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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Human Ecology
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The Korean Home Economics Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 2008
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 2008
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Valuation of Unpaid Care Work Through a Comparison of Economic Measures in Korea: Focus on Mean Earning Approach and a Generalist Approach
An, Mi-Young ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 1~11
This paper examines the value of unpaid care work using the 2004 time use survey and compared them to economic measures such as GDP, tax revenue, value of paid work, government expenditure on care-related personnel expenditure and remuneration of paid care workers. It employs the mean earnings approach and generalist approach. It finds that the value of unpaid care work (compared to GDP) is between 18% and 29% using different approaches. The value of care of household members and for others in the community (person care) is between 5% and 8%. Furthermore, the value of unpaid care work is greater than that of direct tax regardless of the approach used. In addition, the value of person care is estimated at between 22% and 35% of the total value of the paid economy. The value of unpaid care work far exceeds the value of government expenditure on care-related personnel and the remuneration of paid care workers. This research suggests that unpaid care work (mostly conducted by women) should be recognized as part of production activities. This is because caring and household maintenance activities are necessary for individual well-being but also it contributes to the national economic competitiveness particularly through human resource development.
Process of Cross-border Marriage and Marital Satisfaction: Cases of Korean Men and Foreign Wives
Jee, Yean-Ju ; Seol, Dong-Hoon ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 13~27
The advancement of information and transportation technologies in the context of economic and cultural globalization facilitates international marriages. However, it is ironic that image and fantasies play a significant role in the actual process of these marriages. Using data from a national survey conducted in 2006 (Survey for the Conjugal Life of the International Marriage Families) this study examines the experiences of Korean men and foreign wives. The findings confirm the negative impacts on marital satisfaction of the spousal image of hypergamy (i.e., imaginings of a high-earning husband and a submissive wife) and abbreviated marriage processes (i.e., broker-mediated marriage and incorrect information about a future spouse), but the detailed patterns differ by gender and by the ethnic origin of the wife. Korean Chinese (and to a lesser extent Han Chinese) wives are more negatively affected by the marriage process and spousal imaginings than are Southeast Asians and 'other' wives. While Southeast Asian wives are more likely to have received incorrect information about their husbands, they show significantly more flexible attitudes toward the marriage and spouses. Unification Church members are excluded from the analysis because their marital lives are distinctive enough to warrant separate research. As previous qualitative findings suggested, some Korean Chinese wives seem to perceive that returnees to the home country deserve an improvement in economic status as opposed to the disappointing reality. Imagining a submissive wife hurts the marital satisfaction of husbands regardless of the ethnic origin of the wife.
Multifaceted Risk Factors for Mental Health Problems of Adolescents in Correctional Facilities: Toward an Integrated Implication for Rehabilitation and Reintegration into Society
Sohn, Byoung-Duk ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 29~43
This study explores a model that examines how multidimensional risk factors explain mental health problems of young offenders. One hundred and ninety six students aged 13 to 15 in correctional facilities were assessed for mental health symptoms that examined the effects of multifaceted risk factors on mental health conditions. Consistent with the hypothesis of this study, secure unit students appear to have experienced various forms of risk factors and those factors have influenced mental health conditions. Results show that correctional facilities should reframe therapeutic and preventive approaches to disadvantaged students and develop integrated services and programs for rehabilitation and reintegration into society. It is recommended that those involved in treatment plans in correctional facilities consider that different treatment plans are necessary for each young offender.
Korean-American Consumer Attitude Toward Luxury Fashion Products
Lee, Yoon-Jung ; Lee, Jae-Il ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 45~54
This study examines the influence of acculturation level and ethnic groups as a fashion reference group on Korean-American consumer attitude toward luxury fashion brands. Of interest is the role of Korean culture, which emphasizes luxury brand consumption due to the Confucion value of 'face', on Korean-American attitudes toward luxury brands. Data were collected from 108 young Korean-Americans living in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regressions were conducted for the analysis. In general, the respondents had relatively negative attitudes toward luxury fashion brands. Even though the acculturation level did not have a significant influence, attitudes toward luxury fashion brands were influenced by Korean reference groups. Age at immigration did not have a significant relationship with attitudes toward luxury brands. Korean-Americans who maintain ties with Korean culture are more likely to have a positive attitude towards luxury fashion, regardless of familarity with American culture.
Factors Influencing Body Image in the Aging Process
Oh, Keun-Young ; Damhorst, Mary Lynn ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 55~65
This study examined the personal and relational factors influencing the formation of body image among older persons. Aging-rel￡lted physical changes, health, marital relationship, cognitive age, and moods were personal and relationship factors explained for influence on the body image of older persons. Data were collected via a mail survey of older married couples residing in three US. metropolitan areas of Florida. A total of 94 married couples who were 60 years older participated in this study. Results indicated that aging-related physical changes, effect of physical changes on the self, self-assessed health, and evaluation of spouse's attractiveness, and perceived attractiveness (one's perception of the other spouse's appraisals of his or her attractiveness) were found to be significantly related to the body image of older men and women. For men, self-assessed health, evaluation of spouse's attractiveness, and perceived attractiveness were significantly related to body image while physical changes, effect of physical changes, and perceived attractiveness were found significant for women. The feelings of older persons about and satisfaction with their bodies and appearance were estimated by aging-related and relationship-related variables.
American And Korean Consumers Perceived Importance of Group Identity on Gift Giving Purchase Behavior
Jackson, Vanessa Prier ; Miller-Spillman, Kimberly A. ; Kwon, Hyun-Ju ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 67~75
This study examines the importance of group identity (kin, friends, co-workers) when gift recipient changes among American and Korean consumers. Female college students and academicians completed a self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred fifty-eight respondents evaluated the perceived importance of group identity when buying an apparel gift for kin, friends, and co-workers. The results suggest that the importance of group identity may influence the type of gift a recipient receives. The results show that when buying a gift for kin, friends, and co-workers that both young and older American consumers place greater importance on self rather than the opinion of other group. The older and younger Korean respondents rated the opinion of each group (kin, friends, and co-workers) to be more important than self. Recommendations for future research on the affect of culture on consumer purchases are suggested.
