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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Environmental Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States
Ambrose, Robert B ; Wool, Tim A ; Barnwell, Thomas O. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 200~210
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.200
The modern era of water quality modeling in the United States began in the 1960s. Pushed by advances in computer technology as well as environmental sciences, water quality modeling evolved through five broad periods: (1) initial model development with mainframe computers (1960s - mid 1970s), (2) model refinement and generalization with minicomputers (mid 1970s - mid 1980s), (3) model standardization and support with microcomputers (mid 1980s - mid 1990s), (4) better model access and performance with faster desktop computers running Windows and local area networks linked to the Internet (mid 1990s - early 2000s), and (5) model integration and widespread use of the Internet (early 2000s - present). Improved computer technology continues to drive improvements in water quality models, including more detailed environmental analysis (spatially and temporally), better user interfaces and GIS software, more accessibility to environmental data from on-line repositories, and more robust modeling frameworks linking hydrodynamics, water quality, watershed and atmospheric models. Driven by regulatory needs and advancing technology, water quality modeling will continue to improve to better address more complicated water bodies and pollutant types, and more complicated management questions. This manuscript describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions.
Hazardous Air Pollutants Emission Characteristics from Cement Kilns Co-burning Wastes
Pudasainee, Deepak ; Kim, Jeong-Hun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeob ; Cho, Sung-Jin ; Song, Geum-Ju ; Seo, Yong-Chil ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 212~219
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.212
Emission characteristics of air pollutants from three commercially operating cement kilns co-burning waste were investigated. The major heavy metals emitted were mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) Removal efficiency of the bag filter was above 98.5% for heavy metals (except Hg), and above 60% for Hg. Higher fractions of heavy metals entering the bag filter were speciated to cement kiln dust. On average, 3.3% of the -heavy metals of medium and low toxicity (Pb, Ni, and Cr) entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. Among highly toxic heavy metals, 0.14% of Cd, 0.01% of As, and 40% of Hg entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. In passing through the bag filter, the proportion of oxidized Hg in all cases increased. Emission variations of hazardous air pollutants in cement kilns tested were related to raw materials, fuel, waste feed and operating conditions. Volatile organic compounds detected in gas emissions were toluene, acrylonitrile benzene, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, and methylene chloride. Although hazardous air pollutants in emissions from cement kilns co-burning waste were within the existing emission limit, efforts are required to minimize their levels.
Fundamental Structure in Simultaneous Removal for Phytoplankton and Nutrient Salt in Lakes
SEKI, Tatsuhiro ; ISHII, Yuuichi ; ISHII, Toshio ; TAKI, Kazuo ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.220
The water quality in eutrophic lakes is affected by serious problems, such as abnormal increasing of Cyanobacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of a modified flotation system using a hybrid technique formed by chemical compounds and an electrostatic bridge. Therefore, experiments using the hybrid technique were performed to measure the zeta potential value on the phytoplankton surface and the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and phosphoric acid. The results were as follows: Firstly, the zeta potential of M.aeruginosa was observed to approach charge neutralization due to adhesion of magnesium hydroxide precipitate on the phytoplankton surface in the pH range 10.5 to 11. Secondly, the concentration of chlorophyll-a decreased from about 150 to 20
g/L, with a maximum removal efficiency of 84% due to coagulation with pH values higher than 10. Thirdly, the N
-N concentration was observed to decrease from 0.62 to 0.54mg-N/L (13%), and the P
-P concentration, which is a limiting factor to the formation of algae blooms, decreased from 0.27 to 0.02mg-P/L (92%). These findings suggest that the modified flotation system can be applied for the purification of the raw water of numerous lakes containing high phytoplankton populations and elevated pH.
Phytoremediation of Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides by Acorus gramineus
Chuluun, Buyan ; Iamchaturapatr, Janjit ; Rhee, Jae-Seong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 226~236
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.226
The performance of phytoremediation has proven effective in the removal of nutrients and metals from aqueous systems. However, little information is available regarding the behavior of pesticides and their removal pathways in aquatic environments involving plant-uptake. A detailed understanding of the kinetics of pesticide removal by plants and information on compound/plant partition coefficients can lead to an effective design of the phytoremediation process for anthropogenic pesticide reduction. It was determined that the reduction rates of four organophosphorus (OP) and two organochlorine (OC) pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, malathion, parathion, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) could be simulated by first-order reaction kinetics. The magnitude of k was dependent on the pesticide species and found within the range of 0.409 - 0.580
. Analytical results obtained by mass balances suggested that differential chemical stability, including diversity of molecular structure, half-lives, and water solubility, would greatly influence the removal mechanisms and pathways of OPs and OCs in a phytoreactor (PR). In the case of OP pesticides, plant accumulation was an important pathway for the removal of fenitrothion and parathion from water, while pesticide sorption in suspended matter (SM) was an important pathway for removal of dieldrin and HCB. The magnitude of the pesticide migration factor (
) is a good indication of determining the tendency of pesticide movement from below- to above-ground biomass. The uncertainties related to the different phenomena involved in the laboratory phyto-experiment are also discussed.
