposed RPWM technique can mitigate and spread the dominant peaks of conducted-EMI over the complete spectrum for the Cuk converter. Based on the investigation the CTERPWM technique is recommended for adoption.
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model-Based Approach to Robust Control of Boost DC-DC Converters
Seo, Sang-Wha ; Choi, Han Ho ; Kim, Yong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 925~934
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.925
This paper considers the robust controller design problem for a boost DC-DC converter. Based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model-based approach, a fuzzy controller as well as a fuzzy load conductance observer are designed. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the controller and the observer are derived using Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). LMI parameterizations of the gain matrices are obtained. Additionally, LMI conditions for the existence of the fuzzy controller and the fuzzy load observer guaranteeing α-stability, quadratic performance are derived. The exponential stability of the augmented fuzzy observer-controller system is shown. It is also shown that the fuzzy load observer and the fuzzy controller can be designed independently. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via experimental and simulation results under various conditions.
Optimal Design of Permanent Magnetic Actuator for Permanent Magnet Reduction and Dynamic Characteristic Improvement using Response Surface Methodology
Ahn, Hyun-Mo ; Chung, Tae-Kyung ; Oh, Yeon-Ho ; Song, Ki-Dong ; Kim, Young-Il ; Kho, Heung-Ryeol ; Choi, Myeong-Seob ; Hahn, Sung-Chin ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 935~943
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.935
Permanent magnetic actuators (P.M.A.s) are widely used to drive medium-voltage-class vacuum circuit breakers (V.C.B.s). In this paper, a method for design optimization of a P.M.A. for V.C.B.s is discussed. An optimal design process employing the response surface method (R.S.M.) is proposed. In order to calculate electromagnetic and mechanical dynamic characteristics, an initial P.M.A. model is subjected to numerical analysis using finite element analysis (F.E.A.), which is validated by comparing the calculated dynamic characteristics of the initial P.M.A. model with no-load test results. Using tables of mixed orthogonal arrays and the R.S.M., the initial P.M.A. model is optimized to minimize the weight of the permanent magnet (P.M.) and to improve the dynamic characteristics. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of the optimally designed P.M.A. are compared to those of the initially designed P.M.A.
Application of Bacterial Foraging Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm for Selective Voltage Harmonic Elimination in PWM Inverter
Maheswaran, D. ; Rajasekar, N. ; Priya, K. ; Ashok kumar, L. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 944~951
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.944
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques are increasingly employed for PWM inverter fed induction motor drive. Among various popular PWM methods used, Selective Harmonic Elimination PWM (SHEPWM) has been widely accepted for its better harmonic elimination capability. In addition, using SHEPWM, it is also possible to maintain better voltage regulation. Hence, in this paper, an attempt has been made to apply Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) for solving selective harmonic elimination problem. The problem of voltage harmonic elimination together with output voltage regulation is drafted as an optimization task and the solution is sought through proposed method. For performance comparison of BFA, the results obtained are compared with other techniques such as derivative based Newton-Raphson method, and Genetic Algorithm. From the comparison, it can be observed that BFA based approach yields better results. Further, it provides superior convergence, reduced computational burden, and guaranteed global optima. The simulation results are validated through experimental findings.
Air-Barrier Width Prediction of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Considering Fatigue Failure by Centrifugal Force
Kim, Sung-Jin ; Jung, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Jae ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 952~957
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.952
Recently, the interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors for electric vehicle (EV) traction motor are being extensively researched because of its high energy density and high efficiency. The traction motor for EV requires high power and high efficiency at the wide driving region. Therefore, it is essential to fully consider the characteristics of the motor from low speed to high-speed driving regions. Especially, when the motor is driven at high speed, a significant centrifugal force is applied to the rotor. Thus, the rotor must be stably structured and be fully endured at the critical speed. In this paper, aims to examine the characteristics of the IPM motor by adjusting the width of air-barrier according to the permanent magnet position which is critical in designing an IPM motor for EV traction motors and to conduct a centrifugal force analysis for grasping mechanical safety.
Dynamic Analysis of Double Excited 3-DOF Motor Modeling Using Equivalent Magnetic Circuit
Rhyu, Se-Hyun ; Shin, Hye-Ung ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Kwon, Byung-Il ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 958~964
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.958
This paper implements a model of a double excited three-degree-of-freedom motor (3-DOF) coupled with a PI current controller for position control. The rotational trends of the rotor according to the applied steps are identified using a motion equation. The simulation model is a complete electrical and mechanical model of a 3-DOF motor, which mainly consists of mechanical torque equations, a nonlinear equivalent magnetic circuit, and a PI current controller. This machine is tested using the manufactured control board using the same conditions as in the simulation, where the experimental results also verify the accuracy of the simulation results.
Optimal Design of Multi-DOF Deflection Type PM Motor by Response Surface Methodology
Li, Zheng ; Zhang, Lu ; Lun, Qingqing ; Jin, Hongbo ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 965~970
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.965
This paper uses response surface methodology as the optimization method of torque of multi-DOF deflection type PM motor. Firstly, the application of Taguchi algorithm selects structural parameters affecting the motor torque largely which simplifies the optimization process greatly. Then, based on the central composite design (CCD), response surface equation numerical model is constructed by the finite element method. With the aid of experiment design and analysis software, the effects of the interaction among factors on the index are analyzed. The results show that the analytical method is efficient and reliable and the experimental results can be predicted by response surface functions.
The Power Analysis and Its Control of Two-phase Orthogonal Power Supply for the Continuous Casting
Ma, Fujun ; Luo, An ; Xiong, Qiaopo ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 971~982
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.971
In order to improve the quality of the billet continuous casting, a two-phase orthogonal power supply (TPOPS) for electromagnetic stirrer is researched, which is composed of three-phase PWM rectifier and three-leg inverter. According to the power analysis of system, the ripple of dc-link voltage is analyzed and its analytical expression is derived. In order to improve the performance of electromagnetic stirring, an integrated control method with feedforward control is proposed for PWM rectifier to suppress the fluctuations of dc-link voltage and provide a stable dc source for inverter. According to the simplified equivalent model, a composite current control method is proposed for inverter. This proposed method can combine the merits of feedforward control with feedback control to effectively improve the dynamic output performance of TPOPS. Finally, a 300kVA prototype of TPOPS is developed, and the results have verified the analysis and control method.
Prediction of Change in Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Transformer Winding Due to Axial Deformation using Sweep Frequency Response Analysis
Sathya, M. Arul ; Usa, S. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 983~989
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.983
Power transformer is one of the major and key apparatus in electric power system. Monitoring and diagnosis of transformer fault is necessary for improving the life period of transformer. The failures caused by short circuits are one of the causes of transformer outages. The short circuit currents induce excessive forces in the transformer windings which result in winding deformation affecting the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the winding. In the present work, a transformer producing only the radial flux under short circuit is considered. The corresponding axial displacement profile of the windings is computed using Finite Element Method based transient structural analysis and thus obtained displacements are compared with the experimental result. The change in inter disc capacitance and mutual inductance of the deformed windings due to different short circuit currents are computed using Finite Element Method based field analyses and the corresponding Sweep Frequency Responses are computed using the modified electrical equivalent circuit. From the change in the first resonant frequency, the winding movement can be quantified which will be useful for estimating the mechanical withstand capability of the winding for different short circuit currents in the design stage itself.
