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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Determination of Vitamin B
(Cyanocobalamin) in Fortified Foods by HPLC
Park, Youn-Ju ; Jang, Jae-Hee ; Park, Hye-Kyung ; Koo, Yong-Eui ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ; Kim, Dai-Byung ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 301~305
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.301
This study was conducted to develop an HPLC method for determining vitamin B
in fortified foods which has typically been determined by microbiological assays according to AOAC and Korean Food Code approved methods. Vitamin B
(cyanocobalamin) was determined by reversed-phase HPLC with a triple column and UV/VIS dectector (550 nm) using the column switching technique after extraction with 5 mM potassium phosphate solution by sonication without a clean-up procedure. The recovery of spiked samples and limit of detection (LOD) by HPLC were 78.6 ∼107.5 % and 2 ppb (
/kg), respectively. The LOD of the microbiological assay (MBA) was much lower than that of HPLC. The concentrations of vitamin B
analyzed in all tested samples (n=12) confirmed compliance with declared label claims. The range of recovery ratio by the HPLC method when compared to the microbiological assay was 76.2 ∼140.0 %. There was not significant difference between the HPLC and MBA methods (p < 0.01) with r=0.9791 and linear regression y=0.9923x-0.04. The HPLC method for determining vitamin B
using the column-switching technique appears to be suitable for determining vitamin B
concentrations above 1
/100 g in fortified foods.ied foods.
Analysis of the Volatile Flavor Compounds Produced during the Growth Stages of the Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes)
Cho, Duk-Bong ; Seo, Hye-Young ; Kim, Kyong-Su ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 306~314
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.306
Volatile flavor components, produced during the young (P-1), immature (P-2), mature (P-3) and old (P-4) growth stages, of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE), using a mixture of n-pentane and diethyl ether (1:1, v/v) as the extraction solvent. Analyses of the concentrates, by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), led to the identification of 129, 129, 111 and 120 components in the P-1, 2, 3 and 4 stages, respectively. The major volatile compounds were l-octen-3-o1, 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 4-octen-3-one. Ethanol and ethyl acetate were also detected in large amounts. The characteristic volatile compounds found in shiitake mushrooms, such as dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and 1, 2, 4-thiolane, were at low concentrations in all samples. The amount of l-octen-3-o1 decreased as growth progressed, but concentrations of 3-octanone increased. The amount of 4-octen-3-ol decreased from P-1 to P-3, but was at a high concentrations in P-4. The concentration of 3-octanol gradually increased and reached its highest concentration in P-3, but decreased in P-4. The C8-compounds comprised 70.91, 64.09, 64.29 and 60.01 % in the P-1, 2, 3 and 4 stages, respectively, so decreased gradually with growth. The S-compounds were found in the highest concentrations in P-3.
Optimization of Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Oxidized Fish Oil
Shin, Eui-Cheol ; Jang, Hae-Jin ; Lee, Hyung-Il ; An, Hae-Jung ; Lee, Yang-Bong ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.315
Headspace volatile compounds of oxidized fish oil were analyzed by the combination of hexane solvent or solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography and mass selective detector. The optimum condition of headspace analysis by hexane trapping was 23 min absorption time, 96
sample temperature and 20 mL/min air flow rate. The numbers of volatile compounds identified by solvent trapping and SPME were 35 and 14, respectively. Groups having the largest amount and many kinds were hydrocarbons and aldehydes, respectively. The numbers of aldehydes were 15 and 6 for solvent trap and SPME, respectively. These basic data could be used as indicators for the quality changes of fish oil.
