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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
2D Microwave Image Reconstruction of Breast Cancer Detector Using a Simplex Method and Method of Moments
Kim, Ki-Chai ; Cho, Byung-Doo ; Kim, Tae-Hong ; Lee, Jong-Moon ; Jeon, Soon-Ik ; Pack, Jeong-Ki ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 199~205
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.199
This paper presents a tumor detection system for breast cancer that utilizes two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction with microwave tomographic imaging. The breast cancer detection system under development consists of 16 transmit/receive antennas, and the microwave tomography system operates at 900 MHz. To solve a 2D inverse scattering problem, the method of moments (MoM) is employed for forward problem solving, and the simplex method employed as an optimization algorithm. The results of the reconstructed image show that the method accurately shows the position of a breast tumor.
An Implantable Antenna for Wireless Body Area Network Application
Kim, Ui-Sheon ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 206~211
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.206
In this paper, an implantable planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) for an artificial cardiac pacemaker is proposed. The antenna has a simple structure with a low profile and is placed on the top side of the pacemaker. The dimensions of the pacemaker system, including the antenna element, are
mm. When the antenna is embedded in pig tissue, its
value is -10.94 dB at 403 MHz and the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna is 6 MHz (399~406 MHz). The proposed PIFA in tissue has a peak gain of -20.19 dBi and a radiation efficiency of 1.12 % at 403 MHz. When the proposed antenna is placed in a flat phantom, its specific absorption ratio (SAR) value is 0.038 W/kg (1 g tissue). Performances of the proposed PIFA is sufficient to operate at the MICS band (402 ~ 405 MHz).
Soil Moisture Measurement of Bare and Vegetated Surfaces by X-band Radars
Oh, Yi-Sok ; Kwon, Soon-Gu ; Hwang, Ji-Hwan ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 212~218
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.212
The radar backscatter from various earth surfaces is sensitive to the frequency of the incident wave. This study examined the radar sensitivities for surface parameters such as soil moisture content and surface roughness of both bare and vegetated surfaces at X-band. Because L-band frequencies are often used for sensing the surface parameters, the sensitivities of X-band are also compared with those of the L-band. The sensitivities of the X-band radar backscatter were examined with respect to soil moisture content and surface roughness of rough bare soil surfaces. These sensitivities were also examined using the same parameters for vegetated surfaces for various vegetation densities and incidence angles. Use of the X-band radar for soil moisture detection was as effective as L-band radar for bare soil surfaces. For vegetated surfaces, the soil moisture could be detected using an X-band radar at lower incidence angles, where the upper limit of the incidence angles was dependent on vegetation density.
Wireless Power Transmission between Two Metamaterial-Inspired Loops at 300 MHz
Kim, Gun-Young ; Jung, Youn-Kwon ; Lee, Bom-Son ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 219~223
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.219
Based on a provided closed-form wireless power transmission (WPT) efficiency formula, which may be used for any value of load, we have analyzed the WPT efficiencies between two metamaterial-inspired loop antennas in various aspects. Due to the modeling based on low frequency circuit theory, the provided formula at the center resonant frequency has been found to be accurate until when the distance between the two loop antennas increases to 15 cm (about
at 300 MHz). When the two loops get closer, the resonant frequency has been found to split into two in theory, simulations, and measurements. The EM-simulated and measured efficiencies at new resonant frequencies are 60.9 % and 46.3 %, respectively, at d=15 cm. With two extra rings around the loops, the maximum efficiency is enhanced to 93.7 % at d=15 cm. The effect of the additional two rings is about 30 %.
Beam Efficiency of Wireless Power Transmission via Radio Waves from Short Range to Long Range
Shinohara, Naoki ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 224~230
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.224
Wireless power transmission (WPT) is useful technology in near future. There are some kinds of the WPT technologies, WPT via radio waves, resonance coupling, and inductive. Especially the WPT via radio waves is used for multi-purposes from short range to long range application. However, unfortunately it is misunderstood that it is low efficiency and low power. In this paper, I show the theory of beam efficiency between transmitting antennas and receiving antennas and also show some high efficient applications of the WPT via radio waves. Especially, I pick up a wireless power charging system of an electric vehicle and show the experimental results. I show difference between the theory of beam efficiency and the experimental results of short range WPT. I indicate that reasons of poor beam efficiency in the experiment are (1) change of impedance caused by mutual coupling between transmitting antennas and receiving antennas, (2) oblique direction of microwave power to receiving antennas caused by short distance.