Development of Analytical Models for Switched Reluctance Machine and their Validation
Jayapragash, R. ; Chellamuthu, C. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 990~1001
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.990
This paper presents analysis of Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) using Geometry Based Analytical Model (GBAM), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Fourier Series Model (FSM) with curve fitting technique. Further a Transient Analysis (TA) technique is proposed to corroborate the analysis. The main aim of this paper is to give in depth procedure in developing a Geometry Based Analytical Model of Switched Reluctance Machine which is very accurate and simple. The GBAM is developed for the specifications obtained from the manufacturer and magnetizing characteristic of the material used for the construction. Precise values of the parameters like Magneto Motive Force (MMF), flux linkage, inductance and torque are obtained for various rotor positions taking into account the Fringing Effect (FE). The FEA model is developed using MagNet7.1.1 for the same machine geometry used in GBAM and the results are compared with GBAM. Further another analytical model called Fourier Series Model is developed to justify the accuracy of the results obtained by the methods GBAM and FEA model. A prototype of microcontroller based SRM drive system is constructed for validating the analysis and the results are reported.
Design and Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Considering Magnetically Coupled Turbine-Rotor System
Kim, Byung-Ok ; Choi, Bum-Seog ; Kim, Jeong-Man ; Cho, Han-Wook ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1002~1006
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1002
In this paper, design and analysis of permanent magnet synchronous generator for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) considering magnetically coupled turbine-rotor system is discussed. In particular, the rotor dynamics considering bearing span and journal shaft diameter is highlighted. The two topologies of permanent magnet synchronous generator with magnetic coupling are employed for comparison of computed rotor dynamics and generating characteristics. The analysis results show that the critical speed of the turbine-rotor system is higher when the rotor is coupled by magnetically coupling. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the validity of the proposed design and analysis scheme and successful development.
Genetic Algorithm Based Design Optimization of a Six Phase Induction Motor
Fazlipour, Z. ; Kianinezhad, R. ; Razaz, M. ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1007~1014
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1007
An optimally designed six-phase induction motor (6PIM) is compared with an initial design induction motor having the same ratings. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) method is used for optimization and multi objective function is considered. Comparison of the optimum design with the initial design reveals that better performance can be obtained by a simple optimization method. Also in this paper each design of 6PIM, is simulated by MAXWELL_2D. The obtained simulation results are compared in order to find the most suitable solution for the specified application, considering the influence of each design upon the motor performance. Construction a 6PIM based on the information obtained from GA method has been done. Quality parameters of the designed motors, such as: efficiency, power losses and power factor measured and optimal design has been evaluated. Laboratory tests have proven the correctness of optimal design.
Low Cost and High Performance UPQC with Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverters
Trinh, Quoc-Nam ; Lee, Hong-Hee ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1015~1024
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1015
This paper introduces a low cost, high efficiency, high performance three-phase unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) by using four-switch three-phase inverters (FSTPIs) and an extra capacitor in the shunt active power filter (APF) side of the UPQC. In the proposed UPQC, both shunt and series APFs are developed by using FSTPIs so that the number of switching devices is reduced from twelve to eight devices. In addition, by inserting an additional capacitor in series with the shunt APF, the DC-link voltage in the proposed UPQC can also be greatly reduced. As a result, the system cost and power loss of the proposed UPQC is significantly minimized thanks to the use of a smaller number of power switches with a lower rating voltage without degrading the compensation performance of the UPQC. Design of passive components for the proposed UPQC to achieve a good performance is presented in detail. In addition, comparisons on power loss, overall system efficiency, compensation performance between the proposed UPQC and the traditional one are also determined in this paper. Simulation and experimental studies are performed to verify the validity of the proposed topology.
Improved Method for Calculating Magnetic Field of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Machines Accounting for Slots and Eccentric Magnet Pole
Zhou, Yu ; Li, Huaishu ; Wang, Wei ; Cao, Qing ; Zhou, Shi ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1025~1034
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1025
This paper presented an improved analytical method for calculating the open-circuit magnetic field in the surface-mounted permanent magnet machines accounting for slots and eccentric magnet pole. Magnetic field produced by radial and parallel permanent magnet is equivalent to that produced by surface current according to equivalent surface-current method of permanent magnet. The model is divided into two types of subdomains. The field solution of each subdomain is obtained by applying the interface and boundary conditions. The magnet field produced by equivalent surface current is superposed according to superposition principle of vector potential. The investigation shows harmonic contents of radial flux density can be reduced a lot by changing eccentric distance of eccentric magnet poles compared with conventional surface-mounted permanent-magnet machines with concentric magnet poles. The FE(finite element) results confirm the validity of the analytical results with the proposed model.
Nonlinear Observer-based Control of Synchronous Machine Drive System
Sundrica, Marijo ; Erceg, Igor ; Maljkovic, Zlatko ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1035~1047
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1035
Starting from a new dynamic system description novel synchronous machine deterministic observers are proposed. Reduced and full order adaptive observer variations are presented. Based on the feedback linearization control law and the use of deterministic observer a novel control system is built. It meets the requirements of high performance tracking system. Adaptivity to stator and rotor resistance and the torque sensorless application is included. The comparison of the proposed novel control with conventional linear and nonlinear control systems is discussed. The given simulational study includes complete drive system integration.
Parallel Sensorless Speed Control using Flux-axis Current for Dual SPMSMs Fed by a Single Inverter
Kim, Chang-Bum ; Yun, Chul ; Yoon, Byung-Keun ; Cho, Nae-Soo ; Kwon, Woo-Hyen ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1048~1057
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1048
This paper proposes a sensorless speed control algorithm for parallel-connected dual Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (SPMSMs) fed by a single inverter. For stable parallel operation of synchronous motors with a single inverter, each motor has to be constantly kept in the synchronization state regardless of load torque. If the master motor with the larger load is controlled, the synchronous state will be maintained. Therefore, detection of the master motor is essential. Conventionally, the master motor is determined by comparing the rotor position error from the relation between the back-EMF for torque angle and the flux position; consequently, the position sensor is deemed essential for finding the rotor position. The parallel sensorless speed control method proposed in this paper uses no position sensor, instead it compares the flux-axis current from the connection between the back-EMF for torque angle and current in unbalanced load conditions. The results of simulation and experiment conducted verify the efficacy of the proposed method.
Current Dynamically Predicting Control of PMSM Targeting the Current Vectors
Sun, Hexu ; Jing, Kai ; Dong, Yan ; Zheng, Yi ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1058~1065
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1058
This paper present a current predicting control method for PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor) to improve the tracking performance of stator current, which regards the current vector as the control target. Solving the model state equation in the static frame (α-β frame), the dynamic change of current vector will be gained as three independent terms. These change terms, which contain the prediction of current vector, are discretized and simplified by Taylor series expansion and used to get the voltage vector as the predictive control quantity. SVPWM will transform the control voltage to the switching signal of inverter, which is newly deduced for the current vector. Simulation and experiment results are given to testy and verify the performance of this method.