N-Nitrosamine Concentrations in Fish Distributed in a Domestic Market
Oh, Myung-Cheol ; Oh, Chang-Kyung ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 321~329
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.321
In order to provide data on N-nitrosamine (NA) and sanitation in fish available in domestic markets, this study analyzed the levels of NA and its precursors in 9 samples of sea breams and yellow croakers, 12 samples of red-flesh fish, 38 samples of white fish, 5 samples of Alaska pollacks and cod, and 8 species of imported fish. Sea breams and yellow croakers had nitrite concentrations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 7.4 mg/kg, red fish ND to 5.3 mg/kg, white fish ND to 18.7 mg/kg, Alaska pollacks 0.3 to 2.2 mg/kg, and imported fish from 0.4 to 12.8 mg/kg. Nitrates in sea breams and yellow croakers ranged from 1.2 to 41.19 mg/kg, red fish 0.6 to 26.1 mg/kg, white fish 4.3 to 75.9 mg/kg, Alaska pollacks 0.4 to 3.1 mg/kg, and imported fish ND to 16.0 mg/kg. DMA concentrations were 69.8 to 219.9 mg/l00 g in sea breams and yellow croakers, 4.1 to 336.3 mg/l00 g in red fish, 1.3 to 331.9 mg/l00 g in white fish, 15.7 to 312.3 mg/l00 g in Alaska pollacks, and 1.0 to 71.8 mg/l00 g in imported fish. TMA concentrations in sea breams and yellow croakers, red fish, white fish, Alaska pollacks and imported fish were 43.8∼496.2, 12.3∼127.0, 2.0∼525.9, 15.4∼122.4, and 4∼70.6 mg/l00 g, respectively. For NA in fish distributed in local markets, only N-nitro-sodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected, and its concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 73.7
/kg in sea breams and yellow croakers, 2.2 to 56.5
/kg in red fish, ND to 143
/kg in white fish, 3.8 to 33.3
/kg in Alaska pollacks, and 2.1 to 102.2
/kg in imported fish.
Identification for Flavones in Different Parts of Cirsium japonicum
Kim, Su-Jeong ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 330~335
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.330
Cirsium japonicum is a herbaceous perennial plant grown worldwide, which has been used as a folklore medicine due to its anti-inflammatory properties. A few studies have reported its functional properties, but analytical methods that more confidently and reproductively analyze the flavonoids are required. To establish analytical methods for the detection of flavones in Cirsium japonicum, the potential of HPLC and LC/MS were investigated. For this, the plants were separated into 4 parts; the root, stem, leaves, and flowers. The flavones in each part of the dried materials were analyzed by HPLC. Identification of flavones was performed by LC/MS. The leaves and flowers of Cirsium japonicum gave the optimum peaks, which were not detected by HPLC in the other parts of plants. Using LC/MS, three kinds of flavones were tentatively identified from the leaves, which were thought to be luteolin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihy-droxyflavone), and hispidulin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone). Two flavones were detected from the flowers, which were been assumed to be apigenin and luteolin.
Modified Cultivation Methods Improve Shelf-life and Quality of Soybean Sprouts, Effects of Treatment with Oak Charcoal and Citrus sunki Seed Extract
Oh, Young-Ju ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 336~342
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.336
The effects of cultivation methods (cultivation of curled-shaped type, M-1; conventional cultivation, M-2; growing after treatment with a growth regulator, M-3; cultivation by the combination of M-1 and treatment with oak charcoal, M-4) on the quality characteristics of soybean sprouts were studied by the measurement of growth characteristics. This study also investigated the changes in shelf-life stability of the new soybean sprouts (NSB) using M-4, which was cultivated with oak charcoal and treated with antimicrobial Citrus sunki seed extract. Among the soybean sprouts grown for six days at the high temperature and humidity environment (90
5% RH, 25
), M-1 revealed no significant difference in terms of quality, such as the harvest yield, the rot rate and the growth characteristics when compared with M-2. M-3 showed no significant difference in growth characteristics, of hardness, and sensory evaluation scores when compared with the soybean sprouts grown by conventional methods. NSB had a low number of total microorganisms and had a better appearance after five days of storage than did the control group (M-2). These findings demonstrate that chemical-free and clean soybean sprouts can be grown by combining oak charcoal and antimicrobial Citrus sunki seed extract, thereby meeting the consumer demand for safe, chemical free sprouts.