Temperature Compensation of Complex Permittivities of Biological Tissues and Organs in Quasi-Millimeter-Wave and Millimeter-Wave Bands
Sakai, Taiji ; Wake, Kanako ; Watanabe, Soichi ; Hashimoto, Osamu ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 231~236
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.231
This study proposes a temperature compensation method of the complex permittivities of biological tissues and organs. The method is based on the temperature dependence of the Debye model of water, which has been thoroughly investigated. This method was applied to measured data at room temperature for whole blood, kidney cortex, bile, liver, and heart muscle. It is shown that our method can compensate for the Cole-Cole model using measured data at 20
, given the Cole-Cole model based on measured data at 35
, with a root-mean-squared deviation of 3~11 % and 2~6 % for the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivities, respectively, among the measured tissues.
Design of Resonator-Coupled Wireless Power Transfer System by Use of BPF Theory
Awai, Ikuo ; Ishida, Tetsuya ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.237
A wireless power transfer system based on magnetically coupled two resonators is analysed using the filter theory. Design equations for each lumped parameter circuit components are derived. As a result, change of coupling coefficient between the resonators and/or change of load resistance are easily responded. Effect of circuit loss to the design theory is also addressed. After designing a power transfer system, a real system is constructed using spiral and loop coils. Dependence of circuit elements on their dimensions is measured in advance and used to cope with the designed element values. Simulated response by use of designed element values and measured result are compared, indicating the validity of the theory.
Microwave and RF Heating for Medical Application under Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Using Magnetic Resonance
Nikawa, Yoshio ; Ishikawa, Akira ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 244~249
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.244
Recent development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment enables interventional radiology (IVR) as diagnosis and treatment under MRI usage. In this paper, a new methodology for magnetic resonance (MR) scanner to apply not only diagnostic equipment but for treatment one is discussed. The temperature measuring procedure under MR is to measure phase shift of
, which is the longitudinal relaxation time of proton, for the position inside a sample material with the application of pulsed RF for heating inside the sample as artificial dielectrics. The result shows the possibility to apply MR as temperature measuring equipment and as a heating equipment for applying such as hyperthermia heating modality.
Detection of Human Vital Signs and Estimation of Direction of Arrival Using Multiple Doppler Radars
An, Yong-Jun ; Jang, Byung-Jun ; Yook, Jong-Gwan ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 250~255
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.250
This paper presents a non-contact measurement method of vital signal by the use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) bio-radar system, configured with two antennas that are separated by a certain distance. The direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for coherent sources was applied to detect vital signals coming from different spatial angles. The proposed MIMO bio-radar system was composed of two identical transceivers sharing single VCO with a PLL. In order to verify the performance of the system, the DOA estimation experiment was completed with respect to the human target at angles varying between
where the bio-radar system was placed at distances (corresponding to 50 cm and 95 cm) in front of a human target. The proposed MIMO bio-radar system can successfully find the direction of a human target.
Industrial Infrastructure Technologies for the Methane Energy-based Society and the Role of Microwaves
Katori, Yoshishige ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 256~262
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.256
This paper discussed the following. 1. After reaching the final phase of an oil-based society, a resource-saving and -recycling "Methane Energy-based Society" will come about because of limited natural resources. 2. Industrial Infrastructure Technologies which support the Methane Energy-based Society will cause a paradigm shift in the area of industrial, transportation and civilian sectors. 3. The Non-communication application technology of microwaves plays an important role as one of the core element technologies which comprise new industrial infrastructure technologies.
Novel MIMO Communication Scheme for Enhanced Indoor Performance in Distributed Antenna Systems
Cho, Bong-Youl ; Kim, Jin-Young ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 263~269
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.263
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) has been considered one of the key enablers of broadband wireless communications. The indoor environment is known to be favorable to ensure both high rank property and high signal-to-interference/noise ratio (SINR) to fully exploit MIMO spatial multiplexing (SM) gain. In this paper, we describe several practical deployment cases where repeater links (or relay links), such as those present with an indoor distributed antenna system (DAS), can act as keyholes to degenerate the rank property of MIMO communications. In this case, we cannot exploit MIMO SM gain in indoor environment. We propose a novel MIMO communication scheme which uses simple converter in the devices in repeater links to resolve the rank degeneration issue and to ensure MIMO SM gain in highly MIMO-favorable indoor environment. MIMO SM is possible over the indoor DAS with single cable line through use of simple converters, which enables practical deployment in real fields.