Partial O-state Clamping PWM Method for Three-Level NPC Inverter with a SiC Clamp Diode
Ku, Nam-Joon ; Kim, Rae-Young ; Hyun, Dong-Seok ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1066~1074
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1066
This paper presents the reverse recovery characteristic according to the change of switching states when Si diode and SiC diode are used as clamp diode and proposes a method to minimize the switching loss containing the reverse recovery loss in the neutral-point-clamped inverter at low modulation index. The previous papers introduce many multiple circuits replacing Si diode with SiC diode to reduce the switching loss. In the neutral-point-clamped inverter, the switching loss can be also reduced by replacing device in the clamp diode. However, the switching loss in IGBT is large and the reduced switching loss cannot be still neglected. It is expected that the reverse recovery effect can be infrequent and the switching loss can be considerably reduced by the proposed method. Therefore, it is also possible to operate the inverter at the higher frequency with the better system efficiency and reduce the volume, weight and cost of filters and heatsink. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical analysis and experiment results.
Proposal of Potted Inductor with Enhanced Thermal Transfer for High Power Boost Converter in HEVs
You, Bong-Gi ; Ko, Jeong-Min ; Kim, Jun-Hyung ; Lee, Byoung-Kuk ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1075~1080
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1075
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain has more than one energy source including a high-voltage electric battery. However, for a high voltage electric battery, the average current is relatively low for a given power level. Introduced to increase the voltage of a HEV battery, a compact, high-efficiency boost converter, sometimes called a step-up converter, is a dc-dc converter with an output voltage greater than its input voltage. The inductor occupies more than 30% of the total converter volume making it difficult to get high power density. The inductor should have the characteristics of good thermal stability, low weight, low losses and low EMI. In this paper, Mega Flux
was selected as the core material among potential core candidates. Different structured inductors with Mega Flux
were fabricated to compare the performance between the conventional air cooled and proposed potting structure. The proposed inductor has reduced the weight by 75% from 8.8kg to 2.18kg and the power density was increased from 15.6W/cc to 56.4W/cc compared with conventional inductor. To optimize the performance of proposed inductor, the potting materials with various thermal conductivities were investigated. Silicone with alumina was chosen as potting materials due to the high thermo-stable properties. The proposed inductors used potting material with thermal conductivities of 0.7W/m·K, 1.0W/m·K and 1.6W/m·K to analyze the thermal performance. Simulations of the proposed inductor were fulfilled in terms of magnetic flux saturation, leakage flux and temperature rise. The temperature rise and power efficiency were measured with the 40kW boost converter. Experimental results show that the proposed inductor reached the temperature saturation of 107℃ in 20 minutes. On the other hand, the temperature of conventional inductor rose by 138℃ without saturation. And the effect of thermal conductivity was verified as the highest thermal conductivity of potting materials leads to the lowest temperature saturations.
A Pair Dipole Antenna with Double Tapered Microstrip Balun for Wireless Communications
Lee, Hyeonjin ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1081~1085
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1081
In this paper a printed pair dipole antenna with double tapered microstrip balun for wireless communications is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of a pair arm of different sizes that is branched microstrip line and microstrip line with the ground plane on opposite side of the dielectric substrate plane. The proposed antenna is matched between the ground plane to the microstrip line by double tapered microstrip balun. This antenna obtains multi-band radiation frequency band. The impedance bandwidths for a reflection coefficient of VSWR ≤ 2 are about 1.01 GHz (2.35~3.336 GHz), 1.56 GHz (4.7~6.26 GHz) and 1.15GHz (6.85~8.0[GHz]). Additionally, the measurement peak gain is about 3.6 dBi. The proposed antenna is able to support wireless communication applications.
Analysis of Off-Line and On-Line Partial Discharge in High Voltage Motor Stator Windings
Kim, Hee-Dong ; Kong, Tae-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Kil ; Kim, Beom-Soo ; Kim, Doo-Young ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1086~1092
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1086
The off-line and on-line partial discharge (PD) in the stator winding of three high-voltage (HV) motors (1,400 HP, 6.6 kV) is measured and analyzed in this paper. The off-line PD is measured at high values between 24,300 ~ 36,100 pC after 18 years of motor operation. Spare replacement motors were not available for testing the degree of deterioration of the stator windings in standstill status. Therefore, on-line periodic analysis was conducted to monitor the trend of PD after installing a ceramic sensor (110 pF, 6.6 kV) in the terminal box for each phase of each motor. In the stator winding of the No.1 and No.2 HV motors, which showed high magnitudes of off-line PD and low magnitudes of on-line PD, defects are expected to appear in the neutral end of the winding. On the contrary, in the stator windings of the No.3 HV motor, which exhibits high off-line and on-line PD magnitude, defects are expected to appear in the terminal end of the winding where a voltage close to the phase voltage is applied.
Partial Discharge Localization Based on Detailed Models of Transformer and Wavelet Transform Techniques
Hassan Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad ; Rezaei Baravati, Peyman ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1093~1101
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1093
Partial Discharge (PD) is a physical phenomenon, which causes defects and damages to the insulation. This phenomenon is regarded as the most important source of fault and defect in power transformers. Therefore, methods of high speed and precision are considered of special importance for the maintenance of transformers in localization of the origin of partial discharge. In this paper, the transformer winding is first modeled in a transient state by using RLC ladder network and multiconductor transmission line (MTL) models. The parameters of the two models were calculated by Ansoft Maxwell software, and the simulations were performed by Matlab software. Then, the PD pulses were applied to the models with different widths of pulses. With regard to the fact that the signals received after the application of PD had a variable frequency nature over time, and based on the wavelet transform and signal energy, a new method was presented for the localization of PD. Ultimately; the mentioned method was implemented on a 20 kV winding distribution transformer. Then, the performances of the models used in this paper, including RLC and MTL models, were compared in different frequency bands for the correct distinction of partial discharge location.
The Surface Modification of Electrode with Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Hybrid Supercapacitor
Choi, Min-Geun ; Kang, Soo-Bin ; Yoon, Jung Rag ; Lee, Byung Gwan ; Jeong, Dae-Yong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1102~1106
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1102
A hybrid supercapacitor (HS) is an energy storage device used to enhance the low weight energy density (Wh/kg) of a supercapacitor. On the other hand, a sudden decrease in capacity has been pointed out as a reliability problem after many charge/discharge cycles. The reliability problem of a HS affects the early aging process. In this study, the capacity performance of a HS was observed after charge/discharge. For detailed analysis of the initial charge/discharge cycles, the charge and discharge curve was measured at a low current density. In addition, a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was confirmed after the charge/discharge. A HC composed of a lithium titanate (LTO) anode and active carbon cathode was used. The charge/discharge efficiency of the first cycle was lower than the late cycles and the charge/discharge rate was also lower. This behavior was induced by SEI layer formation, which consumed Li ions in the LTO lattice. The formation of a SEI layer after the charge/discharge cycles was confirmed using a range of analysis techniques.