Debt Decision and Repayment of US Young Adults
Lee, Jong-Hee ; Yang, Se-Jeong ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 77~92
This study investigates the characteristics of young debtors at risk of repayment problems. A cumulative logistic model is used in order to examine the effects of explanatory variables on the probability for young adults to pay off debt obligations. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results. First, the high indebtedness of young debtors increases the probability of payment delinquency whereas high income by young debtors decreases the probability. Second, financial emergencies that young debtors experienced and payment delinquency are positively related. Finally, financial resources for emergency needs reduced the probability of being delinquency on payment of household debt.
Characteristics of Community Life in Foreign Intentional Communities Focus on the Differences between Ecovillage and Cohousing
Choi, Jung-Shin ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 93~105
This study investigates the different characteristics (mainly of community life) in representative intentional communities, between the ecovillage and cohousing, since the different purpose of the establishment of the community might result different characteristics. The study method is data analysis: the analysis material is Community Directory, A Comprehensive Guide to Intentional Communities and Cooperative Living (Rutledge, 2005). Of 750 listed communities, 397 (211 ecovillages and 186 cohousings) communities were analyzed. The findings of the study reveal that there are clear differences of community life between ecovillages and cohousings even though two communities are regarded as similar intentional communities. The similarities between the two communities are as follows: 1) Those mostly distributed in the USA, and established before 2000. 2) Dominant size of intentional communities is less than 20 residents and 20 houses. 3) They make decisions in consensus. 4) They eat together very frequently; at least once a week or more. 5) Shared work is required. The differences between the two communities are as follows: 1) They have different aims of establishment. For instance, ecovillage focus more on eco-living, while cohousing focuses more on the cohousing idea. 2) There are more female residents in cohousings than in ecovillages. 3) There are more cohousings in urban areas with a smaller area of land, contrary to that there are more ecovillages in rural areas with larger areas of land. 4) There are less identified leaders or leadership core groups in cohousing than in ecovillages. 5) Income sharing is more common in ecovillages than in cohousings. According to there findings, it is evident that a different purpose of establishment result in different characteristics of community life even though those belong to the similar category of the intentional community. Thus, it is recommended to adapt the correct characteristics that fit the aim of the community in the establishment an intentional community Topics and discussions about establishing intentional Topics and discussions abut establishing intentional communities could contribute to gather the intentional communities could contribute to gather the interests communities could contribute to gather the interests of residents as well as those of relevant civil-workers and administrators in Korea.
Residents' Participation and Common Activities in an Intentional Community: The Case of the Mindlre Community
Cho, Jeong-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Sook ; Choi, Jung-Shin ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 107~116
A new movement in forming community villages for better living standards is becoming popular. In order to sustain a proper community, it is essential to design proper community programs and facilities, which can encourage the proactive participation of residents. In this study, detailed aspects of the Mindlre (Dandelion) community (including formation process and management of the village) are investigated. The Mindlre community is a successful community village in Korea concerned with residents' participation and community activities. The community is located in Sancheong, Gyungsangnamdo province in Korea. The study methods are references, field trips, and interviews with residents. Six areas were surveyed and investigated: the physical environment of the Mindlre community and eco-friendly elements, respondents' background and the motivation to join, residents composition, residents' participation in the formation process of the community, self-management systems and common activities, and residents's life satisfaction. The mindlre Community was founded on Christian religions faith. The primary idea of this village was building a new hope for rural areas without discrimination. The size of the village was expanded with housing for teachers and students who were linked with the Mindlre School (substitution school). When the community was founded, existing shapes of the village were preserved. The village was physically renovated based on the original environment, in addition nature friendly materials and methods were used. The residents were proactively involved in the community through regular meetings, self-regulation, and community worship. Although the survey results should that most residents were highly satisfied with living standards, there seemed to be no clear division between community facilities and private houses. A systematic and detailed space planning technique was required. In addition, various community facilities are required due to the expansion of the community.
Factors Affecting the Extent of Economic Empowerment of Women in Farm Households: Experiences from Rural Bangladesh
Parveen, Shahnaj ; Leonhauser, Ingrid-Ute ;
International Journal of Human Ecology, volume 9, issue 2, 2008, Pages 117~126
The study identifies gender stereotypes, examines the level of women's economic empowerment at the household level and explores the influence of factors on it. Data were collected from 159 randomly selected farm women using both qualitative and quantitative survey methods between January and March 2007 from three villages of the Mymensingh District of Bangladesh. Four key informants (2 local leaders and 2 development personnel) were questioned to elicit views in the light of boosting women's empowerment. Five constructs of empowerment covering 30 indicators were aggregated together to develop a cumulative economic empowerment index (CEEI) to obtain multidimensional views of women's empowerment. The findings show that there were some prejudices against women in allocating divisions of labour and access to education, food, property, decision-making and institutions. The distribution of the CEEI demonstrates that the majority of the respondents (86%) had a low to moderate level of empowerment. A multiple regression analysis showed positive significant effects of education, training, media contact and freedom of mobility on women's CEEI, while domestic abuse restrained it. It is concluded that interventions by development agencies in co-ordination with the local community was necessary to attain women's self-reliance in the study area. Development actors can undertake some core strategies to enhance women's level of awarencess, knowledge, skills, and productive resources through providing training, loans, and information. To change traditional beliefs, it is important to create awareness of various gender issues amongst rural people through different methods and media.