Double Opportunistic Transmit Cooperative Relaying System with GSC in Rayleigh Fading Channels
Kim, Nam-Soo ; Lee, Ye-Hoon ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 270~275
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.270
In a conventional opportunistic transmit (COT) cooperative relaying system, only the relays that receive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) from the source and that exceed the threshold transmit to the destination. The COT system, however, only considers the SNR of the source-relay (S-R) path regardless that the SNR of the relay-destination (R-D) path is the opportunistic transmission condition. For that reason, it is not guaranteed that all the transmitted signals from relays exceed the threshold at the destination. Therefore we propose a double opportunistic transmit (DOT) cooperative relaying system - when both of the received SNR from a source and from a destination exceed the threshold, the relay transmits to the destination. It is shown that the proposed DOT system reduces power consumption by 6.9, 20.9, 32.4, and 41.4 % for K =3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively under the given condition of
=30 dB, compared to the COT system. We noticed that the performance of the DOT system is superior to that of the COT system for the identical number of active transmit relays under the same condition of the normalized average SNR of
Experimental Verification of Induction Phenomenon on Telecommunication Lines by Applying Its Occurrence Mechanisms Using an Artificial ELF Source Generator
Lee, Sang-Mu ; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung ; Eun, Chang-Soo ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 276~281
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.276
In this paper, an electromagnetic induction on a telecommunication line by the distribution line of a power provision system or a feeder line of an electrified railway system has been verified through experiments. The basic cause of induction occurrence by these practical power provision systems is the returning current through the earth. This principle has been confirmed by the experiments documented in this paper which implemented these mechanisms to incur an induction. Experimental methods were used to produce the returning current through the earth. The experiment to find a relationship between inducing strength and the distance between the two phase lines in a power provision line has also been included to confirm that, when the distance is enlarged, the induction effect increases as the cross-nullification effect of magnetic fluxes decreases. An experiment for the existence of a shielding effect by another conduction length material has been addedas a protection measure against the induction.
Vector Network Analysis Using a One-Path, Frequency-Multiplied Photonic Link
Lee, Dong-Joon ; Kwon, Jae-Yong ; Kang, Jin-Seob ; Whitaker, John F. ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 282~289
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.282
A simplified, practical vector network analyzer (VNA) that uses mature radio-over-fiber technology has been designed and demonstrated. The measurement concept allows the full S-parameters of a microwave device (or antenna) to be obtained while minimizing the detrimental effects of electrical cables, which are replaced with a photonic link. A variety of high-frequency light modulation schemes with frequency sweeping capabilities are presented to realize a one-path (single, forward), frequency-multiplied optical link for VNA applications. Using the photonic one-path link, full two-port S-parameters have been extracted based on five-term error modeling, which has half the error terms compared with the standard duplex configuration. The S-parameters of a microwave filter and antenna measured using frequency-multiplied optical links are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a conventional VNA.
An Interference Analysis Method with Site-Specific Path Loss Model for Wireless Personal Area Network
Moon, Hyun-Wook ; Kwon, Se-Woong ; Lee, Jong-Hyun ; Yoon, Young-Joong ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 290~295
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.290
In this paper, an interference analysis method with a site-specific path loss model for a wireless personal area network (WPAN) is proposed. The site-specific path loss model is based on geometrical optics and geometric probability to consider both site-specific radio propagation characteristics and a closed-form expression to obtain the mean interference from which the uniformly distributed multiple interferers are derived. Therefore, the proposed interference analysis method can achieve more computational simplicity than the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, which uses the ray-tracing (RT) technique. In addition, better accuracy than the conventional interference analysis model that uses stochastic method can also be achieved. To evaluate the proposed method, a signal to the interference-noise ratio with a mean interference concept for uniformly distributed interferers is calculated and compared in two simulation scenarios. As a result, the proposed method produces not only better matched results with the MC simulation using the RT technique than the conventional interference analysis model, but also simpler and faster calculation, which is due to the site-specific path loss model and closed-form expression for interference calculation.