Study on Influences and Elimination of Test Temperature on PDC Characteristic Spectroscopy of Oil-Paper Insulation System
Liu, Xiao ; Liao, Ruijin ; Lv, Yandong ; Liu, Jiefeng ; Gao, Jun ; Hao, Jian ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1107~1113
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1107
Test temperature is an important factor affecting the measurement results of dielectric response of field power transformers. In order to better apply the polarization and depolarization current (PDC) to the condition monitoring of oil-paper insulation system in power transformers, the influences and elimination method of test temperature on PDC characteristic spectroscopy (PDC-CS) were investigated. Firstly, the experimental winding sample was measured by PDC method at different test temperatures, then the PDC-CS was obtained from the measurement results and its changing rules were discussed, which show that the PDC-CS appears a horizontal mobility with the rise of temperature. Based on the rules, the “time temperature shift technique” was introduced to eliminate the influence of test temperature. It is shown that the PDC-CS at different test temperatures can be converted to the same reference temperature coincident with each other.
The Investigation on Thermal Aging Characteristics of Oil-Paper Insulation in Bushing
Liao, Rui-jin ; Hu, En-de ; Yang, Li-jun ; Xu, Zuo-ming ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1114~1123
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1114
Bushing is the key link to connect outer and inner insulating systems and also the essential electric accessory in electric power system, especially in the high voltage engineering (AC 1000kV, DC 800kV). This paper presented the experimental research of thermal aging characteristic of oil-paper insulation used in bushing. A thermally accelerated aging experiment at 90℃ was performed. The bushing models containing five layers of paper were sealed into the aging vessels and further aged for 250 days. Then several important parameters associated with the aging were observed and evaluated. The results showed that the degree of polymerization (DP) of papers gradually decreased. The DP values of outermost layer and middle layer fit well into the second-order kinematic model and first-order kinematic model, respectively. Less deterioration speed of the inter-layer paper than outer layer was confirmed by the variation of DP. Hydrolysis was considered as the main cause to this phenomenon. In addition, the logarithm of the furfural concentrations in insulation oil was found to have good linear relationship with DP of papers. Interestingly, when the aging time is about 250 days and DP is 419, the aging process reaches an inflection point at which the DP approaches the leveling off degree of polymerization (LODP) value. Both tanδ and acid number of oils increased, while surface and volume resistivity of papers decreased. The obtained results demonstrated that thermal aging and moisture absorbed in papers brought great influence to the degradation of insulating paper, leading to rapid decrease of DP and increase of the tanδ. Thus, the bushing should be avoided from damp and real-time monitoring to the variation of tanδ and DP values of paper is an effective way to evaluate the insulation status of bushing.
Space Charge Behavior of Oil-paper Insulation Thermally Aged under Different Temperatures and Moistures
Zhou, Yuan-Xiang ; Huang, Meng ; Chen, Wei-Jiang ; Jin, Fu-Bao ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1124~1130
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1124
Moisture and high temperature are the most important factors that lead to the ageing of oil-paper insulation, but the research about space charge characteristics of oil-paper insulation does not take the combined effect of ambient temperature, moisture and thermal ageing into account. The pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method was used to investigate the influence of moisture and temperature on space charge characteristics of oil paper at different ageing stages. The results showed that moisture could speed up formation of space charge in oil paper when water concentration was low, but the formation was restrained if the water concentration was high. At the beginning of thermal ageing, heterogeneous charge accumulation had predominance, but it gradually changed to homogeneous charge injection with ageing. It was believed that moisture concentration could speed up ageing and enhance charge accumulation on one hand, and accelerate or slow down the establishment speed of space charge on the other hand, therefore, charge accumulation type changed with ageing. The more seriously the oil-paper insulation was thermally aged, the deeper the trap energy level was, hence more space charge was trapped, which could be speeded up by increasing the ageing temperature, but the effect of ambient temperature did not fit the Arrhenius law.
Electrical Characteristics of Enhancement-Mode n-Channel Vertical GaN MOSFETs and the Effects of Sidewall Slope
Kim, Sung Yoon ; Seo, Jae Hwa ; Yoon, Young Jun ; Kim, Jin Su ; Cho, Seongjae ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Kang, In Man ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1131~1137
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1131
Gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising material for next-generation high-power applications due to its wide bandgap, high breakdown field, high electron mobility, and good thermal conductivity. From a structure point of view, the vertical device is more suitable to high-power applications than planar devices because of its area effectiveness. However, it is challenging to obtain a completely upright vertical structure due to inevitable sidewall slope in anisotropic etching of GaN. In this letter, we design and analyze the enhancement-mode n-channel vertical GaN MOSFET with variation of sidewall gate angle by two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. As the sidewall slope gets closer to right angle, the device performances are improved since a gradual slope provides a leakage current path through the bulk region.
Effects of Fabrication Process Variation on Impedance of Neural Probe Microelectrodes
Cho, Il Hwan ; Shin, Hyogeun ; Lee, Hyunjoo Jenny ; Cho, Il-Joo ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1138~1143
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1138
Effects of fabrication process variations on impedance of microelectrodes integrated on a neural probe were examined through equivalent circuit modeling and SPICE simulation. Process variation and the corresponding range were estimated based on experimental data. The modeling results illustrate that the process variation induced by metal etching process was the dominant factor in impedance variation. We also demonstrate that the effect of process variation is frequency dependent. Another process variation that was examined in this work was the thickness variation induced by deposition process. The modeling results indicate that the effect of thickness variation on impedance is negligible. This work provides a means to predict the variations in impedance values of microelectrodes on neural probe due to different process variations.
Resonant Frequency Estimation of Reradiation Interference at MF from Power Transmission Lines Based on Generalized Resonance Theory
Bo, Tang ; Bin, Chen ; Zhibin, Zhao ; Zheng, Xiao ; Shuang, Wang ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1144~1153
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1144
The resonant mechanism of reradiation interference (RRI) over 1.7MHz from power transmission lines cannot be obtained from IEEE standards, which are based on researches of field intensity. Hence, the resonance is ignored in National Standards of protecting distance between UHV power lines and radio stations in China, which would result in an excessive redundancy of protecting distance. Therefore, based on the generalized resonance theory, we proposed the idea of applying model-based parameter estimation (MBPE) to estimate the generalized resonance frequency of electrically large scattering objects. We also deduced equation expressions of the generalized resonance frequency and its quality factor Q in a lossy open electromagnetic system, i.e. an antenna-transmission line system in this paper. Taking the frequency band studied by IEEE and the frequency band over 1.7 MHz as object, we established three models of the RRI from transmission lines, namely the simplified line model, the tower line model considering cross arms and the line-surface mixed model. With the models, we calculated the scattering field of sampling points with equal intervals using method of moments, and then inferred expressions of Padé rational function. After calculating the zero-pole points of the Padé rational function, we eventually got the estimation of the RRI’s generalized resonant frequency. Our case studies indicate that the proposed estimation method is effective for predicting the generalized resonant frequency of RRI in medium frequency (MF, 0.3~3 MHz) band over 1.7 MHz, which expands the frequency band studied by IEEE.