Effect of γ-Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Zein Films
Lee, Sehee ; Lee, Myoungsuk ; Song, Kyung-Bin ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 343~348
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.343
To elucidate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the physicochemical properties of zein films, the molecular and mechanical properties of the films were examined after irradiation at various irradiation doses. Gamma-irradiation of zein solutions caused the disruption of the ordered structure of the zein molecules, as well as degradation, cross-linking, and aggregation of the polypeptide chains based on an SDS-PAGE study. Gamma-irradiation increased the solubility of zein and decreased the viscosity due to cleavage of the polypeptide chains. Protein solubility of the zein films in urea/2-mercaptoethanol also increased with increasing irradiation doses. Alterations of the zein molecules by irradiation decreased water vapor per-meability by 12% and increased the elongation of zein films. However, mean tensile strength of the zein films was decreased by gamma-irradiation treatment. Measurement of Hunter color values indicated that irradiation caused a destructive effect on yellow pigments, resulting in a significant decrease in Hunter b values. The microstructure as observed by scanning electron microscopy showed that irradiated zein film had a smoother and glossier surface than the non-irradiated films.
Bioactivities of Citrus (Citrus unshiu) Peel Extracts Subjected to Different Extraction Conditions, Storage Temperatures, and Irradiation
Chawla, S. P. ; Jo, C. ; Kang, H. J. ; Kim, M. J. ; Byun, M. W. ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 349~355
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.349
Effects of extraction conditions, gamma-irradiation and storage conditions on bioactivities of Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel extract were investigated. The Hunter color
-values of the extract increased but
-value decreased with an increase in absorbed irradiation dose. DPPH radical scavenging, tyrosinase inhibition and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation but reduced by increased storage time. Nitrite scavenging activity of the extract was the highest at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0 and not changed by storage. Results indicated that there is potential for using citrus peel byproducts as a bioactive ingredient, and that gamma irradiation brightens the color of the extract without adversely altering its biological activity.ity.
Differential Effects of Resveratrol and its Oligomers Isolated from Seeds of Paeonia lactiflora (Peony) on Proliferation of MCF-7 and ROS 17/2.8 Cells
Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Lee, Won-Jung ; Park, Yun-Hee ; Cho, Sung-Hee ; Park, Sang-Won ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 356~364
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.356
A methanol extract from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniaceae, peony) was found to possess different antiproliferative activities against four different human cancer cell lines: Hela, MCF-7, HepG2 and HT-29. Furthermore, five different methanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % MeOH) fractions obtained by fractionation of the methanol extract of the seeds on a Diaion HP-20 column exhibited differential antiproliferative effects against the above four cancer cell lines. Among five fractions, the 60 % MeOH fraction showed relatively lower antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell than the other cancer cell lines. Systematic separation of 60% the MeOH fraction by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns led to the isolation of four known stilbenes, trans-resveratrol (1), trans-(+)-
-viniferin (2), gnetin H (3) and suffruticosol B (4). The four stilbenes (1∼4) exerted differential biphasic effects on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a similar manner as genistein, a soybean isoflavone used as a positive reference, in the concentration range from 1.0 to 200
M. Three stilbenes (1 ∼ 3) weakly stimulated the proliferation of MCF -7 cells at doses below 10 JIM. However, strong antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cell were exerted by extract 1 at a dose of 200 JIM, and by 2 and 3 at doses above 25
M. In contrast, 4 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cell at a dose below 25
M, but stimulated cell proliferation at concentrations of 50 and 100
M. All four stilbenes (1∼4) stimulated the proliferation of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells in the range of 10
M. Compound 1 exhibited especially potent proliferative activity, although its activity was weaker than that of genistein. Additionally, three resveratrol oligomers (2∼4) also exhibited concentration-dependently moderate proliferative activity, but less than that of 1. These results suggest that resveratrol, and its dimer and trimers from the seeds of Paeonia lactiflora may act as a phytoestrogen, but in a somewhat different manner from that of genistein.
Induction of Quinone Reductase and Glutathione S-Transferase in Murine Hepatoma Cells by Flavonoid Glycosides
Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Lee, Jeong-Soon ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Chung, Shin-Kyo ; Kwon, Chong-Suk ; Kim, Young-Kyoon ; Kim, Jong-Sang ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 365~371
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.365
The potential of seven flavonoid glycosides to induce quinone reductase (QR), an anticarcinogenic marker enzyme, in murine hepatoma cells (hepalc1c7) and its mutant cells (BPRc1) was evaluated. Among test compounds, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-c-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q-3-G) induced QR in hepalc1c7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, in BPRc1 cells lacking arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), only Q-3-G caused a significant induction of quinone reductase at the concentration range of 0.5 to 8 ug/mL, suggesting that it is a monofunctional inducer. Q-3-G induced not only phase 2 enzymes, including QR and glutathione-S-transferase, but also nitroblue tetrazolium reduction activity in HL-60 cells, a biochemical marker for cell differentiation promoting agents. In conclusion, Q-3-G merits further study to evaluate its cancer chemopreventive potential.