Effects of Organic Loading Rates on Treatment Performance in a Polyvinylidene Media Based Fixed-Film Bioreactor
Ahmed, Zubair ; Oh, Sang-Eun ; Kim, In S. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 238~242
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.238
This study investigated the effects of organic loading rates on simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in an innovative fixed-film aerobic bioreactor. The fixed-film bioreactor (FFB) was composed of a two-compartment aeration tank, in which a synthetic filamentous carrier was submerged as biofilm support media, and a settling tank which polyvinylidene media (Saran) was used as settling aid for suspended solids. Three different organic loading rates, ranging from 0.92-2.02 kg chemical oxygen demand/
/day were applied by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total soluble organic carbon removal efficiencies were in the range of 90-97%. The removal efficiency of ammonia was found to be in the range of 70-84%. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was found to be in the range of 40-45%, which indicates that denitrification reactions occurred simultaneously in the attached biofilm on the fibrous media in the aeration tank. The settling performance of suspended solids was significantly improved due to the presence of Saran media in the settling compartment, even for a short HRT. The fixed-film aerobic bioreactor used in this study demonstrated efficient treatment efficiency even at higher organic loading rates and at short HRTs.
Design Optimization of an Ozone Contactor Using Ozone Contactor Model (OCM) Software
Kim, Doo-Il ; Lee, Chae-Young ; Joe, Woo-Hyeun ; Lee, Seock-Heon ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 244~249
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.244
Designing an ozone contactor is complicated because the residual ozone, log C. parvum inactivation, and bromate formation should be optimized with fluctuating water quality. OCM software was developed to assist a plant designer or an operator to fulfill the sophisticated optimization required in the design or operation of a new or an existing plant. In this article, numerical simulations were carried out using the OCM software for the design of a new ozone contactor under diverse design factors (i.e., three pHs, three temperatures, low and high dispersion numbers, and four and ten cells with complete mixing) with kinetic parameters obtained from the sand-filter effluent of a water treatment plant treating water from the Paldang impoundment. The results of the simulation suggested that a high residual ozone concentration at low pH and low temperature would be challenging, and PFR-like hydrodynamics could lower the residual ozone concentration. The inactivation of C. parvum oocysts increased at a lower pH. A lower dispersion number and more cell division increased the inactivation efficiency. Bromate was instantaneously formed during the initial ozonation stage. The effluent concentration was much lower than the regulatory levels imposed by the USEPA because of the low bromide level in raw water.
Evaluation of Methods for Cyanobacterial Cell Lysis and Toxin (Microcystin-LR) Extraction Using Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Analyses
Kim, In S. ; Nguyen, Giang-Huong ; Kim, Sung-Youn ; Lee, Jin-Wook ; Yu, Hye-Weon ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 250~254
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.250
Contamination of microcystins, a family of heptapeptide hepatotoxins, in eutrophic water bodies is a worldwide problem. Due to their poisoning effects on animals and humans, there is a requirement to characterize and quantify all microcystins present in a sample. As microcystins are, for most part, intracellular toxins produced by some genera of cyanobacteria, lysing cyanobacterial cells to release all microcystins is considered an important step. To date, although many cell lysis methods have been used, little work has been conducted comparing the results of those different methods. In this study, various methods for cell lysis and toxin extraction from the cell lysates were investigated, including sonication, bead beating, freeze/thaw, lyophilization and lysing with TritonX-100 surfactant. It was found that lyophilization, followed by extraction with 75% methanol, was the most effective for extracting toxins from Microcystis aeruginosa cells. Another important step prior to the analysis is removing impurities and concentrating the target analyte. For these purposes, a C18 Sep-Pak solid phase extraction cartridge was used, with the percentage of the eluent methanol also evaluated. As a result, methanol percentages higher than 75% appeared to be the best eluting solvent in terms of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) recovery efficiency for the further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses.
Temporal Analysis of Trends in Dissolved Organic Matter in Han River Water
Lee, Hye-Won ; Choi, Jung-Hyun ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 256~260
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.256
This study used the extensive monitoring datasets of the Korea Ministry of Environment to examine trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Han River raw water. To estimate the organic contents of water, we adopted allied parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as substitutes for DOC. Spatial and temporal analyses were performed on monthly BOD and COD data from 36 monitoring stations (14 for Main Han River, 7 for North Han River and 15 for South Han River) measured from 1989 to 2007. The results of trend analysis indicated that, on the whole, water quality according to BOD showed a downward trend at more than 67% of monitoring stations (9 for Main Han River, 6 for North Han River and 9 for South Han River). However, the water quality of COD showed an upward trend at more than 78% of monitoring stations (8 for Main Han River, 7 for North Han River and 13 for South Han River). The upward trend of COD contrary to the BOD trend indicates that there has been an increase in recalcitrant organic matter in Han River water that is not detectable by means of BOD.
Performance Analysis of a Hydrodynamic Separator for Treating Particulate Pollutants in Highway Rainfall Runoff
Yu, Jianghua ; Yi, Qitao ; Kim, Young-Chul ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 14, issue 4, 2009, Pages 262~269
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.262
This study examined the separation characteristics of particles in the rainfall runoff from paved roads using a
cm hydrocyclone. The volume fraction and total suspended solids concentrations in the overflow and underflow from the hydrocyclone, as well as the separation efficiency were determined. The results indicated that the overflow volume increased with increasing operational pressure, but decreased with decreasing ratio of underflow outlet to inlet sizes (
), while the underflow to overflow volumes showed contrary behavior. The total suspended solid (TSS) concentration ratio between the overflow and inflow (
) decreased as a function of the operational pressure, while the corresponding ratio of underflow to inflow (
) increased. There was no visible difference in the
ratio, but the
decreased sharply. The particle removal efficiency was mainly affected by the particle size.