Semi-lumped Balun Transformer using Coupled LC Resonators
Park, Jongcheol ; Yoon, Minkyu ; Park, Jae Yeong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1154~1161
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1154
This paper presents a semi-lumped balun transformer using conventional PCB process and its design theory and geometry for the maximally flat response and wide bandwidth using magnetically coupled LC resonators. The proposed balun is comprised of two pairs of coupled resonators which share one among three LC resonators. It provides an identical magnitude and phase difference of 180° between two balanced ports with DC isolation and an impedance transformation characteristic. Theoretical design and analysis were performed to optimize the inductance and capacitance values of proposed balun device for obtaining the wide bandwidth and maximally flat response in its pass-band. Three balun transformers with a center frequency of 500 MHz were demonstrated for proving the concept of design proposed. They were fabricated by using lumped chip capacitors and planar inductors embedded into a conventional 4-layered PCB substrate. They exhibited a maximum magnitude difference of 0.8 dB and phase difference within 2.4 degrees.
Effects of Dried Days on Properties of Seawater and Freshwater Flooded CSPE in NPPs
Jeon, Hwang-Hyun ; Lee, Jeong-U ; Jeon, Jun-Soo ; Lee, Seung-Hoon ; Shin, Yong-Deok ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1162~1168
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1162
Accelerated thermal aging of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) was performed for 0 days, 80.82 days, and 161.63 days at 100℃, which is equivalent to 0 y, 40 y, and 80 y of aging, respectively, at 50℃. After freshwater flooding, the volume electrical resistivity of CSPE was highest after 180 days of drying, and its insulating property recovered when dried for more than 300 days. The dielectric constant of the CSPE was not measured after seawater flooding. The dielectric constant of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE was higher after freshwater flooding than that before seawater flooding. The bright, open pores of CSPE were converted into dark, closed pores after seawater flooding, and the dark, closed pores of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE samples were partly converted into bright, open pores after freshwater flooding. The apparent density of CSPE increased slightly whereas its elongation at break (EAB) decreased until 80 y of accelerated thermal aging before seawater flooding. The peak binding energies of oxygen in the non-accelerated and accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40 y and 80 y were shifted by more than 1.0 eV after seawater and freshwater flooding. The CH2 content in the non-accelerated and accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40 y and 80 y after seawater flooding for 5 days was lower than that before seawater flooding whereas atoms such as Cl, O, Pb, Al, Si, Sb, and S that are related to conducting ions such as Na
, and K
were relatively increased.
Microfabrication of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors on an Anodized Aluminum Oxide Template Using Atomic Layer Deposition
Jung, Sunghwan ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1169~1173
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1169
This paper presents vertical carbon nanotube (CNT) field effect transistors (FETs). For the first time, the author successfully fabricated vertical CNT-based FETs on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template by using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Single walled CNTs were vertically grown and aligned with the vertical pores of an AAO template. By using ALD, a gate oxide material (Al
) and a gate metal (Au) were centrally located inside each pore, allowing the vertical CNTs grown in the pores to be individually gated. Characterizations of the gated/vertical CNTs were carried and the successful gate integration with the CNTs was confirmed.
Trichel Pulse in Negative DC Corona discharge and Its Electromagnetic Radiations
Zhang, Yu ; Liu, Li-Juan ; Miao, Jin-Song ; Peng, Zu-Lin ; Ouyang, Ji-Ting ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1174~1180
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1174
We investigate in this paper the radiated electromagnetic waves together with the discharge characteristics of Trichel pulse of negative DC corona discharge in air in pin-to-plate and wire-to-plate configurations. The feature of the current pulse and the frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiations were measured under various pressures and gas gaps. The results show that the repetition frequency and the amplitude of Trichel pulse current depend on the discharge conditions, but the rising time of the pulse relates only to the radius of needle or wire and keeps constant even if the other conditions (including the discharge current, the gas gap and the gas pressure) change. There exists the characterized spectrum of electromagnetic waves from negative corona discharge in Trichel pulse regime. These characterized radiations do not change their frequency at a given cathode geometry even if the averaged current, the gas gap or the air pressure changes, but the amplitude of radiations changes accordingly. The characterized electromagnetic radiations from Trichel pulse corona relate to the formation or the rising edge of current pulse. It confirms that the characterized radiations from Trichel pulse supply information of discharge system and provide a potential method for detecting charged targets.
Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristic of Dry-Air/Silicone Rubber Hybrid Insulation in Rod-Plane Electrode
Kwon, Jung-Hun ; Seo, Cheong-Won ; Kim, Yu-Min ; Lim, Kee-Joe ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1181~1187
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1181
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF
) gas is used widely in electric power equipment such as Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS), Gas Insulation transmission Line (GIL), and Gas Circuit Breaker (GCB). But applications of SF
should be restricted because SF6 gas is one of the greenhouse effect gases. To reduce use of SF
gas, a study on eco-friendly alternative insulation medium is needed. In this paper, we investigated lightning impulse (LI) breakdown of dry-air which is attracting attention as an ecofriendly alternative gas and the LI breakdown of hybrid insulation combined with dry-air and solid insulation (Room-Temperature Vulcanizing Silicone Rubber-RTV SIR) and dry-air in inhomogeneous fields according to gap distance and pressure. The experiment results showed that the LI breakdown strength of hybrid insulation system was higher than that of dry-air insulation system. It was verified that the development of technology related to eco-friendly power apparatus compact such GIS, GCB and GIL can be used as basic research data.
A New Unified Scheme Computing the Quadrature Weights, Integration and Differentiation Matrix for the Spectral Method
Kim, Chang-Joo ; Park, Joon-Goo ; Sung, Sangkyung ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1188~1200
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1188
A unified numerical method for computing the quadrature weights, integration matrix, and differentiation matrix is newly developed in this study. For this purpose, a spline-like interpolation using piecewise continuous polynomials is converted into a global spline interpolation formula, with which the quadrature formulas can be derived from integration and differentiation of the transformed function in an exact manner. To prove the usefulness of the suggested approach, both the Lagrange and tension spline interpolations are represented in exactly the same form as global spline interpolation. The applicability of the proposed method on arbitrary nodes is illustrated using two different sets of nodes. A series of validations using three test functions is conducted to show the flexibility in selecting computational nodes with the present method.
