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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Hesperidin Inhibits Vascular Formation by Blocking the AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways
Kim, Gi Dae ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.221
Hesperidin has been shown to possess a potential inhibitory effect on vascular formation in endothelial cells. However, the fundamental mechanism for the anti-angiogenic activity of hesperidin is not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether hesperidin has anti-angiogenic effects in mouse embryonic stem cell (mES)-derived endothelial-like cells, and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), and evaluated their mechanism via the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The endothelial cells were treated with several doses of hesperidin (12.5, 25, 50, and
) for 24 h. Cell viability and vascular formation were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and tube formation assay, respectively. Alteration of the AKT/mTOR signaling in vascular formation was analyzed by western blot. In addition, a mouse aortic ring assay was used to determine the effect of hesperidin on vascular formation. There were no differences between the viability of mES-derived endothelial-like cells and HUVECs after hesperidin treatment. However, hesperidin significantly inhibited cell migration and tube formation of HUVECs (P<0.05) and suppressed sprouting of microvessels in the mouse aortic ring assay. Moreover, hesperidin suppressed the expression of AKT and mTOR in HUVECs. Taken together, these findings suggest that hesperidin inhibits vascular formation by blocking the AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.
Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet
Yook, Jin-Seon ; Kim, Kyung-Ah ; Park, Jeong Eun ; Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Cha, Youn-Soo ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 230~237
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.230
This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.
The Effect of L-Ornithine on the Phosphorylation of mTORC1 Downstream Targets in Rat Liver
Kokubo, Takeshi ; Maeda, Shyuichi ; Tazumi, Kyoko ; Nozawa, Hajime ; Miura, Yutaka ; Kirisako, Takayoshi ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 238~245
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.238
A non-protein amino acid, L-ornithine (Orn), has been shown to stimulate the urea cycle and tissue protein synthesis in the liver. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether Orn affects the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which is involved in protein synthesis. Primary cultured cells isolated from Wistar rat liver were incubated in an amino acid-free medium, followed by addition of Orn for 3 h. The cell lysate was subjected to immunoblotting to evaluate the phosphorylation of downstream targets of mTORC1, including p70S6K, S6, and 4EBP1. To assess the involvement of mTORC1 for the effect of Orn, the cells were pretreated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin before the addition of Orn and the cell lysate was subjected to immunoblotting. We next examined whether the effects of Orn were exerted in vivo. Orn was orally administered to 18 h food-deprived rats, the blood and the livers were collected at 1 and 3 h after administration for immunoblotting. Orn treatment for primary cultured cells for 3 h enhanced the phosphorylation of p70S6K, S6, and 4EBP1. In addition, rapamycin blocked the effects of Orn completely (p70S6K and S6) or partially (4EBP1). The oral administration of Orn to the rat also augmented the phosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets notably in S6 at 1 h. Our findings demonstrate that Orn has the potential to induce the phosphorylation of downstream targets of mTORC1 in the rat liver. This may be mediated by the augmentation of mTORC1 activity.
Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice
Lee, Gong-Hyeon ; Harwanto, Dicky ; Park, Sun-Mee ; Choi, Jae-Suk ; Kim, Mi-Ryung ; Hong, Yong-Ki ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 246~252
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.246
The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of
body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [
(P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [
Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.
High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Red Ginseng Attenuates Inflammation in Rats with High-fat Diet Induced Obesity
Jung, Sunyoon ; Lee, Mak-Soon ; Shin, Yoonjin ; Kim, Chong-Tai ; Kim, In-Hwan ; Kim, Yangha ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.253
Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity. This study investigated effect of high hydrostatic pressure extract of red ginseng (HRG) on inflammation in rats with high-fat (HF) diet induced obesity. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (80~110 g) were randomly divided into two groups, and fed a 45% HF diet (HF) and a 45% HF diet containing 1.5% HRG (HF+HRG) for 14 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the serum leptin level was reduced by the HRG supplementation. The mRNA expression of genes related to adipogenesis including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and adipocyte protein 2 was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue (WAT). The mRNA levels of major inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-
, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and interleukin-6 were remarkably down-regulated by the HRG in WAT. These results suggest that HRG might be beneficial in ameliorating the inflammation-associated health complications by suppressing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory gene expression.
Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats
Jung, Yun-Jung ; Choi, Mi-Ja ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 260~265
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.260
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats.
Mitigating Effect of Resveratrol on the Structural Changes of Mice Liver and Kidney Induced by Cadmium; A Stereological Study
Rafati, Ali ; Hoseini, Leila ; Babai, Ali ; Noorafshan, Ali ; Haghbin, Hossein ; Karbalay-Doust, Saied ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 266~275
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.266
Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has harmful effects on the liver and kidney. Resveratrol (RES) is an herbal substance that functions as a protective mediator. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RES on the histology of liver and kidney in Cd-exposed mice. Male mice were divided into 4 groups daily receiving normal saline (1 mL normal saline/d), Cd (1 mg/kg/d), RES (20 mg/kg/d), and Cd plus RES, respectively. After 4 weeks, the liver and kidney components were evaluated using stereological methods. The total volume and number of hepatocytes, and volume of fibrous tissue were respectively increased by 34%, 58%, and a 3-fold in the Cd-exposed mice in comparison to the control animals (P<0.03). On the other hand, the volume of the main vasculature (sinusoids and central veins) was decreased by 36% in the Cd group compared to the control mice (P<0.03). Considering the kidney, the results showed a 3-fold increase in the total glomeruli volume and a 7-fold increase in fibrous tissue in the Cd-treated group compared to the control mice (P<0.03). After Cd treatment, a 32% reduction was observed in the volume and length of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. RES-treatment alone did not induce any structural changes. In comparison to the Cd group, an increase in the normal components of the liver and kidney and a decrease in the formation of the fibrous and degenerated tissues were observed in the Cd+RES-treated mice (P<0.03).
Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice
Yi, Yue ; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju ; Yoon, Sun ; Lee, Seung-Min ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 276~283
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.276
Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjacglucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydrocolloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.
Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality
Lee, Hyun Jung ; Son, Heung Soo ; Park, Chung ; Suh, Hyung Joo ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 284~291
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.284
In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60oC, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained after heating for 8 h at 50oC and pH 7.0. YH showed poor foaming capacity between pH 3.0 to 9.0. The emulsifying activities of YHs were slightly higher at near acidic pH. Increase in heating temperature and time resulted in decreased CHP content. The results indicate that YH is more heat stable after UF. Therefore, the CHP in YH after UF can be used as a food additive with physiological CHP activity and high heat stability.
Quality Characteristics and Quantification of Acetaldehyde and Methanol in Apple Wine Fermentation by Various Pre-Treatments of Mash
Won, Seon Yi ; Seo, Jae Soon ; Kwak, Han Sub ; Lee, Youngseung ; Kim, Misook ; Shim, Hyoung-Seok ; Jeong, Yoonhwa ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 292~297
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.292
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding lactic acid and pectinase, and chaptalization for the quality of apple wine and the production of hazardous compounds (methanol and acetaldehyde). The pH of all of the samples was below 4; therefore, mash seemed to be fermented without any issue. Total acidity was the highest in sample A due to lactic acid addition. Pre-treated groups (samples B, C, and D) showed higher total acidities than that of the control (P<0.05). Pre-treatments might influence the production of organic acids in apple wines. The control and pectinase added sample (sample B) had the lowest alcohol contents. Adding lactic acid produced more alcohol, and chaptalized samples produced more alcohol due to the addition of sugar. Adding pectinase with and without chaptalization was not effective for producing more alcohol. The control sample had significantly higher acetaldehyde content (2.39 mg/L) than the other samples (1.00~2.07 mg/L); therefore, pre-treatments for apple wine fermentation produced a lower amount of acetaldehyde. Among the pre-treated samples, samples C and D showed the lowest acetaldehyde content of 1.00 mg/L and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, a significantly higher amount of methanol was generated for sample A (1.03 mg/L) and sample D (1.22 mg/L) than that of the control (0.82 mg/L) (P<0.05). Adding lactic acid or chaptalization was effective in reducing methanol and acetaldehyde in apple wines.
Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Song, Jia-Le ; Park, Eui-Seong ; Ju, Jaehyun ; Kim, Hee-Young ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 20, issue 4, 2015, Pages 298~302
DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.298
The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-
, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-
, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-
, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.