A Medicinal Herbal Tea Increases Success Rate and Reduces Withdraw Symptoms of Smoking Cessation in Men
Lee, Ho-Jae ; Hur, Sung-Ho ; Hur, Min-Soo ; Lee, Yang-Bong ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 372~376
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.372
The efficacy of a medicinal herb tea (MHT) for assisting smoking cessation and for reducing withdrawal symptoms was evaluated by a placebo controlled subjective test in 100 male smokers. The MHT group experienced less craving for the taste of tobacco, and was more successful at quitting smoking. Among the subjects continuing to the final stage, 23 subjects (38.3 %) who took the MHT and 2 subjects (10.0 %) who took the placebo tea succeeded in quitting smoking. In the group taking MHT, urinary cotinine concentration increased during the first 2 weeks and then greatly decreased from weeks 2 to 4. The urinary cotinine concentration in the MHT group at week 0 was 38.6 mol/L but decreased to 24.5 mol/L by the end of week 4. MHT also reduced withdrawal symptoms, a frequent reason for failure in reducing or quitting smoking. The effects of the herbal tea on smoking cessation and withdrawal symptoms may be attributed to increased metabolism of nicotine and other effects of unidentified components of the herbal ingredients.
Green Tea Maintains Antioxidative Defense Enzyme Activities and Protects Against Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscles After Aerobic Exercise
Chai, Young-Mi ; Rhee, Soon-Jae ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 377~382
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.377
This study investigated the effects of green tea on the muscle antioxidative defense system in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles of rats after aerobic exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150 10 g were randomly assigned to a control group, non-exercise with green tea group (G group), and exercise training group. The exercise training group was then further classified as the training (T) group and training with green tea (TG) group, the latter of which was supplemented with green tea in the drinking water during the experimental period. The rats in the exercise training groups (T and TG) were subjected to aerobic exercise on a treadmill 30 min/day at a speed of 28 m/min (7% incline) 5 days/week, while the other groups (control and G group) were cage confined for 4 weeks. Thereafter, the rats were sacrificed with an injected overdose of pentobarbital just after running. In the white muscle, the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities were 71 % higher in the T group compared to control group, whereas the TG group had the same activity as the control group. The XOD activities in the red gastrocnemius muscle exhibited the same tendency as in the white muscle. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the white muscle was lower in the T group compared with the control group, yet significantly higher in the TG group compared with the T group. The SOD activities in the red gastrocnemius muscle exhibited the same tendency as in the white gastrocnemius muscle. The glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activities in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles were 43 % lower in the T group compared with the control group, yet the activities in the TG group remained at control levels. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the white muscle was not significantly different among any of the three groups, but in the red gastrocnemius muscle, the TG group had the same activity as in the control group. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) contents in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles were higher in the T group than in the control but the control and TG groups had the same concentrations of TBARS. In conclusion, the supplementation of green tea in rats subjected to aerobic exercise was found to reduce the peroxidation of muscle lipids by enhancing the antioxidative defense mechanism.
Effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Seed Extracts and Forsythia viridissima Lindl. Extracts on Antioxidative System and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Rats Fed High-Cholesterol Diet
Lee, Jeong-Min ; Rhee, Soon-Jae ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 383~389
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.383
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidative effects of Paeonia lactiftora Pall. (PL) seed extracts and Forsythia viridissima Lindl. (FVL) extracts on the antioxidative defense system and lipid peroxidation in the erythrocytes of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 10 g were randomly assigned to nine experimental groups and fed 0.5 % cholesterol. The HC group did not receive any supplement, while the MP group was supplemented with 0.1 % methanol extract of PL seed, the MP2 group with 0.2 % methanol extract of PL seed, the EP1 group with 0.05 % ether-soluble fraction of PL seed, the EP2 group with 0.1 % ether-soluble fraction of PL seed, the MS1 group with 0.05 % methanol extract of FVL, the MS2 group with 0.1 % methanol extract of FVL, the ES group with 0.025% ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of FVL, and the ES2 group with 0.05 % ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of FVL. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. The erythrocyte SOD activity in the EP1 and EP2 groups increased 38% and 59%, respectively, when compared with the HC group, while the erythrocyte GSHpx activity in the EP1, EP2, and ES2 groups increased 30%, 31 %, and 29%, respectively, when compared with the HC group. The level of erythrocyte TBARS was significantly lower in the MP2, EP1, and EP2 groups than in the HC group, yet the level of serum TBARS was significantly lower in the all supplemented groups than in the HC group. The level of serum HDL- TBARS was significantly lower in the EP1 and EP2 groups than in the HC group, while the level of serum LDL- TBARS was significantly lower in the all the supplemented groups than in the HC group. Accordingly, the results indicated that the PL seed extracts and FVL extracts reduced oxidative damage by activating the antioxidative defense system in the erythrocytes of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
Gene Expression Profile of Zinc-Deficient, Homocysteine-Treated Endothelial Cells
Kwun, In-Sook ; Beattie, John H. ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 390~394
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.390
In the post-genome period, the technique for identifying gene expression has been progressed to high throughput screening. In the field of molecular nutrition, the use of screening techniques to clarify molecular function of specific nutrients would be very advantageous. In this study, we have evaluated Zn-regulated gene expression in Zn-deficient, homocystein-treated EA.hy926 cells, using cDNA microarray, which can be used to screen the expression of many genes simultaneously. The information obtained can be used for preliminary assessment of molecular and signaling events modulated by Zn under pro-atherogenic conditions. EA.hy926 cells derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in Zn-adequate (control, 15
M Zn) or Zn-deficient (experimental, 0
M Zn) Dulbecco's MEM media under high homocysteine level (100
M) for 3 days of post-confluency. Cells were harvested and RNA was extracted. Total RNA was reverse-transcribed and the synthesized cDNA was labeled with Cy3 or Cy5. Fluorescent labeled cDNA probe was applied to microarray slides for hybridization, and the slide was then scanned using a fluorescence scanner. The expression of seven genes was found to be significantly decreased, and one significantly increased, in response to treatment of EA.hy926 cells with Zn-deficient medium, compared with Zn-supplemented medium. The upregulated genes were oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle-related genes and transporter genes. The down-regulated gene was RelB, a component of the NF-kappaB complex of transcription factors. The results of this study imply the effectiveness of cDNA microarray for expression profiling of a singly nutrient deficiency, namely Zn. Furthur study, using tailored-cDNA array and vascular endothelial cell lines, would be beneficial to clarify the molecular function of Zn in atherosclerosis, more in detail.
Dietary Intake of Korean Adults Is Not Significantly Affected by Sleep Duration
Kim, Young-Ok ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 395~400
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.395
This study investigated the effect of sleep duration on food and nutrient intake among adult Koreans. The effects of sleep duration on dietary patterns was studied in 7,370 Korean adults, aged 20 and older, who participated in the 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey in which the 24 hour recall method was used to estimate dietary intake. Sleep duration data from individual subject were collected by interview as a part of a behavior survey. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test were used to test the differences in food and nutrition intake and sleep duration. Food intakes of the male subjects were not significantly different among three groups. However, there were significant differences observed in intakes of beverage and alcohol among female subjects among the three groups. There were no significant differences observed for nutrient intake by sleep duration for either gender. Unlike the observation from European and American studies, food and nutrient intake of Korean subjects, in general, were not greatly affected by duration of sleep. This result may suggest that dietary habits of Koreans, as affected by sleep, are quite different from those of Europeans & Americans.