Non-Linear Error Identifier Algorithm for Configuring Mobile Sensor Robot
Rajaram., P ; Prakasam., P ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1201~1211
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1201
WSN acts as an effective tool for tracking the large scale environments. In such environment, the battery life of the sensor networks is limited due to collection of the data, usage of sensing, computation and communication. To resolve this, a mobile robot is presented to identify the data present in the partitioned sensor networks and passed onto the sink. In novel data collection algorithm, the performance of the data collecting operation is reduced because mobile robot can be used only within the limited range. To enhance the data collection in a changing environment, Non Linear Error Identifier (NLEI) algorithm has been developed and presented in this paper to configure the robot by means of error models which are non-linear. Experimental evaluation has been conducted to estimate the performance of the proposed NLEI and it has been observed that the proposed NLEI algorithm increases the error correction rate upto 42% and efficiency upto 60%.
Kalman Randomized Joint UKF Algorithm for Dual Estimation of States and Parameters in a Nonlinear System
Safarinejadian, Behrouz ; Vafamand, Navid ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1212~1220
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1212
This article presents a new nonlinear joint (state and parameter) estimation algorithm based on fusion of Kalman filter and randomized unscented Kalman filter (UKF), called Kalman randomized joint UKF (KR-JUKF). It is assumed that the measurement equation is linear. The KRJUKF is suitable for time varying and severe nonlinear dynamics and does not have any systematic error. Finally, joint-EKF, dual-EKF, joint-UKF and KR-JUKF are applied to a CSTR with cooling jacket, in which production of propylene glycol happens and performance of KR-JUKF is evaluated.
Development of a Multiple SMPS System Controlling Variable Load Based on Wireless Network
Ko, Junho ; Park, Chul-Won ; Kim, Yoon Sang ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1221~1226
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1221
This paper proposes a multiple switch mode power supply (SMPS) system based on the wireless network which controls variable load. The system enables power supply of up to 600W using 200W SMPS as a unit module and provides a controlling function of output power based on variable load and a monitoring function based on wireless network. The controlling function for output power measures the variation of output power and facilitates efficient power supply by controlling output power based on the measured variation value. The monitoring function guarantees a stable power supply by observing the multiple SMPS system in real time via wireless network. The performance of the proposed system was examined by various experiments. In addition, it was verified through standardized test of Korea Testing Certification. The results were given and discussed.
Cascade Selective Window for Fast and Accurate Object Detection
Zhang, Shu ; Cai, Yong ; Xie, Mei ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1227~1232
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1227
Several works help make sliding window object detection fast, nevertheless, computational demands remain prohibitive for numerous applications. This paper proposes a fast object detection method based on three strategies: cascade classifier, selective window search and fast feature extraction. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the compared methods and achieves both high detection precision and low computation cost. Our approach runs at 17ms per frame on 640×480 images while attaining state-of-the-art accuracy.
Automatic Method for Contrast Enhancement of Natural Color Images
Lal, Shyam ; Narasimhadhan, A. V. ; Kumar, Rahul ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1233~1243
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1233
The contrast enhancement is great challenge in the image processing when images are suffering from poor contrast problem. Therefore, in order to overcome this problem an automatic method is proposed for contrast enhancement of natural color images. The proposed method consist of two stages: in first stage lightness component in YIQ color space is normalized by sigmoid function after the adaptive histogram equalization is applied on Y component and in second stage automatic color contrast enhancement algorithm is applied on output of the first stage. The proposed algorithm is tested on different NASA color images, hyperspectral color images and other types of natural color images. The performance of proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with the other existing contrast enhancement algorithms in terms of colorfulness metric and color enhancement factor. The higher values of colorfulness metric and color enhancement factor imply that the visual quality of the enhanced image is good. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed algorithm provides higher values of colorfulness metric and color enhancement factor as compared to other existing contrast enhancement algorithms. The proposed algorithm also provides better visual enhancement results as compared with the other existing contrast enhancement algorithms.
A Tuning Algorithm for LQ-PID Controllers using the Combined Time - and Frequency-Domain Control Method
Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Lee, Ju ; Lee, Hyung-Woo ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1244~1254
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1244
This paper proposes a new method for tuning a linear quadratic - proportional integral derivative controller for second order systems to simultaneously meet the time and frequency domain design specifications. The suitable loop-shape of the controlled system and the desired step response are considered as specifications in the time and frequency domains, respectively. The weighting factors, Q and R of the LQ controller are determined by the algebraic Riccati equation with respect to the limiting behavior and target function matching. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed LQ-PID tuning method
Robust Discretization of LTI Systems with Polytopic Uncertainties and Aperiodic Sampling
Lee, Dong Hwan ; Park, Jin Bae ; Joo, Young Hoon ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1255~1263
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1255
In the previous work, the authors studied the problem of robust discretization of linear time-invariant systems with polytopic uncertainties, where linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions were developed to find an approximate discrete-time (DT) model of a continuous-time (CT) system with uncertainties in polytopic domain. The system matrices of obtained DT model preserved the polytopic structures of the original CT system. In this paper, we extend the previous approach to solve the problem of robust discretization of polytopic uncertain systems with aperiodic sampling. In contrast with the previous work, the sampling period is assumed to be unknown, time-varying, but contained within a known interval. The solution procedures are presented in terms of unidimensional optimizations subject to LMI constraints which are numerically tractable via LMI solvers. Finally, an example is given to show the validity of the proposed techniques.
Human Action Recognition Bases on Local Action Attributes
Zhang, Jing ; Lin, Hong ; Nie, Weizhi ; Chaisorn, Lekha ; Wong, Yongkang ; Kankanhalli, Mohan S ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1264~1274
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1264
Human action recognition received many interest in the computer vision community. Most of the existing methods focus on either construct robust descriptor from the temporal domain, or computational method to exploit the discriminative power of the descriptor. In this paper we explore the idea of using local action attributes to form an action descriptor, where an action is no longer characterized with the motion changes in the temporal domain but the local semantic description of the action. We propose an novel framework where introduces local action attributes to represent an action for the final human action categorization. The local action attributes are defined for each body part which are independent from the global action. The resulting attribute descriptor is used to jointly model human action to achieve robust performance. In addition, we conduct some study on the impact of using body local and global low-level feature for the aforementioned attributes. Experiments on the KTH dataset and the MV-TJU dataset show that our local action attribute based descriptor improve action recognition performance.
Markov Chain of Active Tracking in a Radar System and Its Application to Quantitative Analysis on Track Formation Range
Ahn, Chang-Soo ; Roh, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Seon-Joo ; Kim, Young-Sik ; Lee, Juseop ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1275~1283
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1275
Markov chains for active tracking which assigns additional track illuminations evenly between search illuminations for a radar system are presented in this article. And some quantitative analyses on track formation range are discussed by using them. Compared with track-while-search (TWS) tracking that uses scan-to-scan correlation at search illuminations for tracking of a target, active tracking has shown the maximum improvement in track formation range of about 27.6%. It is also shown that the number and detection probability of additional track beams have impact on the track formation range. For the consideration of radar resource management at the preliminary radar system design stage, the presented analysis method can be used easily without the need of Monte Carlo simulation.
