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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Human Ecology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Home Economics Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jun 2011
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The Impact of Moving Pharmaceutical Products from Prescription Only to Over-the-Counter Status on Consumer Exposure to Advertising
Yang, Hae-Kyung ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.1
Many pharmaceutical products are available through prescription (Rx) only status. As a result, access to physicians and insurance coverage play a key role in the use of these products, and therefore may affect the population to whom advertising is targeted at. The movement of pharmaceutical products from prescription (Rx) to Over-the-Counter (OTC), or Rx-to-OTC switch changes the cost of acquiring the drug and therefore may change the incentives manufacturers have at targeting particular population segments. This study examines whether Rx-to-OTC switch changes the frequency and the distribution of who is exposed to pharmaceutical advertising. Using an archive of pharmaceutical advertisements and National Consumer Survey, this study examines how individuals with particular demographic characteristics are exposed to pharmaceutical advertisements before and after drugs are moved from Rx to OTC. The results provide evidence that individual's advertising exposure increases after Rx-to-OTC switch. Moreover, the increase in advertising exposure is greater for the low socioeconomic status (SES) consumers which implies they may get more information about the disease, treatment and product after the Rx-to-OTC switch through advertising. If low SES consumers have more exposure to the advertising after products switched to OTC, then FDA policies regulating this switch should recognize the potential role of advertising providing access to health-related information.
A Study on Perceived Weight, Eating Habits, and Unhealthy Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adolescents
Yu, Nan-Sook ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 13~24
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.13
This study compared actual weight with perceived weight, described the prevalence of unhealthy weight control behavior, determined the differences in psychological and personal variables between participants that reported unhealthy weight control behavior and those who did not, and examined the relationship of eating habits to unhealthy weight control behavior for Korean adolescents. The study population consisted of a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students who completed the Fifth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS): Fifth in 2009. Among the 75,066 participants of KYRBWS, 35,473 (n = 18,851 girls and 16,622 boys) were eligible for a research focused on unhealthy weight control behavior. The results of this research were as follows: First, there were considerable discrepancies (45.1% of girls and 32.8% of boys) between the perceived weight and the actual weight. Second, overall, unhealthy weight control behavior was more prevalent in girls and fasting was the most commonly reported behavior. Third, participants that reported unhealthy weight control behavior scored significantly lower on scaled measures of happiness, health, academic achievement, and economic status; in addition, they scored higher on stress measures. Fourth, girls and boys shared common protective factors of having breakfast and vegetables more often, perceiving their weight as underweight rather than overweight, and having a correct weight conception. Protective factors unique to girls were having lunch and dinner more often. Girls and boys shared common risk factors of the consumption of soda, fast food, instant noodles, and snacks more often, while consumption of fruit more often was a risk factor only for girls. The improvement of protective factors and minimization of risk factors through Home Economics classes (and other classes relevant to health) may mitigate unhealthy weight control behavior of adolescents.
The Effect of Brand Image Inconsistency on Patronage Intent in U.S. Multi-channel Retailing
Yoo, Jung-Min ; Kim, Min-Jeong ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 25~37
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.25
Website design (due to increased online retailing) has received more attention as a way to influence consumer responses (Eroglu et al., 2001, 2003; Kim et al., 2009; Kim & Lennon, 2008; Yoo et al., 2010); however, the website design of multichannel retailers has not been examined from the perspective of the consistency of online store image with the brand image. This study examines the effect of brand image consistency (especially through the website) on consumer attitude and patronage intentions. The findings of this research will add to the growing body of literature on multichannel retailing and provide practical information for online retailers in the development of a website for their online business.