Gender Differences in Physical Activity, Dietary Habit and Nutrient Intake of Upper Grade Students in Elementary School
Ro, Hee-Kyung ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 401~405
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.401
This study was conducted to find gender differences in physical activity, dietary habit and nutrient intake in 4∼6th grade students in elementary school. Physical activity assessment showed that males significantly engaged in more vigorous activity with longer duration than females. It was found that females skipped their breakfast more often and had more snack than males. On the other hand, males were more indulged in peaky eating, despite their good practice of drinking milk. Twenty-four hour dietary recall revealed that energy intakes in both males and females were not sufficient. Furthermore, subjects, regardless of gender, consumed marginal intakes of Ca and Fe. Special attention should be given to marginal intakes of Ca in the subjects. Due to low Fe intake in females, more caution should be taken to include a meal which can enhance iron absorption. It might be suggested that effective intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented to choose nutrient dense foods and activities that lead to better health.
Effects of Nutritional Education and Iron Supplementation on Iron Nutrition and Anemia of Middle School Girls
Hong, Soon-Myung ; Hwang, Hye-Jin ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 406~411
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.406
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron supplementation and nutrition education on the iron status and anemia of middle school girls in Ulsan city in Korea. The subjects were already diagnosed as having anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL) or iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 ng/mL and/or transferrin sataturation < 14 %). Over a period of three months, one iron tablet (80 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate/day) was administered to the iron deficient subjects and two tablets (160 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate/day) were administered to the anemia subjects. Total calorie intake of subjects was 82.1 % of RDA. The iron intake of subjects was 91.3 % of RDA and the Ca intake was 78.8 % of RDA. The basal hemoglobin concentration of subjects averaged 12.8 1.2 g/dL, and this increased significantly (p < 0.001) to 13.2 0.9 g/dL after iron supplementation. The basal ferritin concentrations were 14.9 14.2 ng/mL and these significantly increased to 26.6 19.8 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The level of total iron binding protein (TIBC) significantly decreased from the initial 523.1 108.7
/dL to 462.2 90.2
/dL (p < 0.001) after iron supplementation. Anemia symptoms such as‘Being bruised easily’, ‘Inflamed inner mouth’, and ‘Pale face’ improved significantly after iron supplementation in the subjects. There was a negative correlation between their class & year ranking and serum iron level, transferrin saturation after nutritional education and iron supplementation. It was shown, therefore, that the higher the improvement of their anemia level after iron supplementation, the higher their academic performance. It was shown that there was some improvement of their dietary attitudes after nutritional education, and that their serum level related to anemia symptoms and iron nutrition was improved after iron supplementation.
Children′s Preferences for the Dishes Offered by School Lunch Programs
Kim, Hyeon-A ; Kim, Yoo-Kyeong ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 412~418
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.412
To evaluate the school lunch program served by elementary schools in Muan, Korea, we examined children's preference for the dishes offered on the menus. School lunch program menus showing the food composition of 400 meals (100 meals in each season) were collected. The serving frequency of each dish on the menus was counted. Eighty-seven representative dishes were selected based on the serving frequency and preference for each dish was determined by a survey of 414 elementary school students who were served by the school lunch program. We also analyzed the nutrient contents of each representative dish. Among the prepared foods, children indicated the highest preference for desserts. Steamed rice was served more frequently as a main course than one dish meals, although children preferred one dish meals to steamed rice. Among side dishes, those that were deep-fried were the most preferred. Children indicated high preference for fruits, milk, and eggs, and low preference for fish and clams, vegetables, and beans. The serving frequency with which main courses, soups, and side dishes were served showed no correlation with children's preference for each. Preference for dishes correlated positively with nutrient contents of calories and lipids, but negatively with nutrient contents of fiber, calcium and vitamin A. According to these results we can suggest that dietitian should consider children's preference into greater consideration to increase menu acceptability and thereby reduce waste. Children need to be educated about the roles and contents of nutrients in food and the fact that preference for foods affects nutrient intake.
Predicting the Impact of Food Processing on the Physical Properties of Food
Zuo, Li ; Lee, Jun-Ho ;
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 419~424
DOI : 10.3746/jfn.2003.8.4.419
The physical properties of food playa significant role in the modeling and computation of the heat and mass transfers in basic food processing operations. With the advent of improved analytical techniques, statistical experiment design applications, computing ability and knowledge of the food physical properties of food, there have been significant advances in our ability to predict the impact of processing on the physical properties of food. This article briefly reviews our current ability to predict the influence of processing on the physical properties of food, such as water activity, moisture, color, and rheological characteristics.