An Approach for Security Problems in Visual Surveillance Systems by Combining Multiple Sensors and Obstacle Detection
Teng, Zhu ; Liu, Feng ; Zhang, Baopeng ; Kang, Dong-Joong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1284~1292
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1284
As visual surveillance systems become more and more common in human lives, approaches based on these systems to solve security problems in practice are boosted, especially in railway applications. In this paper, we first propose a robust snag detection algorithm and then present a railway security system by using a combination of multiple sensors and the vision based snag detection algorithm. The system aims safety at several repeatedly occurred situations including slope protection, inspection of the falling-object from bridges, and the detection of snags and foreign objects on the rail. Experiments demonstrate that the snag detection is relatively robust and the system could guarantee the security of the railway through these real-time protections and detections.
Introduction of Insulation Coordination for UHV AC Systems
Shim, Eungbo ; Zaima, Eiichi ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1293~1297
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1293
This paper introduces the insulation coordination study results for UHV AC systems which was performed by CIGRE working group. The study results will be discussed within IEC technical committee in order to amend the IEC Insulation Coordination 60071-1 Ed. 8 2010 and 60071-2 Ed. 3, 1996. This paper includes the insulation coordination of transformer, gas insulated switchgear, metal oxide arresters and clearances of transmission towers. This article also illustrates the overvoltage specific to UHV systems such as TOV(temporary overvoltage), switching overvoltage, lightning overvoltage and VFTO(very fast transient overvoltage).
A Diesel Generator Model with Fluctuating Engine Torque Including Magnetic Saturation for Transient Analysis using XTAP
Sakamoto, Orie ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1298~1303
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1298
Diesel engine generators are widely used in the world, especially in remote site power systems as distributed generators. A weak distribution feeder with a small diesel engine may suffer from voltage and power fluctuations due to misfiring of the engine cylinder. In this study, new generator model with example engine torque was developed for the electromagnetic transient analysis program for power systems named XTAP. The configuration and verification results of the developed model are presented in the paper. The model is considered to be useful for analyses of small power systems with those diesel engines.
Compensation for Photovoltaic Generation Fluctuation by Use of Pump System with Consideration for Water Demand
Imanaka, Masaki ; Sasamoto, Hideki ; Baba, Jumpei ; Higa, Naoto ; Shimabuku, Masanori ; Kamizato, Ryota ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1304~1310
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1304
In remote islands, due to expense of existing generation systems, installation of photovoltaic cells (PVs) and wind turbines has a chance of reducing generation costs. However, in island power systems, even short-term power fluctuations change the frequency of grids because of their small inertia constant. In order to compensate power fluctuations, the authors proposed the power consumption control of pumps which send water to tanks. The power control doesn’t affect water users’ convenience as long as tanks hold water. Based on experimental characteristics of a pump system, this paper shows methods to determine reference power consumption of the system with compensation for short-term PV fluctuations while satisfying water demand. One method uses a PI controller and the other method calculates reference power consumption from water flow reference. Simulations with a PV and a pump system are carried out to find optimum parameters and to compare the methods. Results show that both PI control method and water flow calculation method are useful for satisfying the water demand constraint. The water demand constraint has a little impact to suppression of the short-term power fluctuation in this condition.
Versatile Shunt Hybrid Power Filter to Simultaneously Compensate Harmonic Currents and Reactive Power
Trinh, Quoc-Nam ; Lee, Hong-Hee ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1311~1318
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1311
This paper introduces a novel topology and an effective control strategy for a shunt hybrid power filter (SHPF) to simultaneously compensate harmonic currents and reactive power. The proposed SHPF topology is composed of an LC passive filter tuned to the 7
harmonic frequency and a small-rated active filter connected in parallel with the inductor L
of the LC passive filter. Together with the SHPF topology, we also propose a control strategy, which consists of a proportional-integral (PI) controller for DC-link voltage regulation and a PI plus repetitive current controller, in order to compensate both the harmonic current and the reactive power without the need for additional hardware. Thanks to the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the supply current is sufficiently compensated to be sinusoidal and in-phase with the supply voltage, regardless of the distorted and phase lagging of the load current. The effectiveness of the proposed SHPF topology and control strategy is verified by simulated and experimental results.
Remote Monitoring with Hierarchical Network Architectures for Large-Scale Wind Power Farms
Ahmed, Mohamed A. ; Song, Minho ; Pan, Jae-Kyung ; Kim, Young-Chon ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1319~1327
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1319
As wind power farm (WPF) installations continue to grow, monitoring and controlling large-scale WPFs presents new challenges. In this paper, a hierarchical network architecture is proposed in order to provide remote monitoring and control of large-scale WPFs. The network architecture consists of three levels, including the WPF comprised of wind turbines and meteorological towers, local control center (LCC) responsible for remote monitoring and control of wind turbines, and a central control center (CCC) that offers data collection and aggregation of many WPFs. Different scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the WPF communications network with its hierarchical architecture. The communications network within the WPF is regarded as the local area network (LAN) while the communication among the LCCs and the CCC happens through a wide area network (WAN). We develop a communications network model based on an OPNET modeler, and the network performance is evaluated with respect to the link bandwidth and the end-to-end delay measured for various applications. As a result, this work contributes to the design of communications networks for large-scale WPFs.
Voltage Measurement Accuracy Assessment System for Distribution Equipment of Smart Distribution Network
Cho, Jintae ; Kwon, Seong-chul ; Kim, Jae-Han ; Won, Jong-Nam ; Cho, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Juyong ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1328~1334
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1328
A new system for evaluating the voltage management errors of distribution equipment is presented in this paper. The main concept of the new system is to use real distribution live-line voltage to evaluate and correct the voltage measurement data from distribution equipment. This new approach is suitable for a new Distribution Management System (DMS) which has been developed for a distribution power system due to the connection of distributed generation growth. The data from distribution equipment that is installed at distribution lines must be accurate for the performance of the DMS. The proposed system is expected to provide a solution for voltage measurement accuracy assessment for the reliable and efficient operation of the DMS. An experimental study on actual distribution equipment verifies that this voltage measurement accuracy assessment system can assess and calibrate the voltage measurement data from distribution equipment installed at the distribution line.
Decentralized Vehicle-to-Grid Design for Frequency Regulation within Price-based Operation
Kim, Seung Wan ; Jin, Young Gyu ; Song, Yong Hyun ; Yoon, Yong Tae ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1335~1341
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1335
The utilization of electric vehicles has been suggested to support the frequency regulation of power system. Assuming that an intermediate aggregator exists, this study suggests a decentralized vehicle-to-grid operation scheme in which each vehicle-to-grid aggregator can behave independently of the power system operator. To implement this type of decentralized operation, this study adopts a price-based operation that has been proposed by many researches as an alternative operation scheme for the power system. In this environment, each vehicle-to-grid aggregator can determine its participation in vehicle-to-grid service in consideration of its residual energy of aggregated system and real-time market price. Consequently, the main purpose of this study is to verify whether or not the vehicle-to-grid power can effectively support the current frequency regulation function within the price-based operation scheme. Specifically, a frequency regulation method is proposed based on the real-time price signal, and a feedback controller for battery management is designed for decentralized vehicle-to-grid operation.