Approximation Equation for Broad Bandwidth Antenna Design Using CMMS
Min, Kyeong-Sik ; Lee, Ji-Chul ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 296~302
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.296
This paper proposes an approximate equation for broad bandwidth conditions in an antenna feeding probe design with a cylindrical magneto material structure (CMMS). The bandwidth calculation has been conducted according to the relation between the distance (
) between the magneto material and feeding probe, and the magneto material thickness (
) for a given
. The bandwidth of a proposed antenna with CMM feeding structure is improved about 182 %, when
, in comparison with the bandwidth of an antenna without CMMS. The maximum error extent between the bandwidth calculated by the approximation equation and by the numerical calculation of the proposed antenna is about
3.2 % for
. The approximation equation proposed in this study can solve the conventional problem of the complex process and the long time required for reiterative calculation, and allow simple and precise design with prediction. The accuracy of an approximated equation is compared with the results calculated by a commercial tool and verified by reasonable agreement between them.
Improving the Isolation of MIMO Antennas Using Split Ring Resonators
Lee, Young-Ki ; Chung, Hae-Il ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.303
This paper proposes a method for improving the isolation characteristic of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas using a split ring resonator (SRR) array structure between the two radiating elements. The fabricated antenna satisfies the 10 dB return loss requirement in the Mobile-WiMAX frequency band from 3.4 GHz to 3.6 GHz. The isolation between the two radiating elements is improved by approximately 20 dB at the center frequency by inserting a SRR array structure. The measured peak gains of the two elements are 2.3 dBi and 2.4 dBi, respectively.
Dual Polarized Array Antenna for S/X Band Active Phased Array Radar Application
Han, Min-Seok ; Kim, Ju-Man ; Park, Dae-Sung ; Kim, Hyoung-Joo ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 309~315
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.309
A dual-band dual-polarized microstrip antenna array for an advanced multi-function radio function concept (AMRFC) radar application operating at S and X-bands is proposed. Two stacked planar arrays with three different thin substrates (RT/Duroid 5880 substrates with
=2.2 and three different thicknesses of 0.253 mm, 0.508 mm and 0.762 mm) are integrated to provide simultaneous operation at S band (3~3.3 GHz) and X band (9~11 GHz). To allow similar scan ranges for both bands, the S-band elements are selected as perforated patches to enable the placement of the X-band elements within them. Square patches are used as the radiating elements for the X-band. Good agreement exists between the simulated and the measured results. The measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR
2) of the prototype array reaches 9.5 % and 25 % for the S- and X-bands, respectively. The measured isolation between the two orthogonal polarizations for both bands is better than 15 dB. The measured cross-polarization level is
dB for the S-band and
dB for the X-band.
Research on Fourth Harmonic Mixer at W Band in the Imaging System
Xiang, Bo ; Dou, Wenbin ; He, Minmin ; Wang, Zongxin ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 316~321
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.316
This paper presents a novel fourth harmonic mixer with new structure. The traditional 3-ports fourth harmonic mixer and the novel fourth harmonic mixer are designed by ADS, HFSS and CST simulator. The mixers have been fabricated and tested. The size of the traditional 3-ports fourth harmonic mixer is
mm, and the best conversion loss is 18.7 dB according to the measurement. Since the traditional 3-port mixer size is too large to be ranked, we design a novel fourth harmonic mixer for imaging system. The width of the mixing module in the novel fourth harmonic mixer is only 3.65 mm, and this size is fully capable to meet the mixer unit space which is not greater than 5 mm. The simulation result shows that the mixer has good performance, and the experiment result shows that the best conversion loss of the novel fourth harmonic mixer is 16.3 dB at RF signal of 91.3 GHz.
Preliminary Simulation on Spaceborne Sparse Array Millimeter Wave Radar for GMTI
Kang, Xueyan ; Zhang, Yunhua ;
Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 322~327
DOI : 10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.4.322
Spaceborne sparse array radar for ground moving targets indication (GMTI) has outstanding advantage over full array radar for constructing ultra-large aperture. Rapid development of millimeter wave (MMW) technology make it possible for realizing MMW GMTI radar, which is much more sensitive to slow moving ground target. The paper presented the system model of a multi-carrier frequency sparse array MMW radar as well as preliminary simulation results, which showed future application of the system is very promising.