A Study on the Discrimination and the Real State of High Calorie Foods with Low Nutrition Values in Children's Snacks sold within Green Food Zone
Lee, Seung-Sin ; Yang, Deok-Soon ; Lee, Jong-Hye ; Lee, Young-Hee ; Heo, Sun-Kyung ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 39~50
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.39
This study surveys the state of 'children's snacks' sold within the Green Food Zone and that of High Calorie Foods with Low Nutrition Value (HCFLNV). The main purposes are the analyses of foods in accordance to KFDA Program for HCFLNV and an analysis of differences in HCFLNV that are dependent on relevant factors such as food types, school types, origins, the scale of manufacturing company, area and price. Based on the analyses, educational and political implications have been sought that will form nutritious dietary habits, contribute to the prevention of obesity, and improve health in child consumers. The methodologies of this study are literature studies and surveys. The results of this study can be summarized as following. First, the number of children's snacks is 517 items of total 645 gathered within 150 Green Food Zones. Candies are the most popular item, next are cookies, chocolates, and breads. Second, in the real state survey there are 186 HCFLNV (36.0%) among children's snacks sold within Green Food Zone. Based on the survey results, the marking of HCFLNV on the package of children's snacks and the extension of the ban of HCFLNV sales to all stores within the Green Food Zone are strongly suggested. This provides preliminary data related to children's snacks and food safety. With enforcement of the Special Act on the Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, the rate of HCFLNV has decreased and the child snack product environment in stores has improved. However, it is necessary to supervise low-priced snacks and promote an awareness of HCFLNV along with the child consumer education of food safety is needed.
Economic Dependence and Gender Division of Household Labour in the Republic of Korea
An, Mi-Young ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 51~63
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.51
This paper examines the relationship between economic dependence and gender differences in housework in Korea. There are three explanatory alternatives for the relationship; economic rule of exchange, gender display perspective and deviant neutralization. We analysed both 2004 and 2009 time use survey data. The findings show the significant gender differences in time spent on housework that wives spend much more time on housework than husbands. However, among couples with non-normative gender roles, in some cases the more economically powerful wives spend more time on housework than breadwinner wives with weaker economic power, although such cases are rare. Rather, it is appropriate to conclude that, the more economically independent the wives, the less time they spend on housework; this is also the case for husbands. Overall, the Korean case shows what the economic exchange theory predicts. Thus, improvements in working wives' economic power will lead to gender equity in the division of housework.
Family Attitudes and Gender Role Divisions of Married Women in Contemporary Vietnam and Korea
Chin, Mee-Jung ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 65~75
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.65
This study attempts to examine family attitudes and gender role divisions of married women in contemporary Vietnam and Korea. Drawing data from the 2003 Vietnam Family Study and the 2005 Korean Marriage and Fertility Study, this study investigated 1) attitudes of married women toward marriage, cohabitation, divorce, and having children, 2) decision making on household expenditures, and 3) household work division between husband and wife. The results showed that married Korean women were less inclined toward traditional family attitudes regarding marriage and children than married Vietnamese women. Decision on routine household expenditures was made and household work was done mostly by the wife in the two countries. In comparison, married Vietnamese men took more responsibilities for important financial decisions and child education than married Korean men. These overall findings imply that patriarchical family and gender role norms were preserved to larger extent in contemporary Vietnam than in Korea.
Chronic Health Conditions, Depression, and the Role of Financial Wellbeing: How Middle Age Group (45-64) and Older Adults (65-79) Differ?
Cha, Seung-Eun ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Anderson, Elaine ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 77~93
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.77
This study investigates the association between chronic health conditions (CHD) and depression with a focus on the mediating effect of financial strain. We tested if age makes any difference in the effect of CHD and financial strain on depression. The data comes from the 2006 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) collected by the Institute of Korean Labor Research. The sample consisted of information from 8,961 individuals ages 45-79. Separate analyses were done for middle-age (45-64) and older-adult groups (65-79). There were significant financial portfolio differences among CHD patients and non-CHD, for both age groups, that may constitute the impact of a health event on financial wellbeing; in addition, the associations of CHD on depressive symptoms were different by age groups. The mediating effect of financial wellbeing on the association between CHD and depressive symptoms was verified; in addition, the role of financial wellbeing on the association was especially strong for the older-adult group. The effect of CHD on depression was contingent on the amount of net assets and annual personal income. Implications are discussed based on the findings.