On the Use of Maximum Likelihood and Input Data Similarity to Obtain Prediction Intervals for Forecasts of Photovoltaic Power Generation
Fonseca Junior, Joao Gari da Silva ; Oozeki, Takashi ; Ohtake, Hideaki ; Takashima, Takumi ; Kazuhiko, Ogimoto ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1342~1348
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1342
The objective of this study is to propose a method to calculate prediction intervals for one-day-ahead hourly forecasts of photovoltaic power generation and to evaluate its performance. One year of data of two systems, representing contrasting examples of forecast’ accuracy, were used. The method is based on the maximum likelihood estimation, the similarity between the input data of future and past forecasts of photovoltaic power, and on an assumption about the distribution of the error of the forecasts. Two assumptions for the forecast error distribution were evaluated, a Laplacian and a Gaussian distribution assumption. The results show that the proposed method models well the photovoltaic power forecast error when the Laplacian distribution is used. For both systems and intervals calculated with 4 confidence levels, the intervals contained the true photovoltaic power generation in the amount near to the expected one.
Analysis of Contact Force in Eddy-current System Using the Virtual Air-Gap Concept
Park, Byung Su ; Kim, Hwi Dae ; Choi, Hong Soon ; Park, Il Han ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1349~1355
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1349
It is difficult to calculate the magnetic force of an object of magnetic material in contact with other objects using the existing methods, such as Maxwell stress tensor method, magnetic charge method, or magnetizing current method. These methods are applicable for force computation only when the object is surrounded by air. The virtual air-gap concept has been proposed for calculating the contact force. However, its application is limited to magneto-static system. In this paper, we present the virtual air-gap concept for contact surface force in the eddy-current system. Its validity and usefulness are shown by comparison between numerical and experimental examples.
A Study on the Evaluation Algorithm for Performance Improvement in PV Modules
Kim, Byung-ki ; Choi, Sung-sik ; Wang, Jong-yong ; Oh, Seung-Taek ; Rho, Dae-seok ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1356~1362
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1356
The location of PV systems in distribution system has been increased as one of countermeasure for global environmental issues. As the operation efficiency of PV systems is getting decreased year by year due to the aging phenomenon and maintenance problems, the optimal algorithm for state diagnosis in PV systems is required in order to improve operation performance in PV systems. The existing output prediction algorithms considering various parameters and conditions of PV modules could have complicated calculation process and then their results may have a possibility of significant prediction error. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an optimal prediction algorithm of PV system by using least square methods of linear regression analysis. And also, this paper presents a performance evaluation algorithm in PV modules based on the proposed optimal prediction algorithm of PV system. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is a practical tool of the state diagnosis for performance improvement in PV systems.
Dynamic Droop-based Inertial Control of a Wind Power Plant
Hwang, Min ; Chun, Yeong-Han ; Park, Jung-Wook ; Kang, Yong Cheol ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1363~1369
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1363
The frequency of a power system should be maintained within the allowed limits for stable operation. When a disturbance such as generator tripping occurs in a power system, the frequency is recovered to the nominal value through the inertial, primary, and secondary responses of the operating synchronous generators (SGs). However, for a power system with high wind penetration, the system inertia will decrease significantly because wind generators (WGs) are operating decoupled from the power system. This paper proposes a dynamic droop-based inertial control for a WG. The proposed inertial control determines the dynamic droop depending on the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF). At the initial period of a disturbance, where the ROCOF is large, the droop is set to be small to release a large amount of the kinetic energy (KE) and thus the frequency nadir can be increased significantly. However, as times goes on, the ROCOF will decrease and thus the droop is set to be large to prevent over-deceleration of the rotor speed of a WG. The performance of the proposed inertial control was investigated in a model system, which includes a 200 MW wind power plant (WPP) and five SGs using an EMTP-RV simulator. The test results indicate that the proposed scheme improves the frequency nadir significantly by releasing a large amount of the KE during the initial period of a disturbance.
A Study on a Catenary Impedance Estimation Technique using Boosting Current Compensation Based on Current Division Characteristics of an AT Feeding System
Jung, Hosung ; Kim, Hyungchul ; Chang, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Joorak ; Min, Myung-Hwan ; An, Tae-Pung ; Kwon, Sung-Il ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1370~1376
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1370
Generally, an autotransformer(AT) feeding system consists of double tracks, up and down, with the trolley wire and feeder wire of the up and down tracks connected in the sectioning post(SP). Consequently, load current or fault current flows on two tracks based on catenary impedance characteristics, making it difficult to estimate catenary impedance accurately. This paper presents a technique for the estimation of catenary impedance using boosting current compensation based on the current division characteristics of an AT feeding system to improve the operation performance of impedance relay. To verify the technique, we model an AT feeding system through a power analysis program (PSCAD/EMTDC) and simulate various operation and fault conditions. Through the simulation, we confirmed that the proposed technique has estimated catenary impedance with a similar degree of accuracy to the actual catenary impedance
Primary Restoration Path Selection Considering Ferranti Effect and Reactive Power Capability of Black-start Generators
Park, Ji-Man ; Lee, Heung-Jae ; Yu, Won-Kun ; Jang, Byung-Tae ; Lee, Kyeong-Seob ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1377~1382
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1377
Power system restoration following a massive blackout starts with re-energizing Primary Restorative Transmission (PRT) systems at first. As power systems have been gradually enlarged and become more complex, periodical evaluation and reassignment of PRTs are needed. So far it has been decided by try and error approach by corresponding human experts to analyze and evaluate them. This paper presents an intelligent system that finds optimal primary restoration paths using analytic and heuristic knowledge from PSS/E data, and suggests an optimal PRTs depending on the condition of Ferranti effect or a reactive power capability margin of black-start generator. This system was tested in Korea Electric Power system, and showed a promising result.
Optimized Digital Proportional Integral Derivative Controller for Heating and Cooling Injection Molding System
Jeong, Byeong-Ho ; Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Lee, Kang-Yeon ;
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1383~1388
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.1383
Proportional integral derivative (PID) control is one of the conventional control strategies. Industrial PID control has many options, tools, and parameters for dealing with the wide spectrum of difficulties and opportunities in manufacturing plants. It has a simple control structure that is easy to understand and relatively easy to tune. Injection mold is warming up to the idea of cycling the tool surface temperature during the molding cycle rather than keeping it constant. This “heating and cooling” process has rapidly gained popularity abroad. However, it has discovered that raising the mold wall temperature above the resin’s glass-transition or crystalline melting temperature during the filling stage is followed by rapid cooling and improved product performance in applications from automotive to packaging to optics. In previous studies, optimization methods were mainly selected on the basis of the subjective experience. Appropriate techniques are necessary to optimize the cooling channels for the injection mold. In this study, a digital signal processor (DSP)-based PID control system is applied to injection molding machines. The main aim of this study is to optimize the control of the proposed structure, including a digital PID control method with a DSP chip in the injection molding machine.