Mother-Child Emotional Availability Mediating the Effects of Maternal Psychological Well-being and Child's Cognitive Competence on Child Behavior Problems
Kang, Min-Ju ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 95~107
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.95
Recent intervention studies document that mother-child dyads with higher levels of Emotional Availability (EA) report fewer child behavior problems than dyads with lower EA. This study examines possible mechanisms that lead to this result by looking at the parent-child micro-system as a whole, with multi-dimensional relationships that include individual differences in the child's cognitive level, parental stress and parent-child interaction. A total 67 children (
years of age) and their mothers were videotaped during 30-min play interactions. Interactions were coded using the Emotional Availability (EA) Scales (Biringen, Robinson, & Emde, 1998). Mothers completed Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Child Behavior Checklist/
- 5, and the Ages Stages Questionnaire. The findings showed that mothers with higher levels of parenting stress were more likely to be intrusive, hostile, insensitive, and had a tendency to do less structuring in play. The children of stressed and depressed mothers demonstrated less involvement and responsiveness towards their mothers. Children who have higher dyadic EA scores experienced fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. SEM analyses results showed a mediation effect of EA on the association between maternal psychological well-being and child behavior problems. Fewer deficits in child communication skills and problem solving skills that were related with lower parenting stress and depression were associated with higher maternal non-intrusiveness. Higher non-intrusiveness was related to less internalizing and externalizing problems that indicated the indirect effect of child cognitive competence. Possible interpretations and implications of the study findings are discussed.
Infant Crying Acoustic Characteristics Evoking Unpleasant Emotions in Mothers
Kim, Yeoun-Jung ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.109
This study examines the infant crying acoustic characteristics likely to arouse negative emotions and distress in mothers. We used samples of infant crying from three situations (hunger, pain, and the mother's absence) in six healthy infants over six months. We played the recordings of infants crying to 90 mothers in the care of infants and had them self-evaluate emotions and feelings. In addition, the sounds were analyzed acoustically through a CSL4400 to analyze frequency, energy, total expiratory time, and the number of the expirations. In this study, cries due to pain and the absence of the mother caused more unpleasant emotions and irritation in comparison to the infant sounds of hunger. In particular, crying from the absence of the mother caused the most distress. An analysis of these sounds showed that crying in the situations of pain and the absence of the mother were strong in frequency, high energy, and prolonged. These results suggest a relation between infant crying acoustical characteristics and the feelings of distress by the mother.
Predicting Role Performance Variables for Childcare Teachers
Park, Bok-Mae ; Moon, Hyuk-Jun ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 119~131
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.119
This study determined the factors that contributed to role performance by childcare teachers in Korea. Questionnaire data were gathered from 425 childcare teachers. Statistical analyses consisted of t-test, ANOVA, Scheff
and hierarchical regression analysis. There were no differences in the role performance of childcare teachers by age and experience. Differences were evident by education level and workplace type. Role performance was most affected by the internal-external control followed by emotional intelligence. The findings of this study are pertinent to childcare policy makers.
Evaluation of Common Activity and Life in Swedish Cohousing Units
Choi, Jung-Shin ; Paulsson, Jan ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 133~146
DOI : 10.6115/ljhe.2011.12.2.133
This study evaluates common activity and quality of life in Swedish cohousing units to examine whether Swedish cohousing functions properly or not. A questionnaire survey was fulfilled during the autumn of 2010 in G
teborg Sweden. The subjects of study were 12 of 44 cohousing units in Sweden that included 4 of the +40 cohousing and 8 of the mixed-age cohousing. A total of 242 of 353 distributed questionnaires were collected (68.6%) and analyzed by SPSS statistical program. The findings are as follow: 1) General characteristics of the respondents are that they are mostly healthy, evenly aged from age 50s to 70s and highly educated with significant proportions of academics and civil workers. There are more females than males and more singles than cohabitants. 2) The most frequent and preferred common activity is a common meal followed by a coffee meeting. A common dinner, the 'hub of living together' is held almost every day or at least a few times a week. A common meal is considered one of the most important activities because of practical and social advantages in that residents can save time and cooking costs as well as engage in social contact. Referring to evaluation of frequency and content of common activity, more than a half of the respondents prefer the current situation. 3) All of the variables (except health conditions and education level) affect participation in common activity with statistical significance. 4) Most of the respondents indicate a high level of life satisfaction and are willing to recommend others move to cohousing. They agree that there is more mutual support among residents in cohousing units than in a conventional community. In conclusion, Swedish cohousing units function successfully as they have pursued intentional community ideology and most of the residents are proud of